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lobopodium, pl .lobopodia (lo′bo-po′de-um, -de-a)
A thick lobose pseudopodium. [G. lobos, lobe, + pous, foot]

lobose, lobous (lo′bos, lo′bus)
SYN: lobate.

lobotomy (lo-bot′o-me)
1. Incision into a lobe. 2. Division of one or more nerve tracts in a lobe of the cerebrum. [G. lobos, lobe, + tome, a cutting] prefrontal l. division of one or more nerve tracts in the prefrontal area of the brain for surgical treatment of pain and emotional disorder. SYN: prefrontal leukotomy. transorbital l. l. by an approach through the roof of the orbit, behind the frontal sinus. SYN: transorbital leukotomy.

Lobry de Bruyn
Cornelius A., Dutch chemist, 1857–1904. See L.-van Ekenstein transformation.

Lobstein
Johann F.D., German pathologist, 1777–1840. See L. ganglion.

lobular (lob′u-lar)
Relating to a lobule.

lobulate, lobulated (lob′u-lat, -ed)
Divided into lobules.

lobule (lob′ul) [TA]
A small lobe or subdivision of a lobe. SYN: lobulus [TA] . ala central l. [TA] SYN: wing of central l.. SYN: pars inferior alae lobuli centralis [TA] , pars superior ali lobuli centralis [TA] . ansiform l. comprises the greater part of the hemisphere of the cerebellum; its superior and inferior surfaces are separated by the horizontal fissure into major parts known as crus I (superior semilunar l.) and crus II (inferior semilunar l.). anterior lunate l. SYN: superior semilunar l.. l. of auricle [TA] the lowest part of the auricle; it consists of fat and fibrous tissue not reinforced by the auricular cartilage; it is often utilized as a site to obtain a small sample of blood using a lancet. SYN: lobulus auriculae [TA] , ear lobe. biventer l. [TA] a l. on the undersurface of each cerebellar hemisphere, divided by a curved sulcus into a lateral and medial portion; it corresponds to the pyramid of the vermis. SYN: lobulus biventer [TA] , biventral l., cuneiform lobe, lobulus biventralis, lobulus cuneiformis. biventral l. SYN: biventer l.. central l. [TA] SYN: central l. of cerebellum. central l. of cerebellum a division of the superior vermis of the cerebellum between the lingula and the culmen consisting of lobules II and III. SYN: central l. [TA] , lobulus centralis corporis cerebelli [TA] . conical lobules of epididymis lobules of epididymis. cortical lobules of kidney one of the subdivisions of the kidney, consisting of a medullary ray and that portion of the convoluted part (renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules) associated with its collecting duct. SYN: lobulus corticalis renalis, renal cortical l., renculus (1) , reniculus (1) , renunculus (1) . crescentic lobules of the cerebellum archaic term for lobulus semilunaris inferior and lobulus semilunaris superior. lobules of epididymis [TA] the coiled portion of the efferent ductules that constitute the head of the epididymis; these join the ductus epididymidis. SYN: lobuli epididymidis [TA] , coni epididymidis&star, conical lobules of epididymis&star, coni vasculosi, Haller cones, vascular cones. gracile l. [TA] the anterior portion of the posteroinferior l. of the cerebellum, the posterior portion being the semilunar l. inferior; the two are continuous with the tuber of the vermis. SYN: lobulus paramedianus [TA] , lobulus gracilis&star, paramedian l.&star, slender l.. hepatic l. SYN: lobules of liver. inferior parietal l. [TA] the area of the parietal lobe of the cerebrum lying below the interparietal sulcus; it contains the angular and the supramarginal gyri. SYN: lobulus parietalis inferior [TA] , inferior parietal gyrus. inferior semilunar l. [TA] the part of the superior surface of the cerebellar hemisphere lying behind the horizontal fissure. SYN: lobulus semilunaris inferior [TA] , crus II, posterior lunate l.. lobules of liver [TA] the conceptual polygonal histologic unit of the liver consisting of masses of liver cells arranged around a central vein, a terminal branch of one of the hepatic veins; at the periphery are located preterminal and terminal branches of the portal vein, hepatic artery, and bile duct; hepatic lobules have anatomic reality in pig liver or pathologically in humans, when fibrous septa are present. SYN: lobulus hepatis [TA] , hepatic l.. lobules of mammary gland [TA] subdivisions of the lobes of the mammary gland. SYN: lobuli glandulae mammariae [TA] . paracentral l. [TA] a division of the medial aspect of the cerebral cortex, lying above the cingulate sulcus and bounded by the paracentral sulcus in front and the marginal part of the cingulate sulcus behind; this l. is formed by the anterior paracentral gyrus and the posterior paracentral gyrus. SYN: lobulus paracentralis [TA] . paramedian l. gracile l.. portal l. of liver a conceptual unit of the liver, emphasizing its exocrine function in bile secretion, which comprises a roughly triangular shaped cross-sectional area with a portal canal at its center and three or more venae centrales hepatis at its periphery. posterior lunate l. SYN: inferior semilunar l.. primary pulmonary l. SYN: pulmonary acinus. quadrangular l. the main portion of the superior part of each hemisphere of the cerebellum, corresponding in current terminology to the anterior quadrangular l.; the hemisphere portions of the culmen (lobules IV and V) of the vermis consist of an anterior part (l. HIV) and a posterior part (l. HV); located between the preculminate and primary fissures. SYN: lobulus quadrangularis, lobulus quadratus (1) , lobus quadratus, quadrate lobe (2) , quadrate l. (1) . quadrate l. 1. SYN: quadrangular l.. 2. SYN: precuneus. renal cortical l. SYN: cortical lobules of kidney. respiratory l. SYN: pulmonary acinus. secondary pulmonary l. a pyramidal mass of lung tissue whose sides are bounded by the incomplete interlobular connective tissue septa and whose base, which is 1 to 2 cm in diameter, usually faces the pleural surface of the lung; lobules that occupy a more central position in the lung are not well defined and are considered to consist of three to five pulmonary acini with proximate terminal bronchioles. simple l. [TA] the smaller anterior part of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, demarcated by the primary fissure from the anterior lobe rostrally and by the posterior superior fissure from the large ansiform l. caudally. SYN: lobulus simplex [TA] . slender l. SYN: gracile l.. superior parietal l. [TA] the area of the convex surface of the parietal lobe of the cerebrum lying between the longitudinal fissure and the interparietal sulcus caudal to the postcentral gyrus; it is continuous with the precuneus on the medial aspect of the hemisphere. SYN: lobulus parietalis superior [TA] , superior parietal gyrus. superior semilunar l. [TA] the part of the superior surface of the cerebellar hemisphere lying between the horizontal and ansoparamedian fissures and adjoining the folium and parts of the tuber of the vermis. SYN: lobulus semilunaris superior [TA] , anterior lunate l., crus I. lobules of testis [TA] the subdivisions of the parenchyma of the testis formed by delicate fibrous septa that pass inward from the tunica albuginea to converge at the mediastinum testis. SYN: lobuli testis [TA] . lobules of thymus [TA] areas of thymic tissue 0.5 to 2 mm in diameter with a cortex and medulla. SYN: lobuli thymi [TA] . lobules of thyroid gland [TA] the subdivisions of the lobe of the thyroid gland, consisting of incompletely separated, irregular groups of thyroid follicles (20–40 in number) bound together by delicate connective tissue. SYN: lobuli glandulae thyroideae [TA] .

lobulet, lobulette (lob′u-let′)
A very small lobule or one of the smaller subdivisions of a lobule.

lobulus, gen. and pl. lobuli (lob′u-lus, u-li) [TA]
SYN: lobule. [Mod. L. dim. of lobus, lobe] l. auriculae [TA] SYN: lobule of auricle. l. biventer [TA] SYN: biventer lobule. l. biventralis SYN: biventer lobule. l. centralis corporis cerebelli [TA] SYN: central lobule of cerebellum. l. clivi SYN: declive. l. corticalis renalis SYN: cortical lobules of kidney, under lobule. l. culminis SYN: culmen. l. cuneiformis SYN: biventer lobule. lobuli epididymidis [TA] SYN: lobules of epididymis, under lobule. l. folii the part of the superior vermis of the cerebellum lying immediately behind the posterior superior fissure and caudal to the l. clivi. l. fusiformis SYN: fusiform gyrus. lobuli glandulae mammariae [TA] SYN: lobules of mammary gland, under lobule. lobuli glandulae thyroideae [TA] SYN: lobules of thyroid gland, under lobule. l. gracilis gracile lobule. l. hepatis [TA] SYN: lobules of liver, under lobule. l. paracentralis [TA] SYN: paracentral lobule. l. paramedianus [TA] SYN: gracile lobule. l. parietalis inferior [TA] SYN: inferior parietal lobule. l. parietalis superior [TA] SYN: superior parietal lobule. l. quadrangularis SYN: quadrangular lobule. l. quadratus 1. SYN: quadrangular lobule. 2. SYN: precuneus. l. semilunaris inferior [TA] SYN: inferior semilunar lobule. l. semilunaris superior [TA] SYN: superior semilunar lobule. l. simplex [TA] SYN: simple lobule. lobuli testis [TA] SYN: lobules of testis, under lobule. lobuli thymi [TA] SYN: lobules of thymus, under lobule.

lobus, gen. and pl. lobi (lo′bus, lo′bi) [TA]
SYN: lobe. [LL. fr. G. lobos] l. anterior hypophyseos [TA] SYN: adenohypophysis. l. appendicularis SYN: Riedel lobe. l. azygos pulmonis dextri SYN: azygos lobe of right lung. l. caudatus posterior hepatic segment I. lobi cerebri [TA] the major divisions of the cerebral hemisphere; they include the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, named for the overlying bones of the skull, and the limbic lobe. The insula may also be regarded as a lobe (l. insularis [TA]) because it is separated from the frontal, parietal, and temporal opercula by the circular sulcus of the insula [TA]. SYN: cerebral lobes. l. clivi obsolete term for the clivus monticuli and the posterior crescentic lobules of the cerebellum, considered as one lobe. l. dexter [TA] SYN: right lobe. l. falciformis SYN: cingulate gyrus. l. flocculonodularis [TA] SYN: flocculonodular lobe. l. frontalis [TA] SYN: frontal lobe of cerebrum. lobi glandulae mammariae [TA] SYN: lobes of mammary gland, under lobe. lobi glandulae thyroideae [TA] SYN: lobes of thyroid gland, under lobe. l. glandularis hypophyseos SYN: adenohypophysis. l. hepatis dexter [TA] SYN: right lobe of liver. l. hepatis sinister [TA] SYN: left lobe of liver. l. inferior pulmonis dextri et sinistri [TA] SYN: inferior lobe of (left / right) lung. l. insula [TA] the area of cerebral cortex located internal to the lateral sulcus and separated from the adjacent frontal, parietal and temporal opercula by the circular sulcus of the insula; composed of short and long gyri separated by the central sulcus of the insula. SEE ALSO: insula. SYN: insular lobe&star, l. insularis&star, insular part, pars insularis. l. insularis l. insula. l. limbicus [TA] SYN: limbic lobe. l. linguiformis SYN: Riedel lobe. l. medius prostatae [TA] SYN: middle lobe of prostate. l. medius pulmonis dextri [TA] SYN: middle lobe of right lung. l. nervosus [TA] SYN: neurohypophysis. l. occipitalis [TA] SYN: occipital lobe of cerebrum. l. parietalis [TA] SYN: parietal lobe of cerebrum. l. posterior hypophyseos neurohypophysis. SEE ALSO: pituitary gland. l. prostatae [TA] SYN: lobe of prostate. l. pyramidalis glandulae thyroideae [TA] SYN: pyramidal lobe of thyroid gland. l. quadratus SYN: quadrangular lobule. l. renalis [TA] SYN: kidney lobes, under lobe. l. sinister [TA] SYN: left lobe. l. superior pulmonis (dextri et sinistri) [TA] SYN: superior lobe of (right/left) lung. l. temporalis [TA] SYN: temporal lobe.

LOCA
Abbreviation for low osmolar contrast agent.

local (lo′kal)
Having reference or confined to a limited part; not general or systemic. [L. localis, fr. locus, place]

localization (lo′kal-i-za′shun)
1. Limitation to a definite area. 2. The reference of a sensation to its point of origin. 3. The determination of the location of a morbid process. auditory l. in sensory psychology, the naming or pointing to directions from which sounds emanate. cerebral l. 1. the mapping of the cerebral cortex into areas and the correlation of the various areas with cerebral function. 2. determination of the site of a brain lesion on the basis of the signs and symptoms manifested by the patient or by neuroimaging. germinal l. SYN: fate map. radiotherapy l. planning the size and alignment of radiation beams to encompass the neoplasm to be treated. spatial l. the reference of a visual sensation to a definite locality in space. stereotaxic l. l. of intracerebral nuclei by coordinates with reference to anatomic landmarks in the brain.

localized (lo′kal-izd)
Restricted or limited to a definite part.

locant (lo′kant)
A number or letter preceding a substituent name in the name of a complex chemical that specifies the position (location) of the substituent on the parent molecule; e.g., 5 in 5-methyluridine, S in S-adenosylmethionine.

locator (lo′ka-ter, tor)
An instrument or apparatus for finding the position of a foreign object in tissue.

lochia (lo′ke-a)
Discharges from the vagina of mucus, blood, and tissue debris, following childbirth. [G. neut. pl. of lochios, relating to childbirth, fr. lochos, childbirth] l. alba the last discharge no longer tinged with blood. l. rubra the initial discharge stained with blood. l. sanguinolenta thick, dark red vaginal discharge seen a few days after delivery. l. serosa a thin and watery l..

lochial (lo′ke-al)
Relating to the lochia.

lochiometra (lo-ke-o-me′tra)
Distention of the uterus with retained lochia. [G. metra, womb]

lochiorrhagia (lo-ke-o-ra′je-a)
SYN: lochiorrhea. [lochia + G. rhegnymi, to burst forth]

lochiorrhea (lo-ke-o-re′a)
Profuse flow of the lochia. SYN: lochiorrhagia. [lochia + G. rhoia, a flow]

loci (lo′si)
Plural of locus.

lock (lok)
A device for holding or closing. English l. articulation of the blades of obstetrical forceps consisting of a socket on the shank at the junction with the handle in a similar socket on the other shank; used in Simpson forceps. sliding l. a slot on one shank of obstetrical forceps (as in Kjelland forceps) that allows the shanks to move forward and backward independently.

Locke
Frank S., British physiologist, 1871–1949. See Cabot-L. murmur, L. solutions, under solution, L.-Ringer solution.

lockjaw (lok′jaw)
SYN: trismus.

Lockwood
Charles B., English anatomist and surgeon, 1858–1914. See L. ligament.

LOCM
Abbreviation for low osmolar contrast medium.

locomotive (lo-ko-mo′tiv)
SYN: locomotor.

locomotor (lo-ko-mo′ter)
Relating to locomotion, or movement from one place to another. SYN: locomotive, locomotory. [L. locus, place, + L. moveo, pp. motus, to move]

locomotorial (lo-ko-mo-to′re-al)
Relating to the locomotorium.

locomotorium (lo′ko-mo-to′re-um)
The locomotor apparatus of the body. [L. locus, place, + motorius, moving]

locomotory (lo-ko-mo′to-re)
SYN: locomotor.

locular (lok′u-lar)
Relating to a loculus.

loculate (lok′u-lat)
Containing numerous loculi.

loculation (lok-u-la′shun)
1. A loculate region in an organ or tissue, or a loculate structure formed between surfaces of organs, mucous or serous membranes, and so on. 2. The process that results in the formation of a loculus or loculi.

loculus, pl .loculi (lok′u-lus, -li)
A small cavity or chamber. [L. dim. of locus, place]

locum tenant (lo′kum ten′ent)
A temporary substitution of one physician by another. SYN: locum tenens. [partial anglicization of locum tenens]

locum tenens (lo′kum ten′ens)
SYN: locum tenant. [L. one holding a place]

locus, pl .loci (lo′kus, lo′si)
1. A place; usually, a specific site. 2. The position that a gene occupies on a chromosome. 3. The position of a point, as defined by the coordinates on a graph. [L.] l. caeruleus [TA] a shallow depression, of a blue color in the fresh brain, lying laterally in the most rostral portion of the rhomboidal fossa near the cerebral aqueduct; it lies near the lateral wall of the fourth ventricle and consists of about 20,000 melanin-pigmented neuronal cell bodies whose norepinephrine-containing axons have a remarkably wide distribution in the cerebellum as well as in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex. SYN: l. cinereus, l. ferrugineus, substantia ferruginea. l. cinereus SYN: l. caeruleus. cis-acting l. a section of DNA that affects the activity of DNA sequences on that same molecule of DNA. complex l. a set of closely linked genetic loci with a common function, as in the major histocompatibility complex l.. l. of control a theoretical construct designed to assess a person's perceived control over his/her own behavior; classified as internal if the person feels in control of events, external if others are perceived to have that control. l. ferrugineus SYN: l. caeruleus. genetic l. the set of homologous parts of a pair of chromosomes that may be occupied by allelic genes. The l. thus comprises a pair of locations (except in the X chromosome in males). The concept of a l. is somewhat idealized, not taking into account accidents that may occur in meiosis such as duplication of loci as a result of unequal crossing-over, translocations, inversions, etc. marker l. a l. on a chromosome or in a stretch of DNA that can be identified ( e.g., a restriction fragment length polymorphism) and can serve in linkage analysis and in the isolation of a disease gene. SEE ALSO: linkage marker. l. niger SYN: substantia nigra. l. perforatus anticus SYN: anterior perforated substance. l. perforatus posticus SYN: posterior perforated substance. sex-linked l. any l. that in normal karyotypes is borne on a heterosome; commonly but incorrectly applied to an X-linked l.. X-linked l. any l. that in normal karyotypes is borne on the X chromosome. Y-linked l. any (haploid) l. that in normal karyotypes is borne on the Y chromosome. The known content is so far small.

lod score (lod skor)
A number used in genetic linkage studies; logarithm (decadic) of the odds in favor of genetic linkage. [logarithm + odds]

Loeb
Leo, U.S. pathologist, 1869–1959. See L. deciduoma.

Loeffler
Friedrich A.J., German bacteriologist and surgeon, 1852–1915. See L. bacillus, L. blood culture medium, L. stain, L. caustic stain, L. methylene blue, Klebs-L. bacillus, L. syndrome I, L. syndrome II.

Loevit
Moritz, Austrian pathologist, 1851–1918. See L. cell.

Loewenthal
Wilhelm, German physician, 1850–1894. See L. bundle, L. reaction, L. tract.

lofentanil (lo-fen′ta-nil)
A potent, long-lasting narcotic and analgesic that is chemically related to fentanyl.

Löffler
Wilhelm, Swiss physician, 1887–1972. See L. disease, L. endocarditis, L. parietal fibroplastic endocarditis, L. syndrome.

log-
See logo-.

Logan
William H.G., early 20th century U.S. plastic surgeon. See L. bow.

logarithm (log′ar-ridhm)
If a number, x, is expressed as a power of another number, y, i.e., if x = yn, then n is said to be the l. of x to base y. Common logarithms are to the base 10; natural or Napierian logarithms are to the base e, a mathematical constant. [G. logos, word, ratio, + arithmos, number]

logetronography (log-e-tron-og′ra-fe)
A method of photographic printing in which fine details are emphasized by electronic enhancement of their contrast; formerly used for reproducing radiographic images.

-logia
1. The study of the subject noted in the body of the word, or a treatise on the same; the Eng. equivalent is -logy, or, with a connecting vowel, -ology. [G. logos, discourse, treatise] 2. Collecting or picking. [G. lego, to collect]

logit (log′it)
The logarithm of the ratio of frequencies of two different categorical and mutually exclusive outcomes such as healthy and sick.

logo-, log-
Speech, words. [G. logos, word, discourse]

logopedia (log-o-pe′de-a)
SYN: logopedics.

logopedics (log′o-pe′diks)
A branch of science concerned with the physiology and pathology of the organs of speech and with the correction of speech defects. SYN: logopedia. [logo- + G. pais (paid-), child]




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