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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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lingual (ling′gwal)
1. Relating to the tongue or any tonguelike part. SYN: glossal. 2. Next to or toward the tongue.

Linguatula (ling-gwat′u-la)
A genus of endoparasitic bloodsucking arthropods (family Linguatulidae, class Pentastomida), commonly known as tongue worms; once thought to be degenerate Acarina, but now generally considered to be a small but distinctive early offshoot of the Arthropoda. Adult worms are found in lungs or air passages of various hosts ( e.g., reptiles, birds, carnivores); young worms are found in a great variety of hosts, including humans, but chiefly in animals that serve as prey. [L. linguatu, tongued, + -ula, dim. suffix] L. rhinaria SYN: L. serrata. L. serrata a species most common in Europe, but also found in the United States, South America, and probably elsewhere; the adult is a whitish, soft, flattened, annulated worm equipped with hooks by which it attaches itself to the nasal mucosa of dogs and other canids; the larvae develop in the liver and lymph nodes of rodents, swine, cattle, and sometimes humans and other primates. SYN: L. rhinaria.

linguatuliasis (ling-gwat-u-li′a-sis)
Infection with Linguatula. SEE ALSO: halzoun.

Linguatulidae (ling-gwat′u-li-de)
One of the families of Pentastomida of medical interest, the other being the Porocephalidae. L. have flattened bodies; adults inhabit the nasal cavities of various carnivores, such as the dog and cat, and larval forms are found in tissues of rodents, herbivores, and other animals; both larvae and adults have been reported from humans.

linguiform (ling′gwi-form)
Tongue-shaped.

lingula, pl .lingulae (ling′gu-la, -le) [TA]
1. A term applied to several tongue-shaped processes. 2. When not qualified, the l. of cerebellum. [L. dim. of lingua, tongue] l. cerebelli [TA] SYN: l. of cerebellum. l. of cerebellum [TA] a tongue-shaped sequence of flattened cerebellar folia forming the anterior (or superior) extreme of the cerebellar vermis, extending forward on the surface of the superior medullary velum between the two emerging superior cerebellar peduncles. SYN: l. cerebelli [TA] , alae lingulae cerebelli, lingua cerebelli, tongue of cerebellum. l. of left lung [TA] an inferomedial projection from the anterior aspect of the upper lobe of the left lung which bounds the cardiac notch inferiorly. SYN: l. pulmonis sinistri [TA] . l. of mandible [TA] a pointed tongue of bone overlapping the mandibular foramen, giving attachment to the sphenomandibular ligament. SYN: l. mandibulae [TA] , mandibular tongue, Spix spine. l. mandibulae [TA] SYN: l. of mandible. l. pulmonis sinistri [TA] SYN: l. of left lung. sphenoidal l. [TA] a slender process projecting posteriorly between the body and greater wing of the sphenoid bone, on either side, forming the lateral margin of the carotid groove. In the dry skull, it projects into the foramen lacerum. SYN: l. sphenoidalis [TA] . l. sphenoidalis [TA] SYN: sphenoidal l..

lingular (ling′gu-lar)
Pertaining to any lingula.

lingulectomy (ling′gu-lek′to-me)
Excision of the lingular portion of the left upper lobe of the lung.

linguo-
The tongue. [L. lingua]

linguoclination (ling′gwo-kli-na′shun)
Axial inclination of a tooth when the crown is inclined toward the tongue more than is normal.

linguoclusion (ling-gwo-kloo′zhun)
Displacement of a tooth toward the interior of the dental arch, or toward the tongue. SEE ALSO: lingual occlusion (2) . SYN: lingual occlusion (1) .

linguodistal (ling-gwo-dis′tal)
Relating to the lingual and distal part of the tooth, e.g., the l. cusp. SEE ALSO: distolingual.

linguogingival (ling-gwo-jin′ji-val)
1. Relating to the gingival third of the lingual surface of a tooth. 2. Relating to the angle or point of junction of the lingual border and gingival line on the distal or mesial surface of an incisor tooth.

linguo-occlusal (ling′gwo-o-kloo′sal)
Relating to the line of junction of the lingual and occlusal surfaces of a tooth.

linguopapillitis (ling′gwo-pap′i-li′tis)
Small painful ulcers involving the papillae on the tongue margins.

linguoplate (ling′gwo-plat)
A partial denture major connector formed as a lingual bar extended to cover the cingula of the lower anterior teeth. SYN: lingual plate.

linguoversion (ling′gwo-ver-zhun)
Malposition of a tooth lingual to the normal position.

liniment (lin′i-ment)
A liquid preparation for external application or application to the gums; they may be clear dispersions, suspensions, or emulsions, and are frequently applied by friction to the skin; used as counterirritants, rubefacients, anodynes, or cleansing agents. [L., fr. lino, to smear]

linin (li′nin)
1. A bitter glycoside obtained from Linum catharticum (family Linaceae). 2. A protein in linseed. 3. Obsolete term for the threadlike, nonstaining (achromatic) substance of the cell nucleus, on which chromatin granules were thought to be suspended. [L. linum, fr. G. linon, flax]

lining (lin′ing)
A coating applied to the pulpal wall(s) of a restorative dental preparation to protect the pulp from thermal or chemical irritation; usually a vehicle containing a varnish, resin, and/or calcium hydroxide.

linitis (li-ni′tis, li-ni′tis)
Inflammation of cellular tissue, specifically of the perivascular tissue of the stomach. [G. linon, flax, linen cloth, + -itis, inflammation] l. plastica originally believed to be an inflammatory condition, but now recognized to be due to infiltrating scirrhous carcinoma causing extensive thickening of the wall of the stomach; often called leather-bottle stomach.

link
A connection; bond. tip links connections between the stereocilia of auditory and vestibular hair cells.

linkage (lingk′ij)
1. A chemical covalent bond. 2. The relationship between syntenic loci sufficiently close that the respective alleles are not inherited independently by the offspring; a characteristic of loci, not genes. genetic l. l. (2) . medical record l. the assemblage of lifetime or long-term individual medical histories from vital and medical data derived from multiple sources. record l. a method of assembling the information contained in two or more sets of medical records, or a set of medical records and vital records such as birth or death certificates, and a procedure to ensure that each individual's records are counted only once; facilitated by a unique numbering system such as the Hogben number or soundex code to identify individuals with precision. sex l. inheritance of a trait or a sex chromosome or gonosome. A man receives all his sex-linked genes from his mother and transmits them all to his daughters but not to his sons; a recessive sex-linked character is much more likely to be expressed in the male. SEE ALSO: sex chromosomes, under chromosome.

linked
Said of two genetic loci that exhibit genetic linkage.

linker
A fragment of synthetic DNA containing a restriction site that may be used for splicing genes.

linker scanning
A type of deletion mutagenesis where the distance and/or reading frame between potentially important regions is maintained by replacement with a synthetic oligonucleotide of known sequence.

Linné
Carl von, Swedish botanist and physician, 1707-1778. See linnaean system of nomenclature.

Linognathus (li-nog′na-thus)
A genus of sucking lice (order Anoplura, family Linognathidae) that includes the species L. africanus, the African blue louse of sheep and goats; L. ovillus, the sheep body louse; L. pedalis, the foot louse of sheep; L. setosus, the sucking louse of the dog and other canids; L. stenopsis, the sucking louse of goats; and L. vituli, the “long-nosed” sucking louse, ox louse, or blue louse of cattle. [G. linon, flax, thread, + gnathos, jaw]

linoleate (li-no′le-at)
Salt of linoleic acid.

linoleic acid (lin-o-le′ik)
9,12-Octadecadienoic acid;a doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycerides, that is essential in nutrition in mammals. SYN: linolic acid. [L. linum, flax, + oleum, oil]

linolenic acid (lin-o-len′ik)
9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid (also referred to as α-l);an unsaturated fatty acid that is essential in the nutrition of mammals. γ-l. is 6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid.

linolic acid
SYN: linoleic acid.

linseed (lin′sed)
The dried ripe seed of Linum usitatissimum (family Linaceae), flax, the fiber of which is used in the manufacture of linen; an infusion was used as a demulcent in catarrhal affections of the respiratory and urogenital tracts, and the ground seeds are used in making poultices. SYN: flaxseed. [G. linon, flax] l. oil a fatty oil expressed from the ripe seeds of Linum usitatissimum; used in the preparation of lime liniment. SYN: flaxseed oil.

lint
A soft, absorbent material rarely used in surgical dressings, usually in the form of a thick, loosely woven material (sheet or patent l.). [O.E. lin, flax]

lio-
See leio-.

LIP
Acronym for lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia or lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. See lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia.

lip [TA]
1. One of the two muscular folds with an outer membrane having a stratified squamous cell epithelial surface layer that bound the mouth anteriorly. 2. Any liplike structure bounding a cavity or groove. SEE ALSO: labium, labrum. SYN: labium (1) [TA] . [A.S. lippa] acetabular l. SYN: acetabular labrum. anterior l. of external os of uterus [TA] the portion of the vaginal part of the uterine cervix that bounds the ostium anteriorly intervening between the ostium and the anterior vaginal fornix. It is slightly shorter than the posterior l.. SYN: labium anterius ostii uteri [TA] , anterior l. of uterine os. anterior l. of uterine os SYN: anterior l. of external os of uterus. articular l. SYN: labrum (3) . cleft l. a congenital facial abnormality of the l. (usually of the upper l.) resulting from failure of union of the medial and lateral nasal prominences and maxillary process; frequently but not necessarily associated with cleft alveolus and cleft palate. In many families and in various forms [MIM*119300, *119500, *119530, *119540, and *119550] there seems to be autosomal dominant inheritance; likewise for X-linked inheritance [MIM*303400]. But generally, as with the supposed autosomal recessive forms, the genetics is more confusing and may represent a variable feature of a syndrome. SYN: harelip. double l. congenital or acquired excess tissue on the inner mucosal aspect of the l.; may be a manifestation of Ascher syndrome. external l. of iliac crest SYN: outer l. of iliac crest. glenoidal l. SYN: glenoid labrum of scapula. Hapsburg l. Hapsburg jaw. inner l. of iliac crest [TA] the roughened inner margin of the crest that gives attachment to parts of the transversus abdominis, quadratus lumborum, and erector spinae muscles. SYN: labium internum cristae iliacae [TA] , internal l. of iliac crest. internal l. of iliac crest SYN: inner l. of iliac crest. large pudendal l. SYN: labium majus. lateral l. of linea aspera [TA] the lateral margin of the linea aspera of the femur that gives attachment to the lateral intermuscular septum and the short head of the biceps femoris muscles. SYN: labium laterale lineae asperae [TA] . lower l. [TA] the muscular fold bounding the opening of the mouth inferiorly. SYN: labium inferius oris [TA] . medial l. of linea aspera [TA] the medial margin of the linea aspera of the femur that provides attachment for part of the vastus medialis muscle. SYN: labium mediale lineae asperae [TA] . lips of mouth [TA] fleshy folds with skin externally and oral mucosa internally that surround the oval fissure and form the anterior walls of the oral vestibule; with the enclosed orbicularis oris and various dilator muscles, the lips constitute the cranial sphincter of the alimentary tract. SYN: labia oris [TA] . outer l. of iliac crest [TA] the roughened outer margin of the crest that gives attachment to the external oblique and latissimus dorsi muscles above and to the fascia lata and the tensor fasciae latae muscle below. SYN: labium externum cristae iliacae [TA] , external l. of iliac crest. posterior l. of external os of uterus [TA] the portion of the uterine cervix that bounds the ostium posteriorly. It is slightly longer than the anterior l., intervening between the cervical canal and the posterior fornix of the vagina. SYN: labium posterius ostii uteri [TA] . rhombic l. the thickened alar plate of the embryonic rhombencephalon. small pudendal l. SYN: labium minus. tympanic l. of limbus of spiral lamina SYN: tympanic l. of spiral limbus. tympanic l. of spiral limbus [TA] the lower, long periosteal extension of the limbus laminae spiralis osseae that rests on the basilar lamina of the spiral organ (of Corti). SYN: labium limbi tympanicum limbi spiralis ossei [TA] , labium limbi tympanicum laminae spiralis ossei, tympanic labium of limbus of spiral lamina, tympanic l. of limbus of spiral lamina. upper l. [TA] the muscular fold forming the superior border of the mouth. SYN: labium superius oris [TA] . vestibular l. of limbus of spiral lamina SYN: vestibular l. of spiral limbus. vestibular l. of spiral limbus [TA] the upper, short periosteal extension of the limbus laminae spiralis osseae which provides the central attachment for the tectorial membrane. SYN: labium limbi vestibulare limbi spiralis ossei [TA] , labium limbi vestibulare laminae spiralis ossei, lamina dentata, vestibular labium of limbus of spiral lamina, vestibular l. of limbus of spiral lamina.

lip-
See lipo-.

lipancreatin (li-pan′kre-a-tin, -kre′a-tin)
SYN: pancrelipase.

liparocele (lip′a-ro-sel)
An omental hernia. [G. liparos, fatty, + kele, tumor, hernia]

lipase (lip′as)
1. In general, any fat-splitting or lipolytic enzyme; a carboxylesterase; e.g., triacylglycerol l., phospholipase A2, lipoprotein l.. 2. SYN: triacylglycerol l..

lipectomy (lip-ek′to-me)
Surgical removal of fatty tissue, as in cases of adiposity. [lipo- + G. ektome, excision]

lipedema (lip′e-de′ma)
Chronic swelling, usually of the lower extremities, particularly in middle-aged women, caused by the widespread even distribution of subcutaneous fat and fluid. [lipo- + G. oidema, swelling]

lipemia (lip-e′me-a)
The presence of an abnormally high concentration of lipids in the circulating blood. SYN: hyperlipidemia, hyperlipoidemia, lipidemia, lipoidemia. [lipid + G. haima, blood] alimentary l. relatively transient l. occurring after the ingestion of foods with a large content of fat. SYN: postprandial l.. diabetic l. development of lactescent plasma upon ingestion of dietary lipids; a rare manifestation of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus caused by defective metabolism of dietary lipids and abolished by the administration of insulin. postprandial l. SYN: alimentary l.. l. retinalis a creamy appearance of the retinal blood vessels that occurs when the lipids of the blood exceed 5%.

lipemic (li-pe′mik)
Relating to lipemia.

lipid (lip′id)
“Fat-soluble,” an operational term describing a solubility characteristic, not a chemical substance, i.e., denoting substances extracted from animal or vegetable cells by nonpolar solvents; included in the heterogeneous collection of materials thus extractable are fatty acids, glycerides and glyceryl ethers, phospholipids, sphingolipids, long-chain alcohols and waxes, terpenes, steroids, and “fat-soluble” vitamins such as A, D, and E. [G. lipos, fat] l. A the glycolipid component of lipopolysaccharide responsible for its endotoxic activity. anisotropic l. a l. in the form of doubly refractive droplets. anular l. the layer(s) of l. bound to and/or surrounding an integral membrane protein. brain l. impure cephalin possessing marked hemostatic action when locally applied. compound lipids lipids that can be hydrolyzed under alkali conditions to generate smaller constituents. isotropic l. a l. occurring in the form of singly refractive droplets. simple lipids SYN: homolipids.

lipidemia (lip′i-de′me-a)
SYN: lipemia.

lipidolytic (lip′i-do-lit′ik)
Causing breakdown of lipid. [lipid + G. lysis, loosening]

lipidosis, pl .lipidoses (lip-i-do′sis, -sez)
Hereditary abnormality of lipid metabolism that results in abnormal amounts of lipid deposition; classification is typically based on the responsible enzymatic deficiency and type of lipid involved. Such enzymatic activity takes place in the lysosomes, and the abnormal products appear as lysosomal storage diseases. Sphingolipidoses make up the largest portion of recognized lipidoses, including abnormal metabolism of gangliosides, ceramides, and cerebrosides. [lipid + G. -osis, condition] ceramide lactoside l. an inherited disorder associated with an accumulation of ceramide lactoside due to a deficiency of ceramide lactosidase; results in progressive brain damage with liver and spleen enlargement. cerebral l. SYN: cerebral sphingolipidosis. cerebroside l. SYN: Gaucher disease. ganglioside l. SYN: gangliosidosis. glycolipid l. SYN: Fabry disease. sphingomyelin l. SYN: Niemann-Pick disease. sulfatide l. SYN: metachromatic leukodystrophy.

Lipmann
Fritz A., German-U.S. biochemist in the U.S. and Nobel laureate, 1899–1986. See Warburg-L.-Dickens-Horecker shunt.

lipo-, lip-
Fatty, lipid. [G. lipos, fat]

lipoamide (lip-o-am′id, -am′id)
See lipoic acid.

lipoamide dehydrogenase
SYN: dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase.

lipoamide disulfide
Oxidized lipoic acid in amide combination with the ε-amino group of an l-lysyl residue of pyruvic acid dehydrogenase.

lipoamide reductase (NADH)
SYN: dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase.

lipoarthritis (lip′o-ar-thri′tis)
Inflammation of the periarticular fatty tissues of the knee. [lipo- + arthritis]

lipoate (lip′o-at)
A salt or ester of lipoic acid.

lipoate acetyltransferase
SYN: dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase.

lipoatrophia (lip′o-a-tro′fe-a)
SYN: lipoatrophy. l. annularis a rare condition of unknown cause characterized by localized panatrophy, a depressed area encircling the arm with sclerosis and atrophy of fat. l. circumscripta localized fat atrophy.

lipoatrophy (lip-o-at′ro-fe)
Loss of subcutaneous fat, which may be total, congenital, and associated with hepatomegaly, excessive bone growth, and insulin-resistant diabetes. SYN: Lawrence-Seip syndrome, lipoatrophia, lipoatrophic diabetes. [G. lipos, fat, + a-, priv. + trophe, nourishment] insulin l. SYN: insulin lipodystrophy. partial l. SYN: progressive lipodystrophy.

lipoblast (lip′o-blast)
An embryonic fat cell. [lipo- + G. blastos, germ]

lipoblastoma (lip′o-blas-to′ma)
A benign subcutaneous tumor composed of embryonal fat cells separated into distinct lobules, occurring usually in infants.

lipoblastomatosis (lip′o-blas-to-ma-to′sis)
A diffuse form of lipoblastoma that infiltrates locally but does not metastasize.

lipocardiac (lip′o-kar′de-ak)
1. Relating to fatty heart. 2. Denoting a person suffering from fatty degeneration of the heart. [lipo- + G. kardia, heart]




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