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ligamentum, pl .ligamenta (lig′a-men′tum, -men′ta) [TA]
SYN: ligament. [L. a band, tie, fr. ligo, to bind] l. acromioclaviculare [TA] SYN: acromioclavicular ligament. l. anococcygeum SYN: anococcygeal ligament. l. anulare [TA] SYN: anular ligament. l. anulare bulbi SYN: trabecular tissue of sclera. l. anulare digitorum SYN: anular part of fibrous digital sheath of digits of hand and foot. l. anulare radii [TA] SYN: anular ligament of radius. l. anulare stapedis [TA] SYN: anular ligament of stapes. ligamenta anularia trachealia [TA] SYN: anular ligaments of trachea, under ligament. l. apicis dentis SYN: apical ligament of dens. l. arcuatum laterale [TA] SYN: lateral arcuate ligament. l. arcuatum mediale [TA] SYN: medial arcuate ligament. l. arcuatum medianum [TA] SYN: median arcuate ligament. l. arcuatum pubis SYN: inferior pubic ligament. l. arteriosum [TA] fibrous remnant of the ductus arteriosus extending between the aortic arch and the pulmonary trunk. SYN: arterial ligament, Botallo ligament. ligamenta auricularia [TA] SYN: ligaments of auricle, under ligament. l. bifurcatum [TA] SYN: bifurcate ligament. l. calcaneocuboideum [TA] SYN: calcaneocuboid ligament. l. calcaneocuboideum plantare [TA] SYN: plantar calcaneocuboid ligament. l. calcaneofibulare [TA] SYN: calcaneofibular ligament. l. calcaneonaviculare [TA] SYN: calcaneonavicular ligament. l. calcaneonaviculare plantare [TA] SYN: plantar calcaneonavicular ligament. l. calcaneotibiale SYN: tibiocalcaneal part of medial ligament of ankle joint. SEE ALSO: medial ligament of ankle joint. l. capitis costae intraarticulare SYN: intraarticular ligament of head of rib. l. capitis costae radiatum [TA] SYN: radiate ligament of head of rib. l. capitis femoris [TA] SYN: ligament of head of femur. l. capitis fibulae anterius [TA] SYN: anterior ligament of fibular head. l. capitis fibulae posterius [TA] SYN: posterior ligament of fibular head. ligamenta capitulorum transversa deep transverse metacarpal ligament, deep transverse metatarsal ligament. l. capsulare [TA] SYN: capsular ligament. l. cardinale [TA] SYN: cardinal ligament. l. carpi dorsale SYN: extensor retinaculum. l. carpi radiatum [TA] SYN: radiate carpal ligament. l. carpi transversum SYN: flexor retinaculum. l. carpi volare SYN: flexor retinaculum. ligamenta carpometacarpalia dorsalia [TA] SYN: dorsal carpometacarpal ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta carpometacarpalia (dorsalia/palmaria) [TA] SYN: carpometacarpal ligaments (dorsal and palmar), under ligament. ligamenta carpometacarpalia palmaria [TA] SYN: palmar carpometacarpal ligaments, under ligament. l. caudale SYN: retinaculum caudale. l. ceratocricoideum [TA] SYN: ceratocricoid ligament. l. collaterale, pl .ligamenta collateralia [TA] SYN: collateral ligament. l. collaterale carpi radiale articulationis radiocarpalis [TA] SYN: radial collateral ligament of wrist joint. l. collaterale carpi ulnare [TA] l. collaterale carpi ulnare articulationis radiocarpalis SYN: ulnar collateral ligament of wrist joint. l. collaterale fibulare [TA] SYN: fibular collateral ligament. l. collaterale laterale [TA] SYN: lateral ligament of ankle. l. collaterale mediale [TA] SYN: medial ligament of ankle joint. l. collaterale radiale articulationis cubiti [TA] SYN: radial collateral ligament of elbow joint. l. collaterale tibiale [TA] SYN: tibial collateral ligament. l. collaterale ulnare articulationis cubiti [TA] SYN: ulnar collateral ligament of elbow joint. l. colli costae SYN: costotransverse ligament. l. conoideum [TA] SYN: conoid ligament. l. coracoacromiale [TA] SYN: coracoacromial ligament. l. coracoclaviculare [TA] SYN: coracoclavicular ligament. l. coracohumerale [TA] SYN: coracohumeral ligament. l. corniculopharyngeum SYN: cricopharyngeal ligament. l. coronarium hepatis [TA] SYN: coronary ligament of liver. l. costoclaviculare [TA] SYN: costoclavicular ligament. l. costotransversarium [TA] SYN: costotransverse ligament. l. costotransversarium anterius SYN: superior costotransverse ligament. l. costotransversarium laterale [TA] SYN: lateral costotransverse ligament. l. costotransversarium posterius SYN: lateral costotransverse ligament. l. costotransversarium superius [TA] SYN: superior costotransverse ligament. l. costoxiphoideum [TA] SYN: costoxiphoid ligament. l. cotyloideum SYN: acetabular labrum. l. cricoarytenoideum posterius SYN: cricoarytenoid ligament. l. cricopharyngeum [TA] SYN: cricopharyngeal ligament. l. cricotracheale [TA] SYN: cricotracheal ligament. ligamenta cruciata digitorum SYN: cruciform part of fibrous digital sheath. ligamenta cruciata genus SYN: cruciate ligaments of knee, under ligament. l. cruciatum anterius SYN: anterior cruciate ligament. l. cruciatum atlantis SYN: cruciate ligament of the atlas. l. cruciatum cruris SYN: inferior extensor retinaculum. l. cruciatum posterius [TA] SYN: posterior cruciate ligament. l. cruciatum tertium genus SYN: posterior meniscofemoral ligament. l. cruciforme atlantis [TA] SYN: cruciate ligament of the atlas. ligamenta cuboideonaviculare [TA] SYN: cuboideonavicular ligaments, under ligament. l. cuboideonaviculare dorsale [TA] SYN: dorsal cuboideonavicular ligament. ligamenta cuboideonavicularia plantaria [TA] SYN: plantar cuboideonavicular ligaments, under ligament. l. cuneocuboideum [TA] SYN: cuneocuboid ligaments, under ligament. l. cuneocuboideum dorsale [TA] SYN: dorsal cuneocuboid ligament. l. cuneocuboideum interosseum SYN: cuneocuboid interosseous ligament. l. cuneocuboideum plantare [TA] SYN: plantar cuneocuboid ligament. ligamenta cuneometatarsalia interossea [TA] SYN: cuneometatarsal interosseous ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta cuneonavicularia dorsalia [TA] SYN: dorsal cuneonavicular ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta cuneonavicularia plantaria [TA] SYN: plantar cuneonavicular ligaments, under ligament. l. deltoideum medial ligament of ankle joint. l. denticulatum [TA] SYN: denticulate ligament. l. ductus venosi SYN: l. venosum. l. duodenorenale SYN: duodenorenal ligament. ligamenta epididymidis (inferius et superius) [TA] SYN: ligaments of epididymis (inferior and superior), under ligament. l. epididymidis inferius [TA] SYN: inferior ligament of epididymis. l. epididymidis superius [TA] SYN: superior ligament of epididymis. ligamenta extracapsularia [TA] SYN: extracapsular ligaments, under ligament. l. falciforme SYN: falciform process of sacrotuberous ligament. l. falciforme hepatis [TA] SYN: falciform ligament of liver. ligamenta flava [TA] paired ligaments of yellow elastic fibrous tissue, which bind together the laminae of adjoining vertebrae, forming the dorsal wall of the vertebral canal between the vertebra or laminae; penetration of the l. flavum with a trocar during epidural or spinal puncture produces a distinct feel (“pop”), letting the practitioner know that the tip of the trocar has entered the epidural space. SYN: yellow ligament. l. fundiforme clitoridis [TA] SYN: fundiform ligament of clitoris. l. fundiforme penis [TA] SYN: fundiform ligament of penis. l. gastrocolicum [TA] SYN: gastrocolic ligament. l. gastrolienale gastrosplenic ligament. l. gastrophrenicum [TA] SYN: gastrophrenic ligament. l. gastrosplenicum [TA] SYN: gastrosplenic ligament. l. genitoinguinale SYN: genitoinguinal ligament. ligamenta glenohumeralia [TA] SYN: glenohumeral ligaments, under ligament. l. glenoidale SYN: glenoid labrum of scapula. l. hepatocolicum [TA] SYN: hepatocolic ligament. l. hepatoduodenale [TA] SYN: hepatoduodenal ligament. l. hepatoesophageum [TA] SYN: hepatoesophageal ligament. l. hepatogastricum [TA] SYN: hepatogastric ligament. l. hepatorenale [TA] SYN: hepatorenal ligament. l. hyaloideo-capsulare SYN: hyalocapsular ligament. l. hyoepiglotticum [TA] SYN: hyoepiglottic ligament. l. hyothyroideum laterale SYN: lateral thyrohyoid ligament. l. hyothyroideum medium SYN: median thyrohyoid ligament. l. iliofemorale [TA] SYN: iliofemoral ligament. l. iliolumbale [TA] SYN: iliolumbar ligament. l. iliopectineale SYN: iliopectineal arch. l. incudis posterius [TA] SYN: posterior ligament of incus. l. incudis superius [TA] SYN: superior ligament of incus. l. inguinale [TA] SYN: inguinal ligament. ligamenta intercarpalia [TA] SYN: intercarpal ligaments, under ligament. l. intercarpalia dorsalia dorsal intercarpal ligament. See intercarpal ligaments, under ligament. l. intercarpalia interossea interosseous intercarpal ligament. See intercarpal ligaments, under ligament. l. intercarpalia palmaria palmar intercarpal ligament. See intercarpal ligaments, under ligament. l. interclaviculare [TA] SYN: interclavicular ligament. ligamenta intercostalia SYN: intercostal membranes, under membrane. ligamenta intercuneiformia [TA] SYN: intercuneiform ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta intercuneiformia dorsalia dorsal intercuneiform ligament. See intercuneiform ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta intercuneiformia interossea interosseous intercuneiform ligaments. See intercuneiform ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta intercuneiformia plantaria plantar intercuneiform ligaments. See intercuneiform ligaments, under ligament. l. interfoveolare [TA] SYN: interfoveolar ligament. l. interspinale [TA] SYN: interspinous ligament. l. intertransversarium [TA] SYN: intertransverse ligament. ligamenta intracapsularia [TA] SYN: intracapsular ligaments, under ligament. l. ischiocapsulare SYN: ischiofemoral ligament. l. ischiofemorale [TA] SYN: ischiofemoral ligament. l. jugale SYN: cricopharyngeal ligament. l. laciniatum SYN: flexor retinaculum of lower limb. l. lacunare [TA] SYN: lacunar ligament. l. laterale articulationis temporomandibularis [TA] SYN: lateral ligament of temporomandibular joint. l. laterale vesicae [TA] SYN: lateral ligament of bladder. l. latum pulmonis SYN: pulmonary ligament. l. latum uteri [TA] SYN: broad ligament of the uterus. l. lienorenale splenorenal ligament. l. longitudinale anterius [TA] SYN: anterior longitudinal ligament. l. longitudinale posterius [TA] SYN: posterior longitudinal ligament. ligamenta longitudinalia SYN: longitudinal ligaments, under ligament. l. lumbocostale [TA] SYN: lumbocostal ligament. l. mallei anterius [TA] SYN: anterior ligament of malleus. l. mallei laterale [TA] SYN: lateral ligament of malleus. l. mallei superius [TA] SYN: superior ligament of malleus. l. malleoli lateralis anterior tibiofibular ligament, posterior tibiofibular ligament. l. mediale SYN: anterior tibiotalar part of medial ligament of ankle joint. l. mediale articulationis talocruralis SYN: medial ligament of ankle joint. l. mediale articulationis temporomandibularis [TA] SYN: medial ligament of temporomandibular joint. l. mediale puboprostaticum pubovesical ligament (of male). l. menisci lateralis SYN: posterior meniscofemoral ligament. ligamenta meniscofemoralia [TA] SYN: meniscofemoral ligaments, under ligament. l. meniscofemorale anterius [TA] SYN: anterior meniscofemoral ligament. l. meniscofemorale posterius [TA] SYN: posterior meniscofemoral ligament. l. metacarpale transversum profundum [TA] SYN: deep transverse metacarpal ligament. l. metacarpale transversum superficiale [TA] SYN: superficial transverse metacarpal ligament. ligamenta metacarpalia dorsalia [TA] SYN: dorsal metacarpal ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta metacarpalia interossea [TA] SYN: interosseous metacarpal ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta metacarpalia palmaria [TA] SYN: palmar metacarpal ligaments, under ligament. l. metatarsale transversum profundum [TA] SYN: deep transverse metatarsal ligament. l. metatarsale transversum superficiale [TA] SYN: superficial transverse metatarsal ligament. ligamenta metatarsalia dorsalia [TA] SYN: dorsal metatarsal ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta metatarsalia interossea [TA] SYN: metatarsal interosseous ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta metatarsalia plantaria [TA] SYN: plantar metatarsal ligaments, under ligament. l. natatorium SYN: superficial transverse metacarpal ligament. ligamenta navicularicuneiformia dorsal cuneonavicular ligaments, under ligament, plantar cuneonavicular ligaments, under ligament. l. nuchae [TA] a sagittal ligamentous band at the back of the neck, formed of thickened supraspinous ligaments; it extends from the external occipital protuberance to the posterior border of the foramen magnum cranially and to the seventh cervical spinous process caudally. SYN: nuchal ligament&star, apparatus ligamentosus colli. l. orbiculare radii SYN: anular ligament of radius. ligamenta ossiculorum auditorium ligaments of auditory ossicles, under ligament. ligamenta ossiculorum auditus [TA] SYN: ligaments of auditory ossicles, under ligament. l. ovarii proprium [TA] SYN: ligament of ovary. ligamenta palmaria [TA] SYN: palmar ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta palmaria articulationis interphalangeae manus [TA] SYN: palmar ligaments of interphalangeal joints of hand, under ligament. ligamenta palmaria articulationis metacarpophalangeae [TA] SYN: palmar ligaments of metacarpophalangeal joints, under ligament. l. palpebrale externum SYN: lateral palpebral ligament. l. palpebrale laterale [TA] SYN: lateral palpebral ligament. l. palpebrale mediale [TA] SYN: medial palpebral ligament. l. patellae [TA] SYN: patellar ligament. l. pectinatum pectinate ligaments of iridocorneal angle. See trabecular tissue of sclera. l. pectinatum anguli iridocornealis pectinate ligaments of iridocorneal angle. See trabecular tissue of sclera. l. pectinatum iridis pectinate ligaments of iridocorneal angle. See trabecular tissue of sclera. l. pectineale [TA] SYN: pectineal ligament. l. phrenicocolicum [TA] SYN: phrenicocolic ligament. l. phrenicolienale SYN: phrenicosplenic ligament. l. phrenicosplenicum [TA] SYN: phrenicosplenic ligament. l. pisohamatum [TA] SYN: pisohamate ligament. l. pisometacarpeum [TA] SYN: pisometacarpal ligament. l. plantare longum [TA] SYN: long plantar ligament. ligamenta plantaria [TA] SYN: plantar ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta plantaria articulationis interphalangeae pedis [TA] SYN: plantar ligaments of interphalangeal joints of foot, under ligament. ligamenta plantaria articulationis metatarsophalangeae [TA] SYN: plantar ligaments of metatarsophalangeal joints, under ligament. l. popliteum arcuatum [TA] SYN: arcuate popliteal ligament. l. popliteum obliquum [TA] SYN: oblique popliteal ligament. l. pterygospinale [TA] SYN: pterygospinous ligament. l. pubicum inferius [TA] SYN: inferior pubic ligament. l. pubicum superius [TA] SYN: superior pubic ligament. l. pubocapsulare SYN: pubofemoral ligament. l. pubofemorale [TA] SYN: pubofemoral ligament. l. puboprostaticum [TA] SYN: puboprostatic ligament. l. puboprostaticum laterale See puboprostatic ligament. l. puboprostaticum mediale See puboprostatic ligament. l. pubovesicale (femininum) [TA] SYN: pubovesical ligament (of female). l. pubovesicale (masculinum) [TA] SYN: pubovesical ligament (of male). l. pulmonale [TA] SYN: pulmonary ligament. l. quadratum [TA] SYN: quadrate ligament. l. radiatum SYN: radiate ligament of head of rib. l. radiocarpale dorsale [TA] SYN: dorsal radiocarpal ligament. l. radiocarpale palmare [TA] SYN: palmar radiocarpal ligament. l. reflexum [TA] SYN: reflected inguinal ligament. l. sacrococcygeum anterius [TA] SYN: anterior sacrococcygeal ligament. l. sacrococcygeum dorsale superficiale superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament. l. sacrococcygeum laterale [TA] SYN: lateral sacrococcygeal ligament. l. sacrococcygeum posterius profundum SYN: deep posterior sacrococcygeal ligament. l. sacrococcygeum posterius superficiale [TA] SYN: superficial posterior sacrococcygeal ligament. l. sacrodurale SYN: sacrodural ligament. ligamenta sacroiliaca anteriora [TA] SYN: anterior sacroiliac ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta sacroiliaca interossea [TA] SYN: interosseous sacroiliac ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta sacroiliaca posteriora [TA] SYN: posterior sacroiliac ligaments, under ligament. l. sacroiliacum posterius SYN: posterior sacroiliac ligaments, under ligament. l. sacrospinale [TA] SYN: sacrospinous ligament. l. sacrospinosum SYN: sacrospinous ligament. l. sacrotuberale [TA] SYN: sacrotuberous ligament. l. sacrotuberosum SYN: sacrotuberous ligament. l. serosum SYN: serous ligament. l. sphenomandibulare [TA] SYN: sphenomandibular ligament. l. spirale cochleae SYN: spiral ligament of cochlear duct, spiral ligament of cochlear duct. l. spirale ductus cochlearis [TA] SYN: spiral ligament of cochlear duct. l. splenorenale [TA] SYN: splenorenal ligament. ligamenta sternoclavicularia SYN: sternoclavicular ligaments, under ligament. l. sternoclaviculare anterius [TA] SYN: anterior sternoclavicular ligament. l. sternoclaviculare posterius [TA] SYN: posterior sternoclavicular ligament. l. sternocostale intraarticulare [TA] SYN: intraarticular sternocostal ligament. ligamenta sternocostalia radiata [TA] SYN: radiate sternocostal ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta sternopericardiaca [TA] SYN: sternopericardial ligaments, under ligament. l. stylohyoideum [TA] SYN: stylohyoid ligament. l. stylomandibulare [TA] SYN: stylomandibular ligament. l. supraspinale [TA] SYN: supraspinous ligament. ligamenta suspensoria mammaria SYN: suspensory ligaments of breast, under ligament. l. suspensorium axillae [TA] SYN: suspensory ligament of axilla. l. suspensorium bulbi [TA] SYN: suspensory ligament of eyeball. l. suspensorium clitoridis [TA] SYN: suspensory ligament of clitoris. l. suspensorium duodeni suspensory muscle of duodenum. l. suspensorium glandulae thyroideae [TA] SYN: suspensory ligament of thyroid gland. l. suspensorium ovarii [TA] SYN: suspensory ligament of ovary. l. suspensorium penis [TA] SYN: suspensory ligament of penis. l. talocalcaneum [TA] SYN: talocalcaneal ligament. l. talocalcaneare interosseum SYN: talocalcaneal interosseous ligament. l. talocalcaneum laterale [TA] SYN: lateral talocalcaneal ligament. l. talocalcaneum mediale [TA] SYN: medial talocalcaneal ligament. l. talocalcaneum posterius [TA] SYN: posterior talocalcaneal ligament. l. talofibulare anterius [TA] SYN: anterior talofibular ligament. l. talofibulare posterius [TA] SYN: posterior talofibular ligament. l. talonaviculare [TA] SYN: talonavicular ligament. l. talotibiale anterius SYN: anterior tibiotalar part of medial ligament of ankle joint. SEE ALSO: medial ligament of ankle joint. l. talotibiale posterius SYN: tibiotalar part of medial ligament of ankle joint. SEE ALSO: medial ligament of ankle joint. l. tarsale externum SYN: lateral palpebral ligament. l. tarsale internum SYN: medial palpebral ligament. ligamenta tarsi [TA] SYN: tarsal ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta tarsi dorsalia [TA] SYN: dorsal tarsal ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta tarsi interossea [TA] SYN: tarsal interosseous ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta tarsi plantaria [TA] SYN: plantar tarsal ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta tarsometatarsalia [TA] SYN: tarsometatarsal ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta tarsometatarsalia dorsalia [TA] SYN: dorsal tarsometatarsal ligaments, under ligament. ligamenta tarsometatarsalia plantaria [TA] SYN: plantar tarsometatarsal ligaments, under ligament. l. temporomandibulare SYN: lateral ligament of temporomandibular joint. l. teres femoris SYN: ligament of head of femur. l. teres hepatis [TA] SYN: round ligament of liver. l. teres uteri [TA] SYN: round ligament of uterus. l. testis the caudal portion of the embryonic urogenital ridge; the upper third of the gubernaculum testis. l. thyroepiglotticum [TA] SYN: thyroepiglottic ligament. l. thyrohyoideum laterale [TA] SYN: lateral thyrohyoid ligament. l. thyrohyoideum medianum [TA] SYN: median thyrohyoid ligament. l. tibiofibulare anterius [TA] SYN: anterior tibiofibular ligament. l. tibiofibulare medium SYN: interosseous membrane of leg. l. tibiofibulare posterius [TA] SYN: posterior tibiofibular ligament. l. tibionaviculare SYN: tibionavicular part of medial ligament of ankle joint. ligamenta trachealia SYN: anular ligaments of trachea, under ligament. l. transversale cervicis SYN: cardinal ligament. l. transversum acetabuli [TA] SYN: transverse acetabular ligament. l. transversum atlantis [TA] SYN: transverse ligament of the atlas. l. transversum cruris SYN: superior extensor retinaculum. l. transversum genus [TA] SYN: transverse ligament of knee. l. transversum humeri [TA] SYN: transverse humeral ligament. l. transversum pelvis SYN: transverse perineal ligament. l. transversum perinei [TA] SYN: transverse perineal ligament. l. transversum scapulae inferius [TA] SYN: inferior transverse scapular ligament. l. transversum scapulae superius [TA] SYN: superior transverse scapular ligament. l. trapezoideum [TA] SYN: trapezoid ligament. l. triangulare SYN: perineal membrane. l. triangulare dextrum hepatis [TA] SYN: right triangular ligament of liver. l. triangulare sinistrum hepatis [TA] SYN: left triangular ligament of liver. l. tuberculi costae SYN: lateral costotransverse ligament. l. ulnocarpale palmare [TA] SYN: palmar ulnocarpal ligament. l. umbilicale laterale an old name for l. umbilicale mediale. SYN: lateral umbilical ligament. l. umbilicale mediale SYN: cord of umbilical artery. l. umbilicale medianum [TA] SYN: median umbilical ligament. l. uteroovaricum ligament of ovary. l. venae cavae sinistrae [TA] SYN: ligament of left vena cava. l. venosum [TA] a thin fibrous cord, lying in the fissure of the l. venosum, the remains of the ductus venosus of the fetus. SYN: Arantius ligament, l. ductus venosi, venous ligament. l. ventriculare SYN: vestibular ligament. l. vestibulare [TA] SYN: vestibular ligament. l. vocale [TA] SYN: vocal ligament.

ligand (lig′and, li′gand)
1. Any individual atom, group, or molecule attached to a central metal ion by multiple coordinate bonds; e.g., the porphyrin portion of heme, the corrin nucleus of the B12 vitamins. 2. An organic molecule attached to a tracer element, e.g., a radioisotope. 3. A molecule that binds to a macromolecule, e.g., a l. binding to a receptor. 4. The analyte in competitive binding assays, such as radioimmunoassay. 5. An atom or group covalently attached to a specified carbon atom in an organic molecule. [L. ligo, to bind] addressin ligands ligands on cells for specific homing receptors on lymphocytes. Fas l. a molecule on the surface of cytotoxic T cells that binds to its receptor, Fas, on the surface of other cells, initiating apoptosis in the target cell.

ligandin (li-gan′din)
SYN: glutathione S-transferase.

ligase (li′gas)
Generic term for enzymes (EC class 6) catalyzing the joining of two molecules coupled with the breakdown of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar compound. SEE ALSO: synthetase.

ligate (li′gat)
To apply a ligature. [L. ligo, pp. -atus, to bind]

ligation (li-ga′shun)
1. Application of a ligature. 2. The act of binding or annealing. [L. ligatio, fr. ligo, to bind] blunt-end l. a reaction that joins two DNA duplexes directly at their blunt ends. enzyme-catalyzed l. an enzyme-mediated joining of phosphodiester linkage of two stretches of DNA or RNA, or of peptide linkage of two polypeptides. pole l. a l. at the root of an organ to shut off or diminish blood supply. surgical l. in dentistry, the surgical exposure of an unerupted tooth so that a metal ligature can be placed around its cervix and fastened to an orthodontic appliance to facilitate eruption. tooth l. the binding together of teeth with wire for stabilization and immobilization following traumatic injury or orthognathic surgery, or during periodontal therapy. tubal l. interruption of the continuity of the oviducts by cutting, cautery, or by a plastic or metal device to prevent future conception.

ligator (li′ga-ter, -tor)
An instrument used in the ligation of vessels in deep and nearly inaccessible parts.

ligature (lig′a-choor)
1. A thread, wire, fillet, or the like, tied tightly around a blood vessel, the pedicle of a tumor, or other structure to constrict it. 2. In orthodontics, a wire or other material used to secure an orthodontic attachment or tooth to an archwire. [L. ligatura, a band or tie, fr. ligo, to tie] elastic l. 1. a rubber l. that slowly constricts; 2. in orthodontics, a stretchable threadlike material that may be tied from a tooth to an archwire or from tooth to tooth to gain movement of these units. intravascular l. balloon occlusion of the feeding vessels of a cerebral arteriovenous malformation. nonabsorbable l. a permanent l. of inert material, such as silk, wire, or synthetic fiber, that does not undergo dissolution in human tissues. occluding l. a l. to shut off completely the distal blood supply. provisional l. a l. applied to an artery in continuity at the beginning of an operation to prevent hemorrhage, but removed when the operation is completed. soluble l. a temporary l. of material that can be absorbed by human tissues. Stannius l. a l. placed either around the junction between the sinus venosus and atrium of the frog or turtle heart (first Stannius l.) or around the atrioventricular junction (second Stannius l.); demonstrates that the cardiac impulse is conducted from sinus venosus to atria to ventricle, but that successive chambers possess automaticity since each may continue to beat, but the atria now have a slower rate than the sinus venosus, and the ventricle either does not contract or beats at a slower rate than the atria. suboccluding l. a l. to diminish blood supply and encourage collateral circulation. suture l. a l. applied by passing a needle with attached thread through or around a structure to more firmly secure the l..

light (lit)
That portion of electromagnetic radiation (between 390 and 770 nm) to which the retina is sensitive (wavelength range of 380–780 nm). SEE ALSO: lamp. [A.S. leoht] cold l. 1. SYN: bioluminescence (1) . 2. fluorescent l. as opposed to incandescent l.. infrared l. infrared. invisible l. historic term for x-rays. minimum l. visual threshold. polarized l. l. in which, as a result of reflection or transmission through certain media, the vibrations are all in one plane, transverse to the ray, instead of in all planes. reflected l. l. directed backward from a mirror. refracted l. bent rays of l. changed in passage from one transparent medium to another of unequal density. SEE ALSO: refraction. transmitted l. l. passed through a transparent medium. Wood l. ultraviolet l. produced by Wood lamp.

lightening (lit′en-ing)
Sensation of decreased abdominal distention during the later weeks of pregnancy following the descent of the fetal head into the pelvic inlet.

light green SF yellowish [C.I. 42095]
An acid arylmethane dye, used as a cytoplasmic stain in plant and animal histology; fades badly in bright light.

ligneous (lig′ne-us)
Woody; having a woody feeling. [L. ligneus, wooden, fr. lignum, wood]

lignin (lig′nin)
A random polymer of coniferyl alcohol accompanying cellulose and present in vegetable fiber and wood cells; a source of vanillin (by oxidation of l.); l. composition varies with plant species. It is one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature. [L. lignum, wood]

lignoceric acid (lig-no-sar′ik, -ser′ik)
An acid present in one type of sphingolipid and in small amounts in triacylglycerols. SYN: n-tetracosanoic acid.

likelihood
A statement of the chance that an unknown quantity in reality has a particular value based on the readiness with which it would account for a given set of data; in this way the merits of various competing interpretations may be compared.

Likert
Rensis, U.S. social psychologist, *1903. See L. scale.

Lillie
Ralph D., U.S. pathologist, 1896–1979. See Glenner-L. stain for pituitary. See entries under stain.

Lilly
John C., U.S. physiologist, *1915. See Silverman-L. pneumotachograph.

limb (lim) [TA]
1. An extremity; a member; an arm or leg. SYN: member. 2. A segment of any jointed structure. SEE ALSO: leg, crus. [A.S. lim] ampullary membranous limbs of semicircular ducts [TA] the dilated ends of the three semicircular ducts, each of which contains a specialized thickening of the epithelium known as the ampullary crest. SYN: crura membranacea ampullaria ductuum semicircularium [TA] , ampullary crura of semicircular ducts. anacrotic l. the ascending l. of an arterial pulse tracing. anterior l. of internal capsule [TA] the portion of the internal capsule between the head of the caudate nucleus and the putamen; it lies anterior to the genu of the internal capsule. SYN: crus anterius capsulae internae [TA] . anterior l. of stapes [TA] the anterior of the two delicate curving limbs of the stapes that pass from the head of the bone to the base or footplate. SYN: crus anterius stapedis [TA] , anterior crus of stapes. limbs of bony semicircular canals SYN: bony limbs of semicircular canals. bony limbs of semicircular canals [TA] the extremities of the bony semicircular canals in which the corresponding membranous limbs of the semicircular ducts are located; they are the common bony limbs (crus osseum commune), simple bony limbs (crus osseum simplex), and ampullary bony limbs (crus ossea ampullaria). SYN: crura of bony semicircular canals, crura ossea canalium semicircularium, limbs of bony semicircular canals. common membranous l. of membranous semicircular ducts SYN: common membranous l. of semicircular ducts. common membranous l. of semicircular ducts [TA] the united, nonampullary ends of the superior and posterior semicircular ducts. SYN: crus membranaceum commune ductuum semicircularium [TA] , common crus of semicircular ducts, common membranous l. of membranous semicircular ducts. l. of helix SYN: crus of helix. inferior l. SYN: lower l.. inferior l. of ansa cervicalis inferior root of ansa cervicalis. lateral l. SYN: lateral crus. long l. of incus [TA] the process of the incus that articulates with the stapes. SYN: crus longum incudis [TA] , long crus of incus. lower l. [TA] the hip, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot. SYN: inferior member [TA] , membrum inferius [TA] , inferior l., lower extremity, pelvic l.. medial l. SYN: medial crus. pelvic l. SYN: lower l.. phantom l. SYN: phantom l. pain. posterior l. of internal capsule [TA] that subdivision of the internal capsule caudal to the genu and located between the thalamus and lentiform nucleus. SYN: crus posterius capsulae internae [TA] . posterior l. of stapes [TA] the posterior of the two delicate limbs of the stapes that connect the head and base or footplate of the bone. SYN: crus posterius stapedis [TA] , posterior crus of stapes. retrolenticular l. of internal capsule retrolentiform l. of internal capsule. retrolentiform l. of internal capsule [TA] the portion of the internal capsule located caudal to the posterior l. of the internal capsule and the lenticular (lentiform) nucleus. SEE ALSO: retrolenticular part of internal capsule. SYN: pars retrolentiformis cruris posterior [TA] , retrolenticular l. of internal capsule&star. short l. of incus [TA] the short crus of incus; the process of the incus that fits into a depression (fossa incudis) in the epitympanic recess. SYN: crus breve incudis [TA] , short crus of incus. simple membranous l. of semicircular duct [TA] the non-ampullary end of the lateral semicircular duct that opens independently into the utricle. SYN: crus membranaceum simplex ductus semicircularis [TA] , simple crus of semicircular duct. sublenticular l. of internal capsule sublentiform l. of internal capsule. sublentiform l. of internal capsule [TA] the portion of the internal capsule located ventral to caudal portions of the lenticular nucleus. SEE ALSO: sublenticular part of internal capsule. SYN: pars sublentiformis cruris posterioris [TA] , sublenticular l. of internal capsule&star. superior l. SYN: upper l.. superior l. of ansa cervicalis superior root of ansa cervicalis. thoracic l. SYN: upper l.. upper l. [TA] the shoulder, arm, forearm, wrist, and hand. SYN: membrum superius [TA] , superior member [TA] , superior l., thoracic l., upper extremity.

limbic (lim′bik)
1. Relating to a limbus. 2. Relating to the l. system.

limbus, pl .limbi (lim′bus, lim′bi)
The edge, border, or fringe of a part. [L. a border] l. acetabuli [TA] SYN: acetabular margin. l. alveolaris 1. SYN: alveolar arch of mandible. 2. SYN: alveolar arch of maxilla. l. anterior palpebrae [TA] SYN: anterior palpebral margin. l. of cornea SYN: corneal l.. l. corneae SYN: corneal l.. corneal l. [TA] the margin of the cornea overlapped by the sclera. SYN: corneal margin, corneoscleral junction, l. corneae, l. of cornea, sclerocorneal junction. l. fossae ovalis [TA] a muscular ring surrounding the fossa ovalis in the wall of the right atrium of the heart. SYN: anulus ovalis, margin of fossa ovalis, Vieussens anulus, Vieussens isthmus, Vieussens l., Vieussens ring. l. laminae spiralis osseae [TA] SYN: l. of osseous spiral lamina. l. membranae tympani SYN: l. of tympanic membrane. l. of osseous spiral lamina [TA] the border of the spiral lamina; the thickened periosteum covering the upper plate of the bony spiral lamina of the cochlea. SYN: l. laminae spiralis osseae [TA] . limbi palpebrales [TA] SYN: palpebral margins, under margin. l. penicillatus SYN: brush border. l. posterior palpebrae [TA] l. sphenoidalis [TA] SYN: l. of sphenoid (bone). l. of sphenoid (bone) [TA] variably prominent ridge on the body of the sphenoid (bone) forming the posterior border of the jugum sphenoidale and the anterior border of the prechiasmatic sulcus. SYN: l. sphenoidalis [TA] . l. striatus SYN: striated border. l. of tympanic membrane margin of the tympanic membrane attaching to the tympanic sulcus. SYN: l. membranae tympani. Vieussens l. SYN: l. fossae ovalis.

lime (lim)
1. CaO;an alkaline earth oxide occurring in grayish white masses (quicklime); on exposure to the atmosphere it becomes converted into calcium hydrate and calcium carbonate (air-slaked l.); direct addition of water to calcium oxide produces calcium hydrate (slaked l.). SYN: calcium oxide, calx (1) . 2. Fruit of the l. tree, Citrus medica (family Rutaceae), which is a source of ascorbic acid and acts as an antiscorbutic agent. [O.E. lim, birdlime] air-slaked l. l. (1) . chlorinated l. a mixture of varying proportions of complexes of chlorine with calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide. Contains 24–37% available chlorine. Decomposes in moist conditions to liberate chlorine. Strong irritant due to chlorine vapors. Used for disinfecting drinking water, sewage etc.; in the bleaching of wood pulp, linen, cotton, straw, oils, soaps, and laundry; as an oxidizer; in destroying caterpillars; and as a decontaminant for mustard gas and similar substances. SYN: bleaching powder. slaked l. l. (1) . sulfurated l. SYN: crude calcium sulfide.




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