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Medical Dictionary


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logorrhea (log-o-re′a)
Rarely used term for abnormal or pathologic talkativeness or garrulousness. [logo- + G. rhoia, a flow]

logospasm (log′o-spazm)
1. SYN: stuttering. 2. SYN: explosive speech. [logo- + G. spasmos, spasm]

logotherapy (log′o-thar′a-pe)
A form of psychotherapy which places special emphasis on the patient's spiritual life and on the physician as “medical minister.” [logo- + G. therapeia, cure]

-logy
See -logia. [G. logos, treatise, discourse]

Lohlein-Baehr lesion
See under lesion.

loiasis (lo-i′a-sis)
A chronic disease caused by the filarial nematode Loa loa, with symptoms and signs first occurring approximately 3–4 years after a bite by an infected tabanid fly. When the infective larvae mature, the adult worms move about in an irregular course through the connective tissue of the body (as rapidly as 1 cm per minute), frequently becoming visible beneath the skin and mucous membranes; e.g., in the back, scalp, chest, inner surface of the lip, and especially on the conjunctiva. The worms provoke hyperemia and exudation of fluid, often a host response to the worm products, a Calabar or fugitive swelling which causes no serious damage and subsides as the parasites move on; the patient is annoyed by the “creeping” in the tissues and intense itching, as well as occasional pain, especially when the swelling is in the region of tendons and joints. Most patients have an eosinophilia of 10–30 or 40% in the circulating blood. SYN: Calabar swelling, fugitive swelling.

loin (loyn)
The part of the side and back between the ribs and the pelvis. SYN: lumbus. [Fr. longe; E. lumbus]

Lok
See Luer-L. syringe.

loliism (lo′li-izm)
Poisoning by the seeds of a grass, Lolium temulentum (in the form of flour made into bread), characterized by giddiness, tremor, green vision, dilated pupils, prostration, and sometimes vomiting. [L. lolium, darnel, tares]

Lombard
Etienne, French physician, 1868–1920. See L. voice-reflex test.

lomustine (lo-mus′ten)
An antineoplastic agent. SYN: CCNU.

Long
John H., U.S. physician, 1856–1927. See L. coefficient, L. formula.

long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
See acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (NADPH).

long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase
Fatty acid thiokinase (long-chain), a ligase forming acyl-CoA, AMP, and pyrophosphate from long-chain fatty acids, ATP, and coenzyme A. SYN: acyl-activating enzyme (1) , dodecanoyl-CoA synthetase.

longevity (lon-jev′i-te)
Duration of a particular life beyond the norm for the species. SEE ALSO: lifespan. SYN: macrobiosis.

longitudinal (lon′ji-too′di-nal) [TA]
1. Running lengthwise; in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts. SYN: longitudinalis [TA] . 2. Studied over a period of time, diachronic; contrast with cross-sectional or synchronic, which give equivalent results only under certain strict conditions of stability and equilibrium. Strict attention to these conditions is of the greatest importance in the study of survivorship either in demographics or in cell economy (such as the survival pattern of the erythrocytes and platelets). [L. longitudo, length]

longitudinalis (lon′ji-too′di-na′lis) [TA]
SYN: longitudinal (1) .

longitype (lon′ji-tip)
SYN: ectomorph.

Longmire
William P., Jr., U.S. surgeon, 1913–1977. See L. operation.

Looney
Joseph M., U.S. biochemist, *1896. See Folin-L. test.

loop (loop)
1. A sharp curve or complete bend in a vessel, cord, or other cylindrical body, forming an oval or circular ring. SEE ALSO: ansa. 2. A wire (usually of platinum or nichrome) fixed into a handle at one end and bent into a circle at the other, rendered sterile by flaming, and used to transfer microorganisms. [M.E. loupe] Biebl l. a continuous l. of small intestine brought through the abdominal wall to a subcutaneous location, for observation of motility. bulboventricular l. the portion of the early-somite embryonic cardiac tube that evolves into the ventricle and bulbus cordis. SYN: ventricular l.. capillary l. small blood vessel in the dermal papillae. cervical l. SYN: ansa cervicalis. cruciform loops a secondary structure of DNA formed by the hydrogen bonding of self-complementary regions. D l. a structure in replicating circular DNA. SYN: displacement l.. displacement l. SYN: D l.. gamma l. the reflex arc consisting of small anterior horn cells and neuroma, their small fibers projecting to the intrafusal bundle producing its contraction, which initiates the afferent impulses that pass through the posterior root to the anterior horn cells, inducing a stretch reflex. SYN: gamma motor neurons, gamma motor system, Granit l.. Gerdy interatrial l. a muscular fasciculus in the interatrial septum of the heart, passing backward from the atrioventricular groove. Granit l. SYN: gamma l.. hairpin loops single-stranded DNA and RNA can fold back on itself under the proper conditions forming irregular double-helical loops. Henle l. SYN: nephronic l.. l. of hypoglossal nerve SYN: ansa cervicalis. Hyrtl l. a communicating l. between the right and left hypoglossal nerves, lying between the geniohyoid and genioglossus muscles or in the substance of the geniohyoid; it is found in about one in ten persons. SYN: Hyrtl anastomosis. lenticular l. the pallidal efferent fibers curving around the medial border of the internal capsule. SYN: ansa lenticularis [TA] , lenticular ansa. memory l. an electronic device for retrieving data that had been stored and/or displayed upon the oscilloscope at an earlier time; used for reviewing electrical events immediately preceding a specific disturbance. Meyer-Archambault l. the fibers of the visual radiation that l. around the tip of the temporal horn. nephronic l. the U-shaped part of the nephron extending from the proximal to the distal convoluted tubules, consisting of descending and ascending limbs, located in the medulla renalis and medullary ray. SYN: Henle ansa, Henle l.. peduncular l. SYN: ansa peduncularis. loops of spinal nerves loops of the spinal nerves, connecting ventral primary rami of the spinal nerves. SYN: ansae nervorum spinalium. subclavian l. SYN: ansa subclavia. vector l. a smooth or irregular, usually elliptical, curve representing the average direction and magnitude of the heart's action from moment to moment throughout the cardiac cycle. SEE ALSO: vector (2) , vectorcardiogram. ventricular l. SYN: bulboventricular l.. Vieussens l. SYN: ansa subclavia.

loosening of association
A manifestation of a severe thought disorder characterized by the lack of an obvious connection between one thought or phrase and the next, or with the response to a question.

Looser
Emil, Swiss physician, 1877–1936. See L. zones, under zone.

LOP
Abbreviation for left occipitoposterior position.

lop-ear (lop′er)
Congenital abnormality of the external ear, with poor development of helix and anthelix. SYN: bat ear.

loperamide hydrochloride (lo-per′a-mid)
An antiperistaltic agent used to treat diarrhea.

lophodont (lof′o-dont)
Having the crowns of the molar teeth formed in transverse or longitudinal crests or ridges, in contrast to bunodont. [G. lophos, ridge, + odous, tooth]

Lophophora williamsii (lo-fof′o-ra wil-yam′se-i)
The botanical origin of peyote (mescal button); it contains over a dozen alkaloids, of which mescaline is the most important; others are pellotine, anhalomine, anhalonidine, anhalamine, anhalinine, anhalidine, and lophophorine.

lophotrichate (lo-fot′ri-kat)
SYN: lophotrichous.

lophotrichous (lo-fot′ri-kus)
Referring to a bacterial cell with two or more flagella at one or both poles. SYN: lophotrichate. [G. lophos, crest, + thrix, hair]

lopremone (lo′pre-mon)
Former name for protirelin.

Lorain
Paul, French physician, 1827–1875. See L. disease, L.-Lévi dwarfism, L.-Lévi infantilism, L.-Lévi syndrome.

lorazepam (lo-ra′ze-pam)
An antianxiety drug of the benzodiazepine group.

lorcainide (lor-ka-nid)
An antiarrhythmic agent used for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias; much like a cardiac depressant (antiarrhythmic).

lordoscoliosis (lor′do-sko-le-o′sis)
Combined backward and lateral curvature of the spine. [G. lordos, bent back, + skoliosis, crookedness, fr. skolios, bent, aslant]

lordosis (lor-do′sis) [TA]
An anteriorly convex curvature of the vertebral column; the normal lordoses of the cervical and lumbar regions are secondary curvatures of the vertebral column, acquired postnatally. SYN: hollow back, saddle back. [G. l., a bending backward] cervical l. [TA] the normal, anteriorly convex curvature of the cervical segment of the vertebral column; cervical l. is a secondary curvature of the vertebral column, acquired postnatally as the infant lifts its head. SYN: l. cervicis [TA] , l. colli&star. l. cervicis [TA] SYN: cervical l.. l. colli cervical l.. l. lumbalis [TA] SYN: lumbar l.. lumbar l. [TA] the normal, anteriorly convex curvature of the lumbar segment of the vertebral column; lumbar l. is a secondary curvature of the vertebral column, acquired postnatally as the upright posture is assumed when one learns to walk. SYN: l. lumbalis [TA] , lumbar flexure.

lordotic (lor-dot′ik)
Pertaining to or marked by lordosis.

Lorenz
Adolf, Austrian surgeon, 1854–1946. See L. sign.

Loschmidt
Joseph (Johann), Czech chemist and physicist, 1821–1895. See L. number.

LOT
Abbreviation for left occipitotransverse position.

lotion (lo′shun)
A class of pharmacopeial preparations that are liquid suspensions or dispersions intended for external application; some consist of finely powdered, insoluble solids held in more or less permanent suspension by suspending agents or surface-active agents, or both; others are oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by surface-active agents. [L. lotio, a washing, fr. lavo, to wash]

Louis
Pierre C.A., French physician, 1787–1872. See L. angle, L. law.

Louis-Bar
Denise, mid-20th century French physician. See Louis-Bar syndrome.

loupe (loop)
A magnifying lens. [Fr.] binocular l. a magnifying device, attached to spectacles or a headband, worn as a visual aid when performing operations on small structures.

louse, pl .lice (lows, lis)
Common name for members of the ectoparasitic insect orders Anoplura (sucking lice) and Mallophaga (biting lice). Important species are Felicola subrostrata (cat l.), Goniocotes gallinae (fluff l.), Goniodes dissimilis (brown chicken l.), Haemodipsus ventricosus (rabbit l.), Lipeurus caponis (wing l.), Menacanthus stramineus (chicken body l.), Pthirus pubis (crab or pubic l.), and Polyplax serratus (mouse l.). [A.S. lus] biting l., chewing l., feather l. ectoparasites (order Mallophaga) chiefly found on birds, where they feed on feathers, hair, epidermal debris, and (less commonly) on blood; they possess nipper-like, heavily sclerotized mandibles and a characteristic broad head; many species are host-specific. sea l. the very small larvae of the thimble jellyfish (Linuche unguiculata). sucking l. blood-sucking mammalian ectoparasites (order Anoplura), characterized by a narrow head with piercing and sucking mouthparts that lie in a sac concealed in the head.

lousy (low′se)
SYN: pediculous.

lovastatin (lo-va-stat′in)
A cholesterol-lowering agent, isolated from a strain of Aspergillus terreus, that reduces both normal and elevated serum cholesterol. SYN: mevinolin.

Lovén
Otto C., Swedish physician, 1835–1904. See L. reflex.

Lovibond
J.L., 20th century English dermatologist. See L. angle, L. profile sign.

Lowe
Charles U., U.S. pediatrician, *1921. See L. syndrome, L.-Terrey-MacLachlan syndrome.

Löwenberg
Benjamin B., French laryngologist, 1836–1905. See L. canal, L. forceps, L. scala.

Lower
SYN: inferior. See L. ring, L. tubercle.

Lown
Bernard, U.S. cardiologist, *1921. See L.-Ganong-Levine syndrome.

Lowry
Oliver H., U.S. biochemist, *1910. See L.-Folin assay, L. protein assay.

Lowry
R. Brian, 20th century Irish medical geneticist in Canada. See Coffin-L. syndrome.

Lowsley
Oswald S., U.S. urologist, 1884–1955. See L. tractor.

loxapine (lok′sa-pen)
2-Chloro-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)dibenz[b,f][1,4]-oxazepine; a neuroleptic antipsychotic agent used as the succinate and hydrochloride salts.

Loxosceles (lok-sos′e-lez)
A genus of venomous spiders, the brown spiders, marked by a fiddle-shaped pattern on the cephalothorax, and found chiefly in South America. They inflict a highly ulcerative, spreading dermal lesion at the site of the bite (loxoscelism). Important species include L. laeta, the Chilean brown recluse spider; L. reclusus, the brown recluse spider of North America; and L. rufipes, the Peruvian brown spider. [G. loxos, oblique, + skelos, leg]

loxoscelism (lok-sos′e-lizm)
A clinical illness produced by the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusus, of North America; characterized by gangrenous slough at the site of the bite, nausea, malaise, fever, hemolysis, and thrombocytopenia.

Loxotrema ovatum (lok-so-tre′ma o-va′tum)
Former name for Metagonimus yokogawai. [G. loxos, slanting, + trema, a hole; L. ovatus, egg-shaped]

lozenge (loz′enj)
SYN: troche. [Fr. losange, fr. lozangé, rhombic]

LPH
Abbreviation for lipotropic hormone.

L.P.N.
Abbreviation for licensed practical nurse.

LPO
Abbreviation for left posterior oblique, a radiographic projection.

LPS
Abbreviation for lipopolysaccharide.

Lr, Lr
See L. dose.

Lr
Symbol for lawrencium.

L.R.C.P.
Abbreviation for Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians (of England).

L.R.C.P.(E)
Abbreviation for Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians (Edinburgh).

L.R.C.P.(I)
Abbreviation for Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians (Ireland).

L.R.C.S.
Abbreviation for Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons (of England).

L.R.C.S.(E)
Abbreviation for Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons (Edinburgh).

L.R.C.S.(I)
Abbreviation for Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons (Ireland).

LRF
Abbreviation for luteinizing hormone-releasing factor.

L.R.F.P.S.
Abbreviation for Licentiate of the Royal Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons, a Scottish institution.

LRH
Abbreviation for luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.

LSA
Abbreviation for left sacroanterior position.

LSD
Abbreviation for lysergic acid diethylamide.

LSF
Abbreviation for line spread function.

LSIL
Abbreviation for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

LSP
Abbreviation for left sacroposterior position.

LST
Abbreviation for left sacrotransverse position.

LT
Abbreviation for leukotrienes, usually followed by another letter with a subscript number; e.g., LTA4, LTC4.

LTM
Abbreviation for long-term memory.

LTP
Abbreviation for laser trabeculoplasty.

LTR
Abbreviation for long terminal repeat sequences, under sequence.

Lu
Symbol for lutetium.

Lubarsch
Otto, German pathologist, 1860–1933. See L. crystals, under crystal.

Luc
Henri, French laryngologist, 1855–1925. See L. operation, Caldwell-L. operation, Ogston-L. operation.

lucanthone hydrochloride (loo-kan′thon)
Used in the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis (Schistosoma haematobium) and intestinal schistosomiasis (S. mansoni).

Lucas
Richard C., English anatomist and surgeon, 1846–1915. See L. groove.

lucensomycin (loo-sen-so-mi′sin)
An antibiotic isolated from cultures of Streptomyces lucensis; an antifungal agent. SYN: lucimycin.




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