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Medical Dictionary


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kleptomaniac (klep-to-ma′ne-ak)
A person exhibiting kleptomania.

kleptophobia (klep-to-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of stealing or of becoming a thief. [G. klepto, to steal, + phobos, fear]

Klinefelter
Harry F., Jr., U.S. physician, *1912. See K. syndrome.

Klippel
Maurice, French neurologist, 1858–1942. See K.-Feil syndrome, K.-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome.

Klumpke
See Dejerine-K..

Klüver
Heinrich, German-born U.S. neurologist, 1897–1975. See K.-Barrera Luxol fast blue stain, K.-Bucy syndrome.

Kluyvera (klooy-ver′ah)
Genus in family Enterobacteriaceae; organisms are motile, lactose fermenting, and differentiated from other genera by specific phenotypic profiles and DNA-DNA hybridization parameters; some species have been associated with human infection; the type species is K. ascorbata.

Knapp
Herman J., U.S. ophthalmologist, 1832–1911. See K. streaks, under streak, K. striae, under stria.

knee (ne) [TA]
1. SYN: genu (1) . 2. Any structure of angular shape resembling a flexed k.. [A.S. cneow] Brodie k. chronic hypertrophic synovitis of the k.. SYN: Brodie disease (1) . housemaid's k. an adventitious occupational bursitis occurring over the area of contact when kneeling; not to be confused with infrapatellar bursitis. SYN: prepatellar bursitis. locked k. a condition in which the k. lacks full extension and flexion because of internal derangement, usually the result of a torn meniscus. runner's k. an overuse syndrome of anterior k. pain associated with excessive lateral motion of the patella during activity. SYN: patellofemoral stress syndrome. Wilbrand k. bundle of inferior nasal optic nerve fibers subserving the superior temporal visual field and crossing in the anterior optic chiasm, briefly entering the contralateral posterior optic nerve [CN II] before proceeding into the contralateral optic tract. Recent research indicates that this may be an artifact of retinal degeneration and not present in the normal anatomy.

kneecap (ne′kap)
SYN: patella.

Knemidokoptes (ne′mi-do-kop′tez)
A genus of microscopic burrowing sarcoptid mites that infect fowl and caged birds; species include K. laevis var. gallinae, the depluming mite, and K. mutans, the scaly leg mite. [G. kneme, leg, + kopto, to cut]

KNF model
Abbreviation for Koshland-Némethy-Filmer model.

Kniest
Wilhelm, 20th century German pediatrician. See K. syndrome.

knife, pl .knives (nif, nivz)
A cutting instrument used in surgery and dissection. [M.E. knif, fr. A.S. cnif, fr. O. Norse knifr] amputation k. a broad-bladed k. used primarily for transecting large muscles during major amputations. Beer k. a triangular k. with a sharp point and one sharp edge, formerly used for incision for cataract. cartilage k. SYN: chondrotome. cautery k. a k. that sears while cutting, to diminish bleeding. chemical k. term sometimes used for restriction endonuclease. electrode k. a blade-shaped electrical instrument used to cut tissues by means of a high-frequency electrical current. fistula k. SYN: fistulatome. free-hand k. a manually operated k. or blade usually used to take split-thickness skin grafts; e.g., Blair-Brown k., Humby k. . gamma k. a minimally invasive radiosurgical system used in the treatment of benign and malignant intracranial neoplasms and arteriovenous malformations. SEE ALSO: radiosurgery.As a preliminary to use of the gamma k., the lesion to be ablated is precisely located by imaging techniques such as MRI, CT, PET, and angiography. Beams of gamma rays from 200 cobalt-60 sources are then directed by a computer so that they converge on the lesion. A series of exposures are made during a period of about 1 hour. Lesions larger than about 3 cm cannot be treated. The mechanism is bulky and costly, but the procedure has shown a success rate of about 85% in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and 50–95% for neoplasms. Besides avoiding the risks and complications of open surgery, the gamma k. permits treatment of lesions whose location prohibits any attempt at surgical removal. In addition, patient discomfort is minimal and most patients remain in the hospital for only 1 night; many return home, or even to work, on the day of treatment. The gamma k. is expected to prove useful in the treatment of other disorders, such as tumors of the eye and the pituitary gland, trigeminal neuralgia, epilepsy, parkinsonism, and other movement disorders. Goldman-Fox knives a set of knives used in periodontal surgery. Graefe k. a narrow-bladed k. used in making a section of the cornea. hernia k. a slender bladed k., with short cutting edge, for dividing the constricting tissues at the mouth of the hernial sac. SYN: herniotome. Kirkland k. a heart-shaped k. used in gingival surgery. lenticular k. a scraper resembling a sharp spoon. Liston knives long-bladed knives of various sizes used in amputations. Merrifield k. a long, narrow, triangularly shaped k. used in gingival surgery. valvotomy k. a k. used in mitral or venous valvular surgery; also called valvulotome.

knismogenic (nis′mo-jen′ik)
Causing a tickling sensation. [G. knismos, tickling, + -gen, production]

knitting (nit′ing)
Nonmedical term denoting the process of union of the fragments of a broken bone or of the edges of a wound. [M.E., knitten, to knot, fr. A.S. cnyttan]

knob (nob)
A protuberance; a mass; a nodule. aortic k. the prominent shadow of the aortic arch on a frontal chest radiograph. Engelmann basal knobs obsolete eponym for blepharoplast. malarial knobs rounded protrusions of a red blood cell infected with Plasmodium falciparum, responsible for the adhesion of infected red cells to one another and to the endothelium of the blood vessels containing these infected cells; results in capillary blockage responsible for much of the pathology of malignant tertian malaria.

knock (nok)
1. Colloquialism for a blow, especially a blow to the head. 2. A sound simulating that of a blow or rap. pericardial k. an early diastolic sound that is a variant of the third heart sound, but occurring distinctly earlier, due to rapid ventricular filling being abruptly halted by the restricting pericardium; a truly “knocking” quality is uncommon.

knock-knee (nok′ne)
SYN: genu valgum.

knock-out (nok′out)
A genetically engineered organism in which the genome has been altered by site-directed recombination so that a gene is deleted.

Knoll
Philipp, Bohemian physiologist, 1841–1900. See K. glands, under gland.

Knoop
Hedwig, German physician, *1908. See K. theory.

Knoop hardness number (KHN)
See under number.

knot (not)
1. An intertwining of the ends of two cords, tapes, or sutures, in such a way that they cannot easily become separated; or a similar twining or infolding of a cord in its continuity. 2. In anatomy or pathology, a node, ganglion, or circumscribed swelling suggestive of a k.. [A.S. cnotta] false knots, false knots of umbilical cord local increases in length or varicosity of the umbilical vein, causing markedly apparent twisting of the cord. granny k. a double k. in which the free ends of the second loop are asymmetric and not in the same plane as the free ends of the first loop. Hensen k. SYN: primitive node. Hubrecht protochordal k. SYN: primitive node. laparoscopic k. a k. placed intracorporally through a laparoscopic instrument. The k. itself may be tied extracorporally and passed into the body through a cannula or the k. may be both placed and tied intracorporally. net k. SYN: karyosome. primitive k. SYN: primitive node. protochordal k. SYN: primitive node. square k. a double k. in which the free ends of the second loop are symmetric and in the same plane as the free ends of the first loop. surgeon's k. the first loop of the k. has two throws rather than a single throw. The second loop has only one throw and that is placed in a square k. fashion leaving the free ends in the same plane as the first loop. syncytial k. a localized aggregation of syncytiotrophoblastic nuclei in the villi of the placenta during early pregnancy. SYN: syncytial bud, syncytial sprout. true k., true k. of umbilical cord actual intertwining of a segment of umbilical cord; circulation is usually not obstructed. vital k. SYN: noeud vital.

knuckle (nuk′l)
1. A joint of a finger when the fist is closed, especially a metacarpophalangeal joint. 2. A kink or loop of intestine, as in a hernia. [M.E. knokel] aortic k. the contour of the aortic arch protruding from the mediastinal silhouette in an anteroposterior (AP) radiograph of the chest. cervical aortic k. an anomalous aortic arch in which the aorta extends into the neck and forms an anteroposterior arch, which may be as high as the hyoid bone; the common carotid artery of one side is given off from the summit of the arch, and the common carotid of the other side arises from the more proximal part of the aorta; the pulsating arch may be mistaken for an aneurysm, but the radial pulses are equal.

Kobelt
Georg L., German physician, 1804–1857. See K. tubules, under tubule.

Kober
Philip A., U.S. chemist, *1884. See K. test.

Köbner
Heinrich, German dermatologist, 1838–1904. See K. phenomenon.

Koch
Robert, German bacteriologist and Nobel laureate, 1843–1910. See K. bacillus, K. law, K. old tuberculin, K. phenomenon, K. postulates, under postulate, K.-Weeks bacillus.

Koch
Walter, German surgeon, *1880. See K. node, K. triangle.

Kocher
Emil Theodor, Swiss surgeon and Nobel laureate, 1841–1917. See K. clamp, K. incision, K. sign, K.-Debré-Sémélaigne syndrome.

Kock
Nils G., 20th century Swedish surgeon. See K. pouch.

Koenig
Franz, German surgeon, 1832–1910. See K. syndrome.

Koerber
H., 20th century German ophthalmologist. See K.-Salus-Elschnig syndrome.

Koerte
Werner, German surgeon, 1853–1937. See K.-Ballance operation.

Koettstorfer
J., 19th century German chemist. See K. number.

Kogoj
Franjo, Yugoslavian physician, 1894–1983. See spongiform pustule of K..

Köhler
Alban, German roentgenologist, 1874–1947. See K. disease.

Köhler
August, German microscopist, 1866–1948. See K. illumination.

Kohlrausch
Otto L.B., German physician, 1811–1854. See K. muscle, K. folds, under fold.

Kohn
Hans N., German pathologist, *1866. See K. pores, under pore.

Kohnstamm
Oskar, German physician, 1871–1917. See K. phenomenon.

koilocyte (koy′lo-sit)
A squamous cell, often binucleated, showing a perinuclear halo; characteristic of human papillomavirus infection. [G. koilos, hollow, + kytos, cell]

koilocytosis (koy′lo-si-to′sis)
Perinuclear vacuolation. SEE ALSO: koilocyte. [G. koilos, hollow, + kytos, cell, + -osis, condition]

koilonychia (koy-lo-nik′e-a)
A malformation of the nails in which the outer surface is concave; often associated with iron deficiency or softening by occupational contact with oils. SYN: spoon nail. [G. koilos, hollow, + onyx (onych-), nail]

koilosternia (koy-lo-ster′ne-a)
SYN: pectus excavatum. [G. koilos, hollow, + sternon, chest (sternum)]

Kojewnikoff, Kozhevnikov
Aleksei Y., Russian neurologist, 1836–1902. See K. epilepsy.

kojic acid (ko′jik)
An antibiotic product of d-glucose catabolism in some molds; can be converted into flavor enhancers.

Kokoskin
Evelyn, 20th century Canadian pathologist. See K. stain.

kola (ko′la)
The dried cotyledons of Cola nitida or other species of Cola (family Sterculiaceae) which contains caffeine, theobromine, and a soluble principle, colatin; used as a cardiac and central nervous system stimulant. SYN: cola (1) .

Kölliker
Rudolph A. von, Swiss histologist, 1817–1905. See K. layer, K. reticulum.

Kollmann
Arthur, 19th century German urologist. See K. dilator.

Kolmer
John A., U.S. pathologist, 1886–1962. See K. test.

Kolopp
P., 20th century French dermatologist. See Woringer-K. disease.

kolp-
See colpo-.

kolytic (ko-lit′ik)
Denoting an inhibitory action. [G. kolyo, to hinder]

Kondoleon
Emmanuel, Greek surgeon, 1879–1939. See K. operation.

koniocortex (ko′ne-o-kor′teks)
Regions of the cerebal cortex characterized by a particularly well developed inner granular layer (layer 4); this type of cerebral cortex is represented by the primary sensory area 17 of the visual cortex, areas 1 to 3 of the somatic sensory cortex, and area 41 of the auditory cortex. SEE ALSO: cerebral cortex. [G. konis, dust, + L. cortex, bark]

konzo (kon′zo)
A cyanide-caused upper motor neuron disease manifested principally as spastic paraplegia, seen in Africa, and resulting from the consumption of improperly prepared cassava roots, which contain high concentrations of cyanogenetic glucosides. [Yaka, tired legs]

Koplik
Henry, U.S. physician, 1858–1927. See K. spots, under spot.

kopophobia (kop-o-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of fatigue. [G. kopos, fatigue, + phobos, fear]

kopro-
See copro-.

Korff
Karl von, 20th century German anatomist and histologist. See K. fibers, under fiber.

Kornberg
Arthur, U.S. biochemist and Nobel laureate, *1918. See K. enzyme.

Kornzweig
Abraham L., U.S. physician, *1900. See Bassen-K. syndrome.

koro (ko′ro)
An acute delusional state occurring in Macassars, natives of the Celebes, and other parts of the East, in which the subject experiences a sensation that his penis is shriveling or is being drawn into his abdomen. SYN: shook jong.

koronion (ko-ro′ne-on)
SYN: coronion.

Korotkoff
Nikolai S., Russian physician, 1874–1920. See K. sounds, under sound, K. test.

Korsakoff
Sergei S., Russian neurologist, 1853–1900. See K. psychosis, K. syndrome, Wernicke-K. encephalopathy, Wernicke-K. syndrome.

Koshland
Daniel E., U.S. biochemist, *1920. See Adair-K.-Némethy-Filmer model, K.-Némethy-Filmer model.

Kossa
See von K..

Koyanagi
Yosizo, Japanese ophthalmologist, 1880–1954. See Vogt-K. syndrome.

Koyter
See Coiter.

Kr
Symbol for krypton.

Krabbe
Knud H., Danish neurologist, 1885–1961. See K. disease, Christensen-K. disease.

krait (krit)
Elapid snake of the genus Bungarus, found in northern India, whose bite is associated with generalized anesthetic and paralytic effects, as opposed to local pain, discoloration, or edema; neurotoxic symptoms are similar to those induced by cobra venom. [Hindi karait]

Krantz
Kermit E., U.S. obstetrician-gynecologist, *1923. See Marshall-Marchetti-K. operation.

Kraske
Paul, German surgeon, 1851–1930. See K. operation.

kraurosis vulvae (kraw-ro′sis vul′ve)
Atrophy and shrinkage of the epithelium of the vagina and vulva, often accompanied by a chronic inflammatory reaction in the deeper tissues; an outmoded term for lichen sclerosus et atrophicus of the vulva. SYN: leukokraurosis. [G. krauros, dry, brittle]

Krause
Fedor, German surgeon, 1857–1937. See K. graft, Wolfe-K. graft.

Krause
Karl F.T., German anatomist, 1797–1868. See K. glands, under gland, K. ligament.

Krause
Wilhelm J.F., German anatomist, 1833–1910. See K. bone, K. end bulbs, under bulb, K. respiratory bundle, K. valve.

krebiozen (kre′be-oz′en)
An extract from peach kernels, the composition of which has not been fully described but which gained notoriety in the 1960's and 1970's as a dubious but exploited remedy for cancer; currently not regarded as effective. [Ger. Krebs, crab, cancer]

Krebs
Edwin G., U.S. biochemist, *1918, joint winner of the 1992 Nobel Prize for the discovery of reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism.

Krebs
Sir Hans Adolph, German biochemist in England and Nobel laureate, 1900–1981. See K. cycle, K.-Henseleit cycle, K.-Ringer solution.

Kretschmann
Friederich, German otologist, 1858–1934. See K. space.

Kreysig
Friedrich L., German physician, 1770–1839. See K. sign, Heim-K. sign.

kriging (kri′jing)
A method first used in the earth sciences to smooth data from spatially scattered point measurements, used in geographic epidemiology. [D. G. Krige, South African engineer]




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