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Medical Dictionary


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kilocalorie (kcal) (kil′o-kal-o-re)
SYN: large calorie.

kilocycle (kc) (kil′o-si-kl)
One thousand cycles per second.

kilogram (kg) (kil′o-gram)
The SI unit of mass, 1000 g; equivalent to 15,432.358 gr, 2.2046226 lb. avoirdupois, or 2.6792289 lb. troy.

kilogram-meter
The energy exerted, or work done, when a mass of 1 kg is raised a height of 1 m; equal to 9.80665 J in the SI system.

kilohertz
A unit of frequency equal to 103 hertz.

kilohm
A unit of electrical resistance equal to 103 ohms. [kilo + ohm]

kilojoule
A unit of energy, work, or quantity of heat equal to 103 joules. [kilo + joule]

kilovolt (kv) (kil′o-volt)
A unit of electrical potential, potential difference, or electromotive force, equal to 103 volts. [kilo + volt]

kilovoltmeter (kil′o-volt-me′ter)
An instrument designed to measure electromotive force in kilovolts.

Kimmelstiel
Paul, German pathologist in the U.S., 1900–1970. See K.-Wilson disease, K.-Wilson syndrome.

Kimura
T., 20th century Japanese pathologist. See K. disease.

kin-, kine-
Movement, motion. SEE ALSO: cine-. [G. kineo, to move, set in motion]

kinanesthesia (kin-an-es-the′ze-a)
A disturbance of deep sensibility in which there is inability to perceive either direction or extent of movement, the result being ataxia. SYN: cinanesthesia. [G. kinesis, motion, + an- priv. + aisthesis, sensation]

kinase (ki′nas)
1. An enzyme catalyzing the conversion of a proenzyme to an active enzyme; e.g., enteropeptidase (enterokinase). 2. An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of phosphate groups. For individual kinases, see specific name.

kinase II
SYN: peptidyl dipeptidase A.

kindling
Long-lasting epileptogenic changes induced by daily subthreshold electrical brain stimulation without apparent neuronal damage.

kindred
An aggregate of genetically related persons; distinguished from pedigree, which is a stylized representation of a k.. [O.E. kynrede, fr. cyn, kin, + rede, condition] degree of k. degree of k. between two members of a pedigree, the minimum number of steps to be traced in going from the one to the other. First degree relatives are sibs, parents, and progeny; second degree are uncles, aunts, nephews, and nieces and so forth. The term is defined for legal purposes e.g., consanguineous marriages, and may be misleading in genetics. The use of groups constituted by lumping together “first degree relatives” regardless of sex or the mode of inheritance in question should be avoided as it fails to distinguish progeny from siblings.

kinematics (kin-e-mat′iks)
In physiology, the science concerned with movements of the parts of the body. SYN: cinematics. [G. kinematica, things that move]

kinemometer (kin-e-mom′e-ter)
An electromagnetic device, similar in principle to the velocity ballistocardiograph, used to measure the contraction and relaxation elicited in a tendon reflex. [G. kinesis, movement, + metron, measure]

kinesi-, kinesio-, kineso-
Motion. [G. kinesis]

kinesia (ki-ne′se-a, -ne′ze-)
SYN: motion sickness. [G. kinesis, movement]

kinesiatrics (ki-ne′se-at′riks)
SYN: kinesitherapy. [G. kinesis, movement, + iatrikos, relating to medicine]

kinesics (ki-ne′siks)
The study of nonverbal, bodily motion in communication. See body language.

kinesimeter (kin-e-sim′e-ter)
An instrument for measuring the extent of a movement. SYN: kinesiometer. [G. kinesis, movement, + metron, measure]

kinesin (ki-ne′sin)
A motor protein associated with microtubules; participates in the ATP-dependent transport of vesicles and other entities; directs anterograde axonal transport.

kinesio-
See kinesi-.

kinesiology (ki-ne-se-ol′o-je)
The science or the study of movement, and the active and passive structures involved. [G. kinesis, movement, + -logos, study]

kinesiometer (ki-ne-se-om′e-ter)
SYN: kinesimeter.

kinesipathist (kin-e-sip′a-thist)
A nonmedical person who treats disease by movements of various kinds.

kinesis (ki-ne′sis)
Motion. As a termination, used to denote movement or activation, particularly the kind induced by a stimulus. [G.]

kinesitherapy (ki-ne-si-thar′a-pe)
Physical therapy involving motion and range of motion exercises. See movement. SYN: kinesiatrics.

kineso-
See kinesi-.

kinesophobia (ki-ne-so-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of movement. [G. kinesis, movement, + phobos, fear]

kinesthesia (kin′es-the′ze-a)
1. The sense perception of movement; the muscular sense. 2. An illusion of moving in space. [G. kinesis, motion, + aisthesis, sensation]

kinesthesiometer (kin′es-the′ze-om′e-ter)
An instrument for determining the degree of muscular sensation. [kinesthesia, + G. metron, measure]

kinesthesis (kin′es-the-sez)
See kinesthesia.

kinesthetic (kin-es-thet′ik)
1. Relating to kinesthesia. 2. Used to describe a person who preferentially uses mental imagery of that which has been felt. SEE ALSO: internal representation.

kinetic (ki-net′ik)
Relating to motion or movement. [G. kinetikos, of motion, fr. kinetos, moving]

kinetics (ki-net′iks)
The study of motion, acceleration, or rate of change. chemical k. the study of the rates of chemical reactions. enzyme k. the study of the rates, and alterations in those rates, of enzyme-catalyzed reactions; includes the reactions catalyzed by synzymes, abzymes, and ribozymes.

kineto-
Motion. [G. kinetos, moving, movable]

kinetocardiogram (ki-ne′to-kar′de-o-gram, ki-net′o-)
One type of graphic recording of the vibrations of the chest wall produced by cardiac activity.

kinetocardiograph (ki-ne′to-kar′de-o-graf, ki-net′o-)
A device for recording precordial impulses due to cardiac movement; the absolute displacement of a point on the chest wall is recorded relative to a fixed reference point above the recumbent patient.

kinetochore (ki-ne′to-kor, ki-net′o-)
The structural portion of the chromosome to which microtubules attach. Cf.:centromere. [kineto- + G. chora, space]

kinetochores (ki-ne′to-korz)
The protein-bound region of the centromere.

kinetogenic (ki-ne-to-jen′ik, ki-net-o-)
Causing or producing motion.

kinetoplasm (ki-ne′to-plazm)
1. The most contractile part of a cell. 2. The cytoplasm of the droplet that covers the sperm head during maturation. SYN: cinetoplasm, cinetoplasma, kinoplasm. [kineto- + G. plasma, a thing formed]

kinetoplast (ki-ne′to-plast, ki-net′o-)
An intensely staining rod-, disc-, or spherical-shaped extranuclear DNA structure found in parasitic flagellates (family Trypanosomatidae) near the base of the flagellum, posterior to the blepharoplast, and often at right angles to the nucleus. Electron micrographs show it to be part of a single giant mitochondrion filling most of the cytoplasm of amastigote flagellates, the k. portion being visible by light microscopy. DNA of the k. is termed kDNA to distinguish it from nuclear DNA, or nDNA. The k. divides independently, along with the basal body, prior to nuclear division. The term k. formerly included parabasal body and blepharoplast in a locomotory apparatus, but is now recognized as a distinct organelle of most trypanosomatids. SEE ALSO: parabasal body. [kineto- + G. plastos, formed]

kinetoscope (ki-ne′to-skop)
An apparatus for taking serial photographs to record movement. [kineto- + G. skopeo, to examine]

kinetosome (ki-ne′to-som, ki-net′o-)
SYN: basal body. [kineto- + G. soma, body]

King
Earl J., Canadian biochemist, 1901–1962. See K. unit, K.-Armstrong unit.

kingdom (king′dum)
One of the four categories into which natural objects are usually classified: the animal k., including all animals; the plant k., including all plants; the mineral k., including all objects and substances without life; and the protista, including all single-cell organisms. [A.S. cyningdom, fr. cyning, king, + -dom, state, condition]

Kingella (kin-jel′ah)
Genus in the family Neisseriaceae; members are medium-size, Gram-negative, aerobic and facultatively anaerobic, nonmotile cocci and coccobacilli in pairs or short chains, which may decolorize poorly with acetone-alcohol; they are oxidase positive, and ferment glucose with acid but not gas. The type species is K. kingae. K. indologenes former name for Suttonella indologenes, a bacterial species that is the causitive agent of eye infections and endocarditis on damaged (especially prosthetic) heart valves. K. kingae a β-hemolytic bacterial species that causes endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and septic arthritis in humans; formerly Moraxella kingae. See HACEK group. SYN: Moraxella kingae.

king's evil
historic term for cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis (scrofula) which was formerly thought to be curable by the touch of a king.

Kingsley
Norman W., U.S. dentist, 1829–1913. See K. splint.

kinic acid (kin′ik)
SYN: quinic acid.

kinin (ki′nin)
One of a number of widely differing substances having pronounced and dramatic physiologic effects. Some ( e.g., kallidin and bradykinin) are polypeptides, formed in blood by proteolysis secondary to some pathological process, that stimulate visceral smooth muscle but relax vascular smooth muscle, thus producing vasodilation; others ( e.g., kinetin) are plant growth regulators. [G. kineo, to move, + -in] k. 9 SYN: bradykinin.

kininogen (ki-nin′o-jen)
The globulin precursor of a (plasma) kinin. high molecular weight k. a plasma protein of 110,000 molecular weight that normally exists in plasma in a 1:1 complex with prekallikrein. The complex is a cofactor in the activation of coagulation factor XII. The product of this reaction, XIIa, in turn activates prekallikrein to kallikrein. SYN: Fitzgerald factor, Flaujeac factor, Williams factor. low molecular weight k. a protein of 50,000 molecular weight that occurs in various normal tissues and which, upon cleavage by kallikrein or other kininogens, forms kallidin. Kallidin, in turn, is converted into bradykinin.

kininogenase (ki-nin′o-je-nas)
SYN: kallikrein.

kininogenin (ki-nin′o-jen-in)
SYN: kallikrein.

kink
An angulation, bend, or twist. Lane k. SYN: Lane band.

kino-
Movement. [G. kineo, to move]

kinocentrum (kin-o-sen′trum)
SYN: cytocentrum. [kino- + G. kentron, center]

kinocilium (ki-no-sil′e-um)
A cilium, usually motile, having nine peripheral double microtubules and two single central ones. [kino- + cilium]

kinomometer (kin-o-mom′e-ter)
An instrument for measuring degree of motion. [kino- + G. metron, measure]

kinoplasm (kin′o-plazm, ki′no)
SYN: kinetoplasm.

kinoplasmic (kin-o-plas′mik, ki-no-)
Relating to kinoplasm (kinetoplasm).

kinship
The state of being genetically related.

Kinyoun
Joseph J., U.S. physician, 1860–1919. See K. stain.

kion (ki′on)
Obsolete term for uvula. See entries under cion- as a combining form of uvula. [G. k., pillar, the uvula]

kion-, kiono-
The uvula. See uvulo-, uvul-. [G. kion, uvula]

Kirk
Norman Thomas, U.S. Army surgeon, 1888–1960. See K. amputation.

Kirkland
Olin, U.S. periodontist, 1876–1969. See K. knife.

Kirschner
Martin, German surgeon, 1879–1942. See K. apparatus, K. wire.

Kisch
Bruno, German physiologist, 1890–1966. See K. reflex.

Kitasato
Shibasaburo, Baron, Japanese bacteriologist, 1853–1931. See K. bacillus.

Kjeldahl
Johan G.C., Danish chemist, 1849–1900. See K. apparatus, K. method, macro-K. method, micro-K. method.

Kjelland, Kielland
Christian, Norwegian obstetrician, 1871–1941. See K. forceps.

Klatskin
Gerald, U.S. internist; (died 1988). See K. tumor.

Klebs
Theodor Albrecht Edwin, German physician, 1834–1913. See Klebsiella, K.-Loeffler bacillus.

Klebsiella (kleb-se-el′a)
A genus of aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, nonmotile, nonsporeforming bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) containing Gram-negative, encapsulated rods which occur singly, in pairs, or in short chains. These organisms produce acetylmethylcarbinol and lysine decarboxylase or ornithine decarboxylase. They do not usually liquefy gelatin. Citrate and glucose are ordinarily used as sole carbon sources. These organisms may or may not be pathogenic. They occur in the respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital tracts of humans as well as in soil, water, and grain. The type species is K. pneumoniae. [E. Klebs] K. mobilis SYN: Enterobacter aerogenes. K. oxytoca a species characterized by its ability to produce indole. Clinically it resembles K. pneumoniae; however, nosocomial strains tend to exhibit a greater propensity to develop antibiotic resistance. K. ozaenae a bacterial species that occurs in cases of ozena and other chronic diseases of the respiratory tract. SYN: K. pneumoniae ozaenae. K. pneumoniae a bacterial species found in soil and water, on grain, and in the intestinal tract of humans and other animals; it also occurs in association with several pathologic conditions, urinary tract infections, sputum, feces, and metritis in mares; capsular types 1, 2, and 3 of this organism may be causative agents in pneumonia; organisms previously identified as nonmotile strains of Aerobacter aerogenes are now placed in this species; it is the type species of K.. SYN: Friedländer bacillus, pneumobacillus. K. pneumoniae ozaenae SYN: K. ozaenae. K. rhinoscleromatis a bacterial species found in cases of rhinoscleroma.

kleeblattschädel (kla-blat-she′dl)
See cloverleaf skull syndrome. [Ger. cloverleaf skull]

Kleffner
Frank, 20th century U.S. neurologist. See Landau-K. syndrome.

Kleffner
See Landau-K. syndrome.

Kleihauer
See K. stain, Betke-K. test.

Klein
Edward E., Hungarian histologist, 1844–1925. See K.-Gumprecht shadow nuclei, under nucleus.

Kleine
Willi, 20th century German neuropsychiatrist. See K.-Levin syndrome.

kleptomania (klep-to-ma′ne-a)
A disorder of impulse control characterized by a morbid tendency to steal. [G. klepto, to steal, + mania, insanity]




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