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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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ischiocavernosus
See ischiocavernous (muscle).

ischiocavernous (is-ke-o-kav′er-nus)
Relating to the ischium and the corpus cavernosum.

ischiocele (is′ke-o-sel)
SYN: sciatic hernia. [ischio- + G. kele, hernia]

ischiococcygeal (is-ke-o-kok-sij′e-al)
Relating to the ischium and the coccyx.

ischiococcygeus (is-ke-o-kok-sij′e-us)
SYN: coccygeus muscle. See muscle.

ischiodynia (is′ke-o-din′e-a)
SYN: ischialgia (1) . [ischio- + G. odyne, pain]

ischiofemoral (is-ke-o-fem′o-ral)
Relating to the ischium, or hip bone, and the femur, or thigh bone.

ischiofibular (is′ke-o-fib′u-lar)
Relating to or connecting the ischium and the fibula.

ischiomelus (is-ki-om′e-lus)
Unequal conjoined twins in which the parasite, often only an arm or a leg, arises from the pelvic region of the autosite. See conjoined twins, under twin. [ischio- + G. melos, limb]

ischionitis (is′ke-o-ni′tis)
Inflammation of the ischium.

ischiopagus (is-ke-op′a-gus)
Conjoined twins united in their ischial region. See conjoined twins, under twin. [ischio- + G. pagos, fixed]

ischioperineal (is′ke-o-per-i-ne′al)
Relating to the ischium and the perineum.

ischiopubic (is′ke-o-poo′bik)
Relating to both ischium and pubis.

ischiorectal (is′ke-o-rek′tal)
Relating to the ischium and the rectum.

ischiosacral (is′ke-o-sa′kral)
Relating to the ischium and the sacrum.

ischiothoracopagus (is′ke-o-thor-a-kop′a-gus)
SYN: iliothoracopagus.

ischiotibial (is′ke-o-tib′e-al)
Relating to or connecting the ischium and the tibia.

ischiovaginal (is-ke-o-vaj′i-nal)
Relating to the ischium and the vagina.

ischiovertebral (is-ke-o-ver′te-bral)
Relating to the ischium and the vertebral column.

ischium, gen. ischii, pl .ischia (is′ke-um, is′ke-i, is′ke-a) [TA]
The lower and posterior part of the hip bone, distinct at birth but later becoming fused with the ilium and pubis; it consists of a body, where it joins the ilium and superior ramus of the pubis to form the acetabulum, and a ramus joining the inferior ramus of the pubis. SYN: os ischii [TA] , ischial bone. [Mod. L. fr. G. ischion, hip]

ischochymia (is-ko-ki′me-a)
Retention of food in the stomach due to dilation of that organ. [G. ischo, to keep back, + chymos, juice]

ischuretic (is-koo-ret′ik)
1. Relating to or relieving ischuria. 2. An agent that relieves retention or suppression of urine.

ischuria (is-koo′re-a)
Retention or suppression of urine. [G. ischo, to keep back, + ouron, urine]

isethionate (i-se-thi′o-nat)
A salt or ester of isethionic acid.

isethionic acid (i′se-thi-on′ik)
2-Hydroxyethanesulfonic acid;a colorless viscous liquid, miscible with water and alcohols, that forms crystalline salts with organic acids.

Ishak
See Luna-I. stain.

Ishihara
Shinobu, Japanese ophthalmologist, 1879–1963. See I. test.

ISI
Abbreviation for international sensitivity index.

isinglass (i′zing-glas)
SYN: ichthyocolla. [Old Ger. huysenblas, sturgeon's bladder]

island (i′land)
In anatomy, any isolated part, separated from the surrounding tissues by a groove, or marked by a difference in structure. SYN: insula (2) [TA] . [A.S. igland] blood i. an aggregation of splanchnic mesodermal cells on the embryonic yolk sac, with the potentiality of forming vascular endothelium and primitive blood cells. SYN: blood islet. bone i. a macroscopic focus of cortical bone within medullary bone, commonly seen as a dense round or oval opacity on radiographs of the pelvis, femoral head, humerus, or ribs. islands of Calleja dense clusters of very small nerve cells (granule cells) characteristic of the olfactory tubercle at the base of the forebrain. epimyoepithelial islands (ep′e-mi-o-ep′e-the′li-al) proliferation of salivary gland ductal epithelium and myoepithelium. Characteristic of benign lymphoepithelial lesions and Sjögren syndrome. Langerhans islands SYN: islets of Langerhans, under islet. pancreatic islands SYN: islets of Langerhans, under islet. i. of Reil SYN: insula (1) .

islet (i′let)
A small island. blood i. SYN: blood island. islets of Langerhans cellular masses varying from a few to hundreds of cells lying in the interstitial tissue of the pancreas; they are composed of different cell types that comprise the endocrine portion of the pancreas and are the source of insulin and glucagon. SYN: i. tissue, Langerhans islands, pancreatic islands, pancreatic islets. pancreatic islets SYN: islets of Langerhans.

-ism
1. A condition, disease, or intoxication. 2. A practice, doctrine. Cf.:-ia, -ismus. [G. -isma, -ismos, noun-forming suffix]

-ismus
L. for -ism; customarily used to imply spasm, contraction. [L. fr. G. -ismos, suffix forming nouns of action]

iso-
1. Prefix meaning equal, like. 2. In chemistry, prefix indicating “isomer of” (isomerism); e.g., isocyanate vs. cyanate. 3. In immunology, prefix designating sameness with respect to species; in recent years, the meaning has shifted to sameness with respect to genetic constitution of individuals. [G. isos, equal]

isoacceptor tRNA (i′so-ak′sep-tor)
Different tRNA species that bind to alternate codons for the same amino acid residue; can be one tRNA that recognizes the various codons that signify those for the particular amino acid residue.

isoagglutination (i′so-a-gloo-ti-na′shun)
Agglutination of red blood cells as a result of the reaction between an isoagglutinin and specific antigen in or on the cells. SYN: isohemagglutination. [iso- + L. ad, to, + gluten, glue]

isoagglutinin (i′so-a-gloo′ti-nin)
An isoantibody that causes agglutination of cells of genetically different members of the same species. SYN: isohemagglutinin.

isoagglutinogen (i′so-a-gloo-tin′o-jen)
An isoantigen that induces agglutination of the cells to which it is attached upon exposure to its specific isoantibody.

isoallele (i′so-a-lel′)
One of a number of alleles that can be distinguished only by special analyses.

isoalloxazine (i′so-a-loks′a-zen)
The heterocyclic compound that forms the structural foundation of riboflavin and other flavins.

isoaminile (i-so-am′i-nil)
An antitussive agent.

isoamyl (i-so-am′il)
See amyl.

isoamylase (i-so-am′il-as)
A hydrolase that cleaves 1,6-α-d-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their β-limit dextrins; part of the complex known as debranching enzyme; similar to α-dextrin endo-1,6-α-glucosidase but unable to act on pullulan.

isoandrosterone (i′so-an-dros′ter-on)
SYN: epiandrosterone.

isoantibody (i′so-an′ti-bod-e)
1. An antibody that occurs only in some individuals of a species and reacts specifically with a particular foreign isoantigen. For specific isoantibodies of blood groups, see the Blood Groups appendix. 2. Sometimes used as a synonym of alloantibody. [G. isos, equal]

isoantigen (i′so-an′ti-jen)
1. An antigenic substance that occurs only in some individuals of a species, such as the blood group antigens of humans. For specific isoantigens of blood groups, see the Blood Groups appendix. 2. Sometimes used as a synonym of alloantigen.

isobar (i′so-bar)
1. One of two or more nuclides having the same total number of protons plus neutrons, but with different distribution; e.g., argon-40 with 18 protons and 22 neutrons, potassium-40 with 19 protons and 21 neutrons, calcium-40 with 20 protons and 20 neutrons. The product of a β-disintegration is an i. of its parent. 2. The line on a map connecting points of equal barometric pressure. 3. Any curve or equation relating quantities measured at the same pressure. [iso- + G. baros, weight]

isobaric (i-so-bar′ik)
1. Having equal weights or pressures. 2. With respect to solutions, having the same density as the diluent or medium; e.g., in spinal anesthesia, an i. solution has the same specific gravity as has spinal fluid.

isobornyl thiocyanoacetate (i-so-bor′nil thi-o-si′a-no-as′e-tat)
C13H19NO2S;a pediculicide.

isobutane (i′so-bu′tan)
See butane.

isobuteine (i-so-bu′te-en)
S-(2-Carboxypropyl)cysteine;a sulfur-containing compound found in urine.

isobutyl nitrite
A liquid present in commercial amyl nitrite, with similar antispasmodic and vasodilator properties.

isobutyric acid (i′so-bu-tir′ik)
See butyric acid.

isocapnia (i-so-kap′ne-a)
A state in which the arterial carbon dioxide pressure remains constant or unchanged. [iso- + G. kapnos, vapor]

isocellular (i′so-sel′u-lar)
Composed of cells of equal size or of similar character. [iso- + L. cellula, dim. of cella, a storeroom]

isochoric (ii′so-kor′ik)
SYN: isovolumic. [iso- + G. chora, space]

isochromatic (i-so-kro-mat′ik)
1. Of uniform color. SYN: isochroous. 2. Denoting two objects of the same color. [iso- + G. chroma, color]

isochromatophil, isochromatophile (i′so-kro-mat′o-fil, fil)
Having an equal affinity for the same dye; said of cells or tissues. [iso- + G. chroma, color, + philos, fond]

isochromosome (i′so-kro′mo-som)
A chromosomal aberration that arises as a result of transverse rather than longitudinal division of the centromere during meiosis; two daughter chromosomes are formed, each lacking one chromosome arm but with the other doubled.

isochronia (i-so-kro′ne-a)
1. The state of having the same chronaxie. 2. Agreement, with respect to time, rate, or frequency, between processes. [iso- + G. chronos, time]

isochronous (i-sok′ro-nus)
Occurring during the same time.

isochroous (i-sok′ro-us)
SYN: isochromatic (1) .

isocitrase, isocitratase (i-so-sit′ras, -sit′ra-tas)
SYN: isocitrate lyase.

isocitrate (i-so-sit′rat)
(i-sit′rat)A salt or ester of isocitric acid. i. dehydrogenase one of two enzymes that catalyze the conversion of threo-ds-i., the product of the action of both aconitase and i. lyase, to α-ketoglutarate (2-oxoglutarate) and CO2; one of the isozymes uses NAD+ (participating in the tricarboxylic acid cycle), while the other uses NADP+. SYN: isocitric acid dehydrogenase, oxalosuccinic carboxylase. i. lyase an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible aldol condensation of glyoxylate and succinate, forming threo-ds-i.; participates in the glyoxylate cycle. SYN: isocitrase, isocitratase, isocitritase.

isocitric acid (i-so-sit′rik)
An intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. i. dehydrogenase SYN: isocitrate dehydrogenase.

isocitritase (i-so-sit′ri-tas)
SYN: isocitrate lyase.

isocline (i′so-klin)
A line in a geographical region that joins all points at which in a population there is the same average frequency for the various alleles at a genetic locus. SEE ALSO: cline. [iso- + G. klino, to slope]

isoconazole (i′so-ko′na-zol)
Antibacterial and antifungal related to ketoconazole and oxiconazole.

isocoria (i-so-ko′re-a)
Equality in the size of the two pupils. [iso- + G. kore, pupil]

isocortex (i-so-kor′teks) [TA]
O. and C. Vogt term for the larger part of the mammalian cerebral cortex, distinguished from the allocortex by being composed of a larger number of nerve cells arranged in six layers. SEE ALSO: cerebral cortex. SYN: neocortex [TA] , homotypic cortex, neopallium.

isocyanate (i-so-si′a-nat)
The radical –N&dbond;C&dbond;O from isocyanic acid.

isocyanic acid (i-so-si′a-nik)
A highly reactive chemical, HNCO.

isocyanide (i-so-si′a-nid)
The radical –NC; organic isocyanides are called isonitriles.




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