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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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integration (in-te-gra′shun)
1. The state of being combined, or the process of combining, into a complete and harmonious whole. 2. In physiology, the process of building up, as by accretion, anabolism, etc. 3. In mathematics, the process of ascertaining a function from its differential. 4. In molecular biology, a recombination event in which a genetic element is inserted. [L. integro, pp. -atus, to make whole, fr. integer, whole] personality i. the effective organization of old and new experience, data, and emotional capacities into the personality; the harmonious organization of the personality.

integrins (in-te′grinz)
A family of cell membrane glycoproteins that are heterodimers composed of α- and β-chain subunits. They serve as extracellular matrix glycoprotein receptors involved in cell adhesion, e.g., the mediation of adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells. [L. integer, whole, intact, fr. in- + tango, to touch + -in]

integrity (in-teg′ri-te)
Soundness or completeness of structure; a sound or unimpaired condition. marginal i. of amalgam the ability of a dental amalgam restoration to maintain its original marginal form at the cavosurface margins.

integument (in-teg′u-ment) [TA]
1. The enveloping membrane of the body; includes, in addition to the epidermis and dermis, all of the derivatives of the epidermis, e.g., hairs, nails, sudoriferous and sebaceous glands, and mammary glands. 2. The rind, capsule, or covering of any body or part. SYN: tegument (2) . SYN: integumentum commune [TA] , integumentary system, tegument (1) . [L. integumentum, a covering, fr. intego, to cover]

integumentary (in-teg-u-men′ta-re)
Relating to the integument. SEE ALSO: cutaneous, dermal.

integumentum commune (in-teg-u-men′tum ko-moo′ne) [TA]
SYN: integument.

intellectualization (in-te-lek′choo-al-i-za′shun)
An unconscious defense mechanism in which reasoning, logic, or focusing on and verbalizing intellectual minutiae is used in an attempt to avoid confrontation with an objectionable impulse, affect, or interpersonal situation. [L. intellectus, perception, discernment]

intelligence (in-tel′i-jens)
1. An person's aggregate capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment, especially in relation to the extent of one's perceived effectiveness in meeting challenges. 2. In psychology, a person's relative standing on two quantitative indices, measured i. and effectiveness of adaptive behavior; a quantitative score or similar index on both indices constitutes the operational definition of i.. [L. intelligentia] abstract i. the capacity to understand and manage abstract ideas and symbols. artificial i. 1. a branch of computer science in which attempts are made to replicate human intellectual functions. One application is the development of computer programs for diagnosis. Such programs are often based on epidemiologic analysis of data in large numbers of medical records; 2. a machine that replicates human intellectual functions, although no machine ( i.e., computer) can do this yet. measured i. that i. which can be ranked relative to an age or peer group quantitative index by use of scores on i. tests. mechanical i. the capacity to understand and manage technical mechanisms. social i. the capacity to understand and manage one's human relations and social affairs.

intemperance (in-tem′per-ans)
Lack of proper self-control, usually in reference to the use of alcoholic beverages. Cf.:incontinence (2) . [L. intemperantia, fr. in-, neg. + temperantia, moderation]

intensity (in-ten′si-te)
1. Marked tension; great activity; often used simply to denote a measure of the degree or amount of some quality. 2. The magnitude of energy flux, field strength, or force. [L. in- tendo, pp. -tensus, to stretch out] luminous i. (I) the luminous flux per unit solid angle in a given direction. SYN: candle-power, radiant i.. performance i. the improvement in recognition of spoken words that occurs with increasing i. of sound. radiant i. (I) SYN: luminous i.. i. of sound the objective measurement of the amplitude of vibration of a sound wave.

intensive (in-ten′siv)
Relating to or marked by intensity; denoting a form of treatment by means of very large doses or of substances possessing great strength or activity.

intention (in-ten′shun)
1. An objective. 2. In surgery, a process or operation. [L. intentio, a stretching out; i.]

inter-
Among, between. [L. inter, between]

interacinar (in-ter-as′i-nar)
SYN: interacinous.

interacinous (in-ter-as′i-nus)
Between the acini of a gland. SYN: interacinar.

interaction (int′er-ak′shun)
1. The reciprocal action between two entities in a common environment as in chemical i., ecological i., social i., etc. 2. The effects when two entities concur that would not be observed with either in isolation. 3. In statistics, pharmacology, and quantitative genetics, the phenomenon that the combined effects of two causes differ from the sum of the effects separately (as in synergism and antagonism). 4. Independent operation of two or more causes to produce or prevent an effect. 5. In statistics, the necessity for a product term in a linear model. 6. The transfer of energy between elementary particles or between fields of energy. apolar i. SYN: hydrophobic i.. hydrophobic i. i. between uncharged substituents on different molecules without a sharing of electrons or protons; entropy-driven i.. SYN: apolar i..

interalveolar (in′ter-al-ve′o-lar)
Between any alveoli, especially the alveoli of the lungs.

interannular (in-ter-an′u-lar)
Between any two ringlike structures or constrictions. [inter- + L. anulus, ring]

interarch (in′ter-arch)
See i. distance.

interarticular (in-ter-ar-tik′u-lar)
1. Between two joints. Cf.:intra-articular. 2. Between two joint surfaces. [inter- + L. articulus, joint]

interarytenoid (in′ter-ar′i-te′noyd)
Between the arytenoid cartilages.

interasteric (in-ter-a-ste′rik)
Between the two asteria. See asterion.

interatrial (in-ter-a′tre-al)
Between the atria of the heart. SYN: interauricular (1) .

interaural (in-ter-aw′ral)
Referring to differences between ears, particularly temporal events occurring in or emanating from the ears.

interauricular (in′ter-aw-rik′u-lar)
1. SYN: interatrial. 2. Between the auricles or pinnae.

interbody (in′ter-bod′e)
Between the bodies of two adjacent vertebrae.

intercadence (in-ter-ka′dens)
The occurrence of an extra beat between the two regular pulse beats. [inter- + L. cado, pr. p. cadens (-ent-), to fall]

intercadent (in-ter-ka′dent)
Irregular in rhythm; characterized by intercadence.

intercalary (in-ter′ka-ler-e, in-ter-kal′er-e)
1. Occurring between two others; as in a pulse tracing, an upstroke interposed between two normal pulse beats. 2. In fungi, located in a hypha or between hyphal segments, not at a hyphal terminus. [L. intercalarius, concerning an insertion]

intercalated (in-ter′ka-la-ted)
Interposed; inserted between two others. [L. intercalatus]

intercalation (in′ter-ka′la-shun)
The process of insertion between two other entities; E.G., insertion of a dye or drug between stacked bases in DNA.

intercanalicular (in-ter-kan-a-lik′u-lar)
Between canaliculi.

intercapillary (in-ter-kap′i-la-re)
Between or among capillary vessels.

intercarotic, intercarotid (in-ter-ka-rot′ik, -id)
Between the internal and external carotid arteries.

intercarpal (in-ter-kar′pal)
Between the carpal bones.

intercartilaginous (in′ter-kar-ti-laj′i-nus)
Between or connecting cartilages. SYN: interchondral.

intercavernous (in′ter-kav′er-nus)
Between two cavities.

intercellular (in-ter-sel′u-lar)
Between or among cells.

intercentral (in-ter-sen′tral)
Connecting or lying between two or more centers.

intercerebral (in′ter-ser′e-bral)
Between the cerebral hemispheres.

interchondral (in-ter-kon′dral)
SYN: intercartilaginous. [inter- + L. chondros, cartilage]

intercilium (in-ter-sil′e-um)
SYN: glabella. [inter- + L. cilium, eyelid]

interclavicular (in-ter-kla-vik′u-lar)
Between or connecting the clavicles.

intercoccygeal (in′ter-kok-sij′e-al)
Situated between unfused segments of the coccyx.

intercolumnar (in-ter-ko-lum′nar)
Between any two columns, as the columns or crura of the superficial inguinal ring.

intercondylar, intercondylic, intercondyloid (in-ter-kon′di-lar, -kon-dil′ik, -kon′di-loyd)
Between two condyles.

interconversion (in-ter-kon-ver′shun)
A mutual alteration of the physical or chemical nature of a substance or entity; E.G., i. of chemical compounds or of foodstuffs. enzyme i. the reversible transformation of one enzyme form into another, typically with an alteration in the enzyme activity or regulation, E.G., phosphorylation of a glycogen phosphorylase.

intercostal (in-ter-kos′tal)
Between the ribs. [inter- + L. costa, rib]

intercostohumeral (in′ter-kos′to-hu′mer-al)
Relating to an intercostal space and the arm. See intercostobrachial nerves, under nerve.

intercostohumeralis (in-ter-kos′to-hu-mer-a′lis)
See intercostobrachial nerves, under nerve.

intercourse (in′ter-kors)
Communication or dealings between or among people. [L. intercursus, a running between] sexual i. SYN: coitus.

intercricothyrotomy (in-ter-kri′ko-thi-rot′o-me)
SYN: cricothyrotomy.

intercrines (in′ter-krinz)
SYN: chemokines. [inter- + G. krino, to separate, secrete]

intercristal (in-ter-kris′tal)
Between two crests, as between the crests of the ilia, applied to one of the pelvic measurements.

intercross (in′ter-kros)
A mating between two individuals both heterozygous at a specified locus or loci.

intercrural (in-ter-kroo′ral)
Between two crura; e.g., the cerebral peduncles of the brain, etc .

intercurrent (in-ter-ker′ent)
Intervening; said of a disease attacking a person already ill of another malady. [inter- + L. curro, pr. p. currens (-ent-), to run]

intercuspation (in′ter-kus-pa′shun)
1. The cusp-to-fossa relation of the maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth to each other. 2. The interlocking or fitting together of the cusps of opposing teeth. SYN: interdigitation (4) . SYN: intercusping.

intercusping (in-ter-kus′ping)
SYN: intercuspation. [L. inter, among, mutually, + cusp]

intercutaneomucous (in′ter-ku-ta′ne-o-mu′kus)
Between skin and mucous membrane, as in the cheek or lip or at the mucocutaneous border of the lips or anus.

interdeferential (in-ter-def-er-en′shal)
Between the deferent ducts.

interdental (in-ter-den′tal)
1. Between the teeth. 2. Denoting the relationship between the proximal surfaces of the teeth of the same arch. [inter- + L. dens, tooth]

interdentium (in-ter-den′she-um)
The interval between any two contiguous teeth.

interdigit (in-ter-dij′it)
That part of the hand or foot lying between any two adjacent fingers or toes.

interdigital (in-ter-dij′i-tal)
Between the fingers or toes.

interdigitation (in′ter-dij-i-ta′shun)
1. The mutual interlocking of toothed or tonguelike processes. 2. The processes thus interlocked. 3. Infoldings or plicae of adjacent cell or plasma membranes. 4. SYN: intercuspation (2) . [inter- + L. digitus, finger]

interdisciplinary (in-ter-dis′i-pli-nar-e)
Denoting the overlapping interests of different fields of medicine and science. [inter- + L. disciplina, instruction, teaching]

interface (in′ter-fas)
1. A surface that forms a common boundary of two bodies. 2. The boundary between regions of different radiopacity, acoustic, or magnetic resonance properties; the projection of the i. between tissues of different such properties on an image. crystalline i. in dentistry, a boundary between adjacent crystals. dermoepidermal i. the line of meeting of the dermis and epidermis. metal i. in dentistry, a boundary between metal and nonsolvent solder, or between metal and surface oxide. structural i. in dentistry, a boundary between tooth and restorative material.

interfacial (in-ter-fa′shal)
Relating to an interface.




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