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Medical Dictionary


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lapinized (lap′i-nizd)
Denoting viruses which have been adapted to develop in rabbits by serial transfers in this species. [Fr. lapin, rabbit]

Laplace
Ernest, U.S. surgeon, 1861–1924. See L. forceps.

Laplace
Pierre S. de, French mathematician, 1749–1827. See L. law.

Laquer
Ernst, German physiologist, *1910. See L. stain for alcoholic hyalin.

lard
SYN: adeps (2) . [L. lardum] benzoinated l. used as a lubricant, in the manufacture of soap, for oiling wool, and as an illuminant. Formerly used as an ointment base.

larkspur (lark′sper)
SYN: Delphinium ajacis.

Laron
Zvi, Israeli pediatric endocrinologist, *1927. See L. type dwarfism.

Laroyenne
Lucien, French surgeon, 1831–1902. See L. operation.

Larrey
Baron Dominique Jean de, French surgeon, 1766–1842. See L. cleft.

Larsen
Loren J., U.S. orthopedic surgeon, *1914. See L. syndrome.

Larsson
Tage Konrad Leopold, Swedish scientist, *1905. See Sjögren-L. syndrome.

larva, pl .larvae (lar′va, lar′ve)
1. The wormlike developmental stage or stages of an insect or helminth that are markedly different from the adult and undergo subsequent metamorphosis; a grub, maggot, or caterpillar. 2. The second stage in the life cycle of a tick; the stage which hatches from the egg and, following engorgement, molts into the nymph. 3. The young of fishes or amphibians which often differ in appearance from the adult. [L. a mask] filariform l. infective third-stage l. of the hookworm, Ascaris, and other nematodes with penetrating larvae or with larvae that migrate through the body to reach the intestine. rhabditiform l. early developmental larval stages (first and second) of soil-borne nematodes such as Necator, Ancylostoma, and Strongyloides, which precede the infectious third-stage filariform l..

larvaceous (lar-va′shus)
SYN: larvate.

larva currens (lar′va kur′enz)
Cutaneous larva migrans caused by rapidly moving larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis (up to 10 cm per hr), typically extending from the anal area down the upper thighs and observed as a rapidly progressing linear urticarial trail; may also be caused by zoonotic species of Strongyloides. [L. larva, mask + currens, racing]

larval (lar′val)
1. Relating to larvae. 2. SYN: larvate.

larva migrans (lar′va mi′granz)
A larval worm, typically a nematode, that wanders for a period in the host tissues but does not develop to the adult stage; this usually occurs in unusual hosts that inhibit normal development of the parasite. [L. larva, mask, + migro, to transfer, migrate] cutaneous l. a migratory serpiginous or netlike tunneling in the skin, with marked pruritus, caused by wandering hookworm larvae not adapted to intestinal maturation in humans; especially common in the eastern and southern coastal U.S. and other tropical and subtropical coastal areas; various hookworms of dogs and cats have been implicated, chiefly Ancylostoma braziliense of dog and cat feces from beaches and sandboxes in the U.S., but also Ancylostoma caninum of dogs, Uncinaria stenocephala, the European dog hookworm, and Bunostomum phlebotomum, the cattle hookworm; Strongyloides species of animal origin may also contribute to human cutaneous l.. SYN: ancylostoma dermatitis, creeping eruption, cutaneous ancylostomiasis, ground itch, water itch (1) . ocular l. visceral l. involving the eyes, primarily of older children; clinical symptoms include decreased visual acuity and strabismus. spiruroid l. extraintestinal migration by nematode larvae of the order Spiruroidea, not adapted to maturation in the human intestine; caused chiefly by species of Gnathostoma spinigerum and G. hispidum in Japan and Thailand, following ingestion of uncooked fish infected with encapsulated third-stage infective larvae, and possibly by ingestion of infected copepods (the first intermediate host) in contaminated drinking water; the anteriorly spined larvae produce serpiginous tunnels in the skin or may cause subcutaneous or pulmonary abscess, or may invade the eye or brain. visceral l. a disease, chiefly of children, caused by ingestion of infective ova of Toxocara canis, less commonly by other ascarid nematodes not adapted to humans, whose larvae hatch in the intestine, penetrate the gut wall, and wander in the viscera (chiefly the liver) for periods of up to 18–24 months; may be asymptomatic or may be marked by hepatomegaly (with granulomatous lesions caused by encapsulated larvae in the enlarged liver), pulmonary infiltration, fever, cough, hyperglobulinemia, and sustained high eosinophilia.

larvate (lar′vat)
Masked or concealed; applied to a disease with undeveloped, absent, or atypical symptoms. SYN: larvaceous, larval (2) . [L. larva, mask]

larvicidal (lar-vi-si′dal)
Destructive to larvae.

larvicide (lar′vi-sid)
An agent that kills larvae. [larva + L. caedo, to kill]

larviparous (lar-vip′a-rus)
Larvae-bearing; denoting passage of larvae, rather than eggs, from the body of the female, as in certain nematodes and insects. [larva + L. pario, to bear]

larviphagic (lar′vi-fa′jik)
Consuming larvae; certain l. fish are used in mosquito control. [larva + G. phago, to eat]

laryng-
See laryngo-.

laryngeal (la-rin′je-al)
Relating in any way to the larynx.

laryngectomee (lar-in-jek′to-me)
A person who has had a laryngectomy.

laryngectomy (lar′in-jek′to-me)
Excision of the larynx. [laryngo- + G. ektome, excision] horizontal l. SYN: partial l.. partial l. incomplete resection of the larynx in which the supraglottic portion is removed preserving the vocal cords. SYN: horizontal l., supraglottic l.. supraglottic l. SYN: partial l..

larynges (la-rin′jez)
Plural of larynx. [L.]

laryngismus (lar-in-jiz′mus)
A spasmodic narrowing or closure of the rima glottidis. [L. fr. G. larynx, + -ismos, -ism] l. stridulus a spasmodic closure of the glottis, causing noisy inspiration. Cf.:laryngitis stridulosa. SYN: pseudocroup, spasmus glottidis.

laryngitic (lar-in-jit′ik)
Relating to or caused by laryngitis.

laryngitis (lar-in-ji′tis)
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx. [laryngo- + G. -itis, inflammation] chronic posterior l. a form of l. involving principally the interarytenoid area; thought to be caused by regurgitation of gastric contents. chronic subglottic l. SYN: chorditis vocalis inferior. croupous l. inflammation of the subglottic larynx associated with respiratory infection and croupy or noisy breathing. membranous l. a form in which there is a pseudomembranous exudate on the vocal cords. l. sicca l. characterized by dryness and crusting of the mucous membrane of the larynx. spasmodic l. SYN: l. stridulosa. l. stridulosa infectious inflammation of the larynx in children, accompanied by night attacks of spasmodic closure of the glottis, causing inspiratory stridor. SYN: spasmodic l..

laryngo-, laryng-
The larynx. [G. larynx]

laryngocele (la-ring′go-sel)
An air sac communicating with the larynx through the ventricle, often bulging outward into the tissue of the neck, especially during coughing and playing of wind instruments. [laryngo- + G. kele, hernia]

laryngofissure (la-ring′go-fish′er)
Operative opening into the larynx, generally through the midline, commonly done for the excision of early carcinoma or the correction of laryngostenosis. SYN: median laryngotomy, thyrofissure, thyroidotomy, thyrotomy (2) .

laryngograph (la-ring′go-graf)
An instrument for making a tracing of the movements of the vocal folds. [laryngo- + G. grapho, to write]

laryngography (la-rin-gog′-ra-fe)
Radiography of the larynx after coating mucosal surfaces with contrast material.

laryngology (lar′ing-gol′o-je)
The branch of medical science concerned with the larynx and the voice; the specialty of diseases of the larynx. [laryngo- + G. logos, study]

laryngomalacia (la-ring′go-ma-la′she-a)
SYN: chondromalacia of larynx. [laryngo- + G. malakia, a softness]

laryngoparalysis (la-ring′go-pa-ral′i-sis)
Paralysis of the laryngeal muscles. SYN: laryngoplegia.

laryngopharyngeal (la-ring′go-fa-rin′je-al)
Relating to both larynx and pharynx or to the laryngopharynx.

laryngopharyngectomy (la-ring′go-far′in-jek′to-me)
Resection or excision of both larynx and pharynx.

laryngopharyngeus (la-ring′go-far′in-je′us)
SYN: inferior constrictor (muscle) of pharynx. [L.]

laryngopharyngitis (la-ring′go-far-in-ji′tis)
Inflammation of the larynx and pharynx.

laryngopharynx (la-ring′go-far-ingks) [TA]
The part of the pharynx lying below the aperture of the larynx and behind the larynx; it extends from the vestibule of the larynx to the esophagus at the level of the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage. SYN: pars laryngea pharyngis [TA] , hypopharynx&star, laryngeal part of pharynx, laryngeal pharynx.

laryngophthisis (la-ring′go-thi′sis)
Tuberculosis of the larynx. [laryngo- + G. phthisis, a wasting]

laryngoplasty (la-ring′go-plas-te)
Reparative or plastic surgery of the larynx. [laryngo- + G. plasso, to form]

laryngoplegia (la-ring′go-ple′je-a)
SYN: laryngoparalysis. [laryngo- + G. plege, stroke]

laryngoptosis (la-ring-go-to′sis)
An abnormally low position of the larynx, which may be congenital or acquired; does not impair the health of the neonate. Some degree of l. occurs with aging. [laryngo- + G. ptosis, a falling]

laryngoscope (la-ring′go-skop)
Any of several types of tubes, equipped with electrical lighting, used in examining or operating upon the interior of the larynx through the mouth. [laryngo- + G. skopeo, to inspect]

laryngoscopic (la-ring′go-skop′ik)
Relating to laryngoscopy.

laryngoscopist (lar′ing-gos′ko-pist)
A person skilled in the use of the laryngoscope.

laryngoscopy (lar′ing-gos′ko-pe)
Inspection of the larynx by means of the laryngoscope. direct l. inspection of the larynx by means of either a hollow instrument or a fiberoptic cable. indirect l. inspection of the larynx by means of a reflected image on a mirror. suspension l. support of the laryngoscope by leverage from a supportive structure to provide maximum exposure of the pharyngeal cavity and larynx. transnasal fiberoptic l. l. performed with a fiberoptic endoscope introduced through the nose.

laryngospasm (la-ring′go-spazm)
Spasmodic closure of the glottic aperture. SYN: glottidospasm, laryngospastic reflex.

laryngostenosis (la-ring′go-ste-no′sis)
Stricture or narrowing of the lumen of the larynx. [laryngo- + G. stenosis, a narrowing]

laryngostomy (lar′ing-gos′to-me)
The establishment of a permanent opening from the neck into the larynx. [laryngo- + G. stoma, mouth]

laryngostroboscope (la-ring′go-stro′bo-skop, -strob′o-skop)
Apparatus for observing the motion of the vocal folds during phonation with intermittent illumination. As the frequency of illumination approaches the frequency of opening and closing of the vocal cords, they appear to be still.

laryngotomy (lar-ing-got′o-me)
A surgical incision of the larynx. [laryngo- + G. tome, incision] inferior l. SYN: cricothyrotomy. median l. SYN: laryngofissure. superior l. incision through the thyrohyoid membrane.

laryngotracheal (la-ring′go-tra′ke-al)
Relating to both larynx and trachea.

laryngotracheitis (la-ring′go-tra-ke-i′tis)
Inflammation of both larynx and trachea.

laryngotracheobronchitis (la-ring′go-tra′ke-o-brong-ki′tis)
An acute respiratory infection involving the larynx, trachea, and bronchi. See croup.

laryngotracheoplasty (lar-ing′go-tra′ke-o-plas′te)
Operation to repair subglottic stenosis.

larynx, pl .larynges (lar′ingks, la-rin′jez)
The organ of voice production; the part of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and the trachea; it consists of a framework of cartilages and elastic membranes housing the vocal folds and the muscles which control the position and tension of these elements. [Mod. L. fr. G.] Cooper-Rand artificial l. an electronic device for vocal rehabilitation after laryngectomy that produces an intraoral sound articulated into speech with the pharynx, palate, tongue, lips, and teeth.

lase (laz)
To cut, divide, or dissolve a substance, or to treat an anatomical structure, with a laser beam.

Lasègue
Ernest C., French physician, 1816–1883. See L. sign, L. syndrome.

laser (la′zer)
1. (noun) A device that concentrates high energies into an intense narrow beam of nondivergent monochromatic electromagnetic radiation; used in microsurgery, cauterization, and for a variety of diagnostic purposes. Lasers can be based on numerous chemical sources, gas, liquid, and solid, some of which are listed in chart. Lasers are widely used in printers of text or x-ray images. 2. (verb) To treat a structure with a l. beam. [acronym coined from light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation] argon l. l. used for ophthalmic procedures, including retinal photocoagulation and trabeculoplasty, consisting of photons in the blue (488 nm) or green (514 nm) spectrum. continuous wave l. a l. in which energy output is constant. excimer l. l. used particularly for refractive procedures, consisting of photons in the ultraviolet spectrum emitted by unstable dimers of argon and fluoride. [excited dimer] krypton l. l. used for ophthalmic procedures, particularly retinal photocoagulation in the presence of vitreous hemorrhage, consisting of photons in the red (647 nm) spectrum. KTP l. l. in the blue-green to green (532 nm) spectrum, used for hemostasis; produced by doubling the frequency of an Nd:YAG l. by passing the beam through a KTP crystal. [K (potassium) Titanyl Phosphate] Nd:YAG l. l. in the infrared spectrum (1064 nm), with a greater depth of penetration than other lasers. [Nd (neodymium) + Yttrium-A luminum-Garnet] pulsed l. a l. in which energy output is pulsed, allowing short bursts of high energy. pulsed dye l. extremely short bursts of focused yellow light absorbed by hemoglobin, used to treat hemangiomas without anesthesia in young children. pumped l. a l. whose energy level is increased by the application of separate sources of electrons or photons, which may themselves be primary lasers. Q-switched l. (quality-switched); a l. in which the quality, or energy storage capacity is altered between a very high and a low value. quasi-continuous wave l. a l. whose output can be controlled in milliseconds or similarly small increments by electronic control.

lasering (la′zer-ing)
The use of a laser beam to cut, divide, or dissolve a substance, or to treat an anatomical structure.

laser plume
The production of smoke with laser ablation; can cause respiratory difficulty for operative personnel. [L. pluma, feather]

Lash
Abraham Fae, U.S. obstetrician-gynecologist, *1898. See L. operation.

lash
An eyelash.

LASIK
Acronym for laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis.

Lasiohelea (las′e-o-he′le-a)
A genus of small bloodsucking gnats.

lassitude (las′i-tood)
A sense of weariness. [L. lassitudo, fr. lassus, weary]




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