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Medical Dictionary


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J
  • Coupling constant.
  • Joule; Joule equivalent, electric current density.
  • Mechanical equivalent of heat.
  • Symbol for flux.
J chain
A relatively short polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of about 35,000 daltons and a high number of cysteine residues that is found in antibodies of the IgM and IgA classes.

Jaborandi
pilocarpus.

Jaboulay
Mathieu, French surgeon, 1860–1913. See J. pyloroplasty, J. amputation.

Jaccoud
François Sigismond, French physician, 1830–1913. See J. arthritis, J. arthropathy.

jacket (jak′et)
1. A fixed bandage applied around the body in order to immobilize the spine. 2. In dentistry, a term commonly used in reference to an artificial crown composed of fired porcelain or acrylic resin. [M.E., fr. O.Fr. jaquet, dim. of jaque, tunic, fr. Jacques, nickname of Fr. peasants.] Minerva j. a plaster of Paris body cast incorporating the head and trunk, usually for fracture of the cervical spine.

jackscrew (jak′skroo)
A threaded device used in appliances for the separation of approximated teeth or jaws.

Jackson
John Hughlings, English neurologist, 1835–1911. See jacksonian epilepsy, J. law, J. rule, J. sign.

Jackson
Jabez N., U.S. surgeon, 1868–1935. See J. membrane, J. veil.

jacksonian (jak-so′ne-an)
Described by John Hughlings Jackson. See j. epilepsy, j. seizure.

Jacobaeus
Hans C., Swedish surgeon, 1879–1937. See J. operation.

Jacobson
Ludwig L., Danish anatomist, 1783–1843. See J. anastomosis, J. canal, J. cartilage, J. nerve, J. organ, J. plexus, J. reflex.

Jacquart
Henri, 19th century French physician. See J. facial angle.

Jacquemet
Marcel, French anatomist, 1872–1908. See J. recess.

Jacquemin
Emile, 19th century French chemist. See J. test.

Jacques
Paul, 19th century French physician. See J. plexus.

Jadassohn
Josef, German dermatologist in Switzerland, 1863–1936; introduced the patch test for contact dermatitis. See J. nevus, Borst-J. type intraepidermal epithelioma, J.-Pellizzari anetoderma, Franceschetti-J. syndrome, J.-Lewandowski syndrome.

Jaeger
Eduard, Ritter von Jaxthal, Austrian ophthalmologist, 1818–1884. See J. test types.

Jaffe
Max, German biochemist, 1841–1911. See J. reaction, J. test.

Jaffe
Henry L., U.S. pathologist, 1896–1979 See J.-Lichtenstein disease.

Jakob
Alfons M., German neuropsychiatrist, 1884–1931. See Creutzfeldt-J. disease.

jalap
The dried tuberous root of Exogonium purga, E. jalapa, or Ipomoea purga (family Convolvulaceae); used as a cathartic. [Jalapa or Xalapa, a Mexican city from where the drug was exported]

James
Thomas N., U.S. cardiologist and physiologist, *1925. See J. fibers, under fiber, J. tracts, under tract.

James
George C.W., U.S. radiologist, 1915–1972. See Swyer-J. syndrome, Swyer-J.-MacLeod syndrome.

Jamestown weed
SYN: Datura stramonium.

Janet
Pierre M.F., French neurologist, 1859–1947. See J. test.

Janeway
Edward G., U.S. physician, 1841–1911. See J. lesion.

janiceps (jan′i-seps)
Conjoined twins having their two heads fused together, with the faces looking in opposite directions. See conjoined twins, under twin. SEE ALSO: craniopagus, syncephalus. [L. Janus, a Roman diety having two faces, + caput, head] j. asymmetrus a j. with one very small and imperfectly developed face. SYN: iniops, syncephalus asymmetros. j. parasiticus a j. in which one of the twins is a small and incompletely formed parasite attached to the more fully formed autosite.

Jansen
Albert, German otologist, 1859–1933. See J. operation.

Jansky
Jan, Czech physician, 1873–1921. See J.-Bielschowsky disease, J. classification.

Janus green B [C.I. 11050]
A basic dye used in histology and to stain mitochondria supravitally.

jar
1. To jolt or shake. 2. A jolting or shaking. heel j. the patient standing on tiptoe feels pain on suddenly bringing the heels to the ground: 1. in the spine in Pott disease or disk space infection; 2. in one lumbar region in renal calculus.

jargon (jar′gon)
Language or terminology peculiar to a specific field, profession, or group. SEE ALSO: paraphasia. [Fr. gibberish]

Jarisch
Adolf, Austrian dermatologist, 1850–1902. See J.-Herxheimer reaction, Bezold-J. reflex.

Jarman
Brian, 20th century British Primary Care physician. See J. score.

Jarvik
Robert Koffler, U.S. cardiologist. See J. artificial heart.

Jatropha (jat′ro-fa)
A genus of plants of the family Euphorbiaceae; a poisonous plant found in eastern Africa and the West Indies. [G. iatros, physician, + trophe, nourishment] J. curcas barbados nut or physic-nut, the seed of which furnishes a purgative oil similar to croton oil. SYN: J. glandulifera. J. glandulifera SYN: J. curcas. J. urens a species of South America; the macerated fresh leaves are used as a rubefacient and stimulating poultice; the seeds furnish a purgative oil.

jaundice (jawn′dis)
  • A yellowish staining of the integument, sclerae, deeper tissues, and excretions with bile pigments, resulting from increased levels in the plasma, aka icterus. [Fr. jaune, yellow]
  • acholuric j.: j. with excessive amounts of unconjugated bilirubin in the plasma and without bile pigments in the urine.
  • anhepatic j.: j. due to hemolysis, with normal function of the liver and biliary tract, aka anhepatogenous j..
  • anhepatogenous j.: anhepatic j..
  • choleric j.: j. with the presence of biliary derivatives in the urine; occurs in regurgitation hyperbilirubinemia.
  • cholestatic j.: j. produced by inspissated bile or bile plugs in small biliary passages in the liver.
  • chronic acholuric j.: hereditary spherocytosis.
  • chronic familial j.: hereditary spherocytosis.
  • chronic idiopathic j.: Dubin-Johnson syndrome.
  • congenital hemolytic j. : hereditary spherocytosis.
  • familial nonhemolytic j. [MIM*143500]: mild j. due to increased amounts of unconjugated bilirubin in the plasma without evidence of liver damage, biliary obstruction, or hemolysis; thought to be due to an inborn error of metabolism in which the excretion of bilirubin by the liver is defective, ascribed to decreased conjugation of bilirubin as a glucuronide or impaired uptake of hepatic bilirubin; autosomal dominant inheritance. SYN: benign familial icterus, constitutional hepatic dysfunction, Gilbert disease, Gilbert syndrome.
  • hematogenous j.: hemolytic j..
  • hemolytic j.: j. resulting from increased production of bilirubin from hemoglobin as a result of any process (toxic, genetic, or immune) causing increased destruction of erythrocytes, aka: hematogenous j., toxemic j..
  • hepatocellular j.: j. resulting from diffuse injury or inflammation or failure of function of the liver cells, usually referring to viral or toxic hepatitis.
  • hepatogenous j.: j. resulting from disease of the liver, as distinguished from that due to blood changes.
  • homologous serum j.: obsolete term for viral hepatitis type B.
  • human serum j.: obsolete name for hepatitis transmitted parenterally, usually by blood or blood products; usually due to hepatitis B.
  • infectious j.: Weil disease; obsolete term for viral hepatitis type A.
  • infective j.: acute onset of malaise, fever, myalgia, nausea, anorexia, abdominal pain, and icterus caused by members of the genus Leptospira.
  • leptospiral j.: j. associated with infection by various species of Leptospira.
  • malignant j.: icterus gravis.
  • mechanical j.: obstructive j..
  • neonatal j.: physiologic j..
  • j. of the newborn: physiologic j..
  • nonobstructive j.: any j. in which the main biliary passages are not obstructed, e.g., hemolytic j. or j. due to hepatitis.
  • nuclear j.: kernicterus.
  • obstructive j.: j. resulting from obstruction to the flow of bile into the duodenum, whether intra- or extrahepatic. SYN: mechanical j..
  • painless j.: j. not associated with abdominal pain; usually used for obstructive j. resulting from obstruction of the common bile duct at the head of the pancreas by a tumor or impaction of a stone.
  • physiologic j.: a form of j. observed frequently in newborn infants in the first 1–2 weeks of life. It is caused by several factors, including a comparatively high red cell mass at birth compared with that of adults, shorter red cell life span, transiently impaired conjugation of bilirubin in the liver, and lack of gut flora (which are helpful in intestinal metabolism and excretion of bilirubin); is related to indirect (unconjugated) bilirubinemia that peaks at 2–3 days of age in normal, full-term infants and later with higher levels in preterm infants and is accentuated in breast-fed infants, aka icterus neonatorum, j. of the newborn, neonatal j..
  • postarsphenamine j.: liver toxicity, causing j., in a patient who has received arsphenamine.
  • recurrent j. of pregnancy: intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.
  • regurgitation j.: j. due to biliary obstruction, the bile pigment having been conjugated and secreted by the hepatic cells and then reabsorbed into the bloodstream.
  • retention j.: j. due to insufficiency of liver function or to an excess of bile pigment production; the bilirubin is unconjugated because it has not passed through the liver cells.
  • Schmorl j.: kernicterus.
  • spherocytic j.: hemolytic j. associated with spherocytosis.
  • spirochetal j.: j. caused by infection with Leptospira species, usually Leptospira icterohemorrhagica.
  • toxemic j.: hemolytic j..
jaundice root
SYN: hydrastis.

jaw
1. One of the two bony structures, in which the teeth are set, forming the framework of the mouth. 2. Common name for either the maxillae or the mandible. [A.S. ceowan, to chew] crackling j. chronic subluxation with clicking on motion. Hapsburg j. prognathism and pouting lower lip, characteristic of the Hispano-Austrian imperial dynasty. j. winking a paradoxical movement of eyelids associated with movements of the j.. lock-j. SYN: trismus. lower j. SYN: mandible. lumpy j. SYN: actinomycosis. parrot j. a condition caused by protrusion of incisor teeth. upper j. SYN: maxilla.

Jaworski
Walery, Polish physician, 1849–1924. See J. bodies, under body.

Jeanselme
Edouard, French dermatologist, 1858–1935. See J. nodules, under nodule.

Jeghers
Harold, U.S. physician, *1904. See Peutz-J. syndrome, J.-Peutz syndrome.

jejun-
See jejuno-.

jejunal (je-joo′nal)
Relating to the jejunum.

jejunectomy (je-joo-nek′to-me)
Excision of all or a part of the jejunum. [jejunum + G. ektome, excision]

jejunitis (je-joo-ni′tis)
Inflammation of the jejunum.

jejuno-, jejun-
The jejunum, jejunal. [L. jejunus, empty]

jejunocolostomy (je-joo-no-ko-los′to-me)
An anastomosis between the jejunum and the colon. [jejuno- + colon + G. stoma, mouth]

jejunoileal (je-joo′no-il′e-al)
Relating to the jejunum and the ileum.

jejunoileitis (je-joo′no-il-e-i′tis)
Inflammation of the jejunum and ileum.

jejunoileostomy (je-joo′no-il-e-os′to-me)
An anastomosis between the jejunum and the ileum. [jejuno- + ileum + G. stoma, mouth]

jejunojejunostomy (je-joo′no-je-joo-nos′to-me)
An anastomosis between two portions of jejunum. [jejuno- + jejuno- + G. stoma, mouth]

jejunoplasty (je-joo′no-plas-te)
A corrective surgical procedure on the jejunum. [jejuno- + G. plastos, molded]

jejunostomy (je-joo-nos′to-me)
Operative establishment of a fistula from the jejenum to the abdominal wall, usually with creation of a stoma. [jejuno- + G. stoma, mouth]

jejunotomy (je-joo-not′o-me)
Incision into the jejunum. [jejuno- + G. tome, incision]

jejunum (je-joo′num) [TA]
The portion of small intestine, about 8 feet in length, between the duodenum and the ileum. The j. is distinct from the ileum in being more proximal, of larger diameter with a thicker wall, having larger, more highly developed plicae circulares, being more vascular (redder in appearance), with the jejunal arteries forming fewer tiers of arterial arcades and longer vasa recta. [L. jejunus, empty]

Jellinek
Edward J., British physician specializing in alcohol-related disorders, 1890–1963. See J. formula.

jelly (jel′e)
1. A semisolid tremulous compound usually containing some form of gelatin in aqueous solution. 2. SYN: jellyfish. [L. gelo, to freeze] box j. SYN: Chiropsalmus quadrumanus. cardiac j. term introduced by C.L. Davis for the gelatinous, noncellular material between the endothelial lining and the myocardial layer of the heart in very young embryos; later in development it serves as a substratum for cardiac mesenchyme. interlaminar j. term introduced by B.M. Patten for the gelatinous material between ectoderm and endoderm that serves as the substrate on which mesenchymal cells migrate. Wharton j. the mucous connective tissue of the umbilical cord.

jellyfish (jel′e-fish)
Marine coelenterates (class Hydrozoa) including some poisonous species, notably Physalia, the Portuguese man-of-war; toxin is injected into the skin by nematocysts on the tentacles, causing linear wheals. SYN: jelly (2) .

Jendrassik
Ernö, Hungarian physician, 1858–1921. See J. maneuver.

Jenner
Edward, 1749–1823; English physician and naturalist who discovered the method of vaccinating against smallpox by inoculating susceptible persons with cowpox (vaccinia); J. method led directly to the eradication of smallpox worldwide in 1977, the greatest public health achievement ever.

Jenner
Harley D., Canadian physician, *1907. See J.-Kay unit.

Jenner
Louis, English physician, 1866–1904. See J. stain.

Jennings
E.R., 20th century U.S. statistcian. See Levey-J. chart.

Jensen
Edmund Z., Danish ophthalmologist, 1861–1950. See J. disease.

Jensen
Carl O., Danish veterinary surgeon and pathologist, 1864–1934. See J. sarcoma.

jerk
1. A sudden pull. 2. SYN: deep reflex. ankle j. SYN: Achilles reflex. chin j. SYN: jaw reflex. crossed j. SYN: crossed reflex. crossed adductor j. SYN: crossed adductor reflex. crossed knee j. SYN: crossed knee reflex. elbow j. SYN: triceps reflex. jaw j. SYN: jaw reflex. knee j. SYN: patellar reflex. supinator j. SYN: brachioradial reflex.




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