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Medical Dictionary


lunula, pl .lunulae (loo′noo-la, -le) [TA]
1. [NA] The pale arched area at the proximal portion of the nail plate. 2. A small semilunar structure. [L. dim. of luna, moon] azure l. of nails bluish nonblanching discoloration of the lunulae of all the fingernails in hepatolenticular degeneration. l. of semilunar cusps of aortic/pulmonary valves the free border of a cusp of the semilunar valves on each side of the nodules of the semilunar cusps. SYN: l. of semilunar valve, lunulae valvularum semilunarium valvae aortae/trunci pulmonalis. l. of semilunar valve SYN: l. of semilunar cusps of aortic/pulmonary valves. l. unguis SYN: lunule of nail. lunulae valvularum semilunarium valvae aortae/trunci pulmonalis SYN: l. of semilunar cusps of aortic/pulmonary valves.

1. [TA] SYN: l. of nail. 2. A small semilunar structure. l. of nail the pale arched area at the proximal portion of the nail plate. SYN: arcus unguium, half-moon, lunula unguis, l. (1) , selene unguium.

lupinidine (loo-pin′i-den)
SYN: sparteine.

lupinosis (loo-pi-no′sis)
SYN: lathyrism. [L. lupinus, lupine, fr. lupus, wolf]

lupoid (loo′poyd)
Resembling lupus. [L. lupus + G. eidos, resemblance]

lupulin (loo′poo-lin)
A sticky, yellowish, granular material consisting of entire multicellular glandular hairs (trichomes) from the fruit and bracts of the hop vine, Humulus lupulus; the essential oils and resins of these glandular hairs are responsible for the characteristic bitter taste of beer or medicinals made from hops; has been used as an antispasmodic and sedative. SYN: humulin.

lupus (loo′pus)
A term originally used to depict erosion (as if gnawed) of the skin, now used with modifying terms designating the various diseases listed below. [L. wolf] chilblain l.
  • SYN: chilblain l. erythematosus.
  • l. pernio that is a manifestation of sarcoidosis.
  • chilblain l. erythematosus skin lesions seen in patients with l. erythematosus, resembling the small, hardened nodular areas of a cold injury called chilblains. SYN: chilblain l. (1) .
  • chronic discoid l. erythematosus SYN: discoid l. erythematosus.
  • cutaneous l. erythematosus 1. skin disease seen in patients with discoid form of l. erythematosus; 2. a term for a variety of skin lesions seen in systemic l. erythematosus.
  • discoid l. erythematosus a form of l. erythematosus in which cutaneous lesions are present; these commonly appear on the face and are atrophic plaques with erythema, hyperkeratosis, follicular plugging, and telangiectasia; in some instances systemic l. erythematosis may develop. SYN: chronic discoid l. erythematosus.
  • disseminated l. erythematosus SYN: systemic l. erythematosus.
  • drug-induced l. the syndrome of systemic l. erythematosus induced by exposure to drugs, especially procainamide or hydralazine and characterized by antihistone antibodies. More benign than the usual disease, with less renal involvement. The syndrome clears after stopping the offending drug. SYN: hydralazine syndrome.
  • l. erythematosus (LE, L.E.) an illness that may be chronic (characterized by skin lesions alone), subacute (characterized by recurring superficial nonscarring skin lesions that are more disseminated and present more acute features both clinically and histologically than those seen in the chronic discoid phase), or systemic or disseminated (in which antinuclear antibodies are present and in which there is almost always involvement of vital structures). SEE ALSO: discoid l. erythematosus, systemic l. erythematosus.
  • l. erythematosus, neonatal l. erythematosus present at birth as a result of placentally transmitted antibodies from a mother with systemic l. erythematosus; characterized by transient hematopoietic and cutaneous lesions and permanent cardiac abnormalities.
  • l. erythematosus profundus a subcutaneous panniculitis with marked lymphocyte infiltration of fat lobules giving rise to deep-seated, firm, rubbery nodules that sometimes become ulcerated, usually of the face; may occur in systemic and localized l. erythematosus. SYN: l. profundus.
  • l. livedo persistent cyanotic lesions on the extremities, associated with the cutaneous manifestations of Raynaud disease.
  • l. miliaris disseminatus faciei a milletlike papular eruption of the face associated with a (histopathologically) tuberculoid perifollicular infiltration but probably related to rosacea rather than tuberculous infection.
  • neonatal l. l. erythematosus occurring in newborn children of mothers who had l. during pregnancy; anti-SSA antibodies usually should be screened for; 50% have anti-nuclear antibodies. A variety of skin lesions are seen, which can resolve or leave scarring; the syndrome usually resolves; however, cardiac manifestations can be fatal. Some children develop systemic l. later in life.
  • l. pernio chronic indurated purple granulomatous skin of sarcoidosis lesion, clinically resembling frostbite, involving ears, cheeks, nose, lips, and forehead; usually with intrathoracic sarcoidosis.
  • l. profundus (pro-fun′dus) SYN: l. erythematosus profundus. [L. deep]
  • l. serpiginosus a cutaneous tuberculous lesion that spreads peripherally, healing centrally with scar formation.
  • systemic l. erythematosus (SLE) an inflammatory connective tissue disease with variable features, frequently including fever, weakness and fatigability, joint pains or arthritis resembling rheumatoid arthritis, diffuse erythematous skin lesions on the face, neck, or upper extremities, with liquefaction degeneration of the basal layer and epidermal atrophy, lymphadenopathy, pleurisy or pericarditis, glomerular lesions, anemia, hyperglobulinemia, and a positive LE cell test, with serum antibodies to nuclear protein and sometimes to double-stranded DNA and other substances. SYN: disseminated l. erythematosus.
  • l. vulgaris cutaneous tuberculosis with characteristic nodular lesions on the face, particularly about the nose and ears.
Abbreviation for left upper quadrant (of abdomen).

lura (loo′ra)
The contracted termination of the infundibulum of the brain. [L. the mouth of a bottle]

lural (loo′ral)
Pertaining to the lura.

Hubert, German anatomist, 1820–1875. See L. bursa, L. cartilage, L. ducts, under duct, L. gland, L. cystic glands, under gland, L. joints, under joint, L. ligaments, under ligament, L. sinus, L. tonsil, foramen of L..

Sarah A., U.S. physician, 1918–1970. See L. bodies, under body.

lusitropic (loos-e-tro′pik)
Relating to lusitropy.

lusitropy (loos-it′tro-pe)
Relaxation functions of cardiac muscle and chambers.

lute (loot)
To seal or fasten with wax or cement. [L. lutum, mud]

luteal (loo′te-al)
Relating to the corpus luteum; l. cells, l. hormone, etc. SYN: luteus. [L. luteus, saffron-yellow]

lutecium (loo-te′se-um)
SYN: lutetium.

lutein (loo′te-in)
1. The yellow pigment in the corpus luteum, in the yolk of eggs, or any lipochrome. 2. SYN: xanthophyll. 3. The dried powdered corpora lutea of the hog, formerly used as a progesterone source. [L. luteus, saffron-yellow]

luteinization (loo′te-in-i-za′shun)
Transformation of the mature ovarian follicle and its theca interna into a corpus luteum after ovulation; formation of luteal tissue, which appears yellow in some species.

luteinize (loo′te-i-niz)
To form luteal tissue.

luteinoma (loo′te-i-no′ma)
SYN: luteoma.

René, French cardiologist, 1887–1916. See L. syndrome.

luteogenic (loo′te-o-jen′ik)
Luteinizing; inducing the production or growth of corpora lutea.

luteohormone (loo′te-o-hor′mon)
SYN: progesterone.

luteol, luteole (loo′te-ol, -ol)
SYN: xanthophyll.

luteolin (loo-te-o′lin)
The aglycon of galuteolin and cynaroside. SYN: cyanidenon.

luteolysin (loo-te-ol′i-sin)
Any agent, natural or compounded, that destroys the function of the corpus luteum. [L. luteus, saffron-yellow, + G. lysis, dissolution]

luteolysis (loo-te-ol′i-sis)
Degeneration or destruction of ovarian luteinized tissue.

luteolytic (loo-te-o-lit′ik)
Promoting or characteristic of luteolysis.

luteoma (loo-te-o′ma)
An ovarian tumor of granulosa or theca-lutein cell origin, producing progesterone effects on the uterine mucosa. SYN: luteinoma. pregnancy l. a benign lutein cell tumor of the ovary.

luteotropic, luteotrophic (loo′te-o-trop′ik, -trof′ik)
Having a stimulating action on the development and function of the corpus luteum.

lutetium (Lu) (loo-te′she-um)
A rare earth element; atomic no. 71, atomic wt. 174.967. SYN: lutecium. [L. Lutetia, Paris]

luteus (loo-te′us)
SYN: luteal. [L.]

Lutheran Blood Group, Lu Blood Group
See Blood Groups Appendix.

lutropin (loo′tro-pin)
One of two glycoprotein hormones that stimulate the final ripening of the follicles and the secretion of progesterone by them, their rupture to release the egg, and the conversion of the ruptured follicle into the corpus luteum. SYN: interstitial cell-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, luteinizing principle.

lututrin (loo′too-trin)
A water-soluble protein-like fraction extracted from the corpus luteum of sows' ovaries, resembling relaxin; it causes uterine relaxation and is used in dysmenorrhea.

Alfredo, Brazilian physician, 1855–1940. See L.-Splendore-Almeida disease.

Lutzomyia (loot-zo-mi′a)
A genus of New World sandflies or bloodsucking midges (family Psychodidae) that serve as vectors of leishmaniasis and Oroyo fever; formerly combined with the Old World sandfly genus Phlebotomus. L. flaviscutellata a sandfly species that is a vector of Leishmania mexicana, the agent of chiclero ulcer. SYN: Phlebotomus flaviscutellatus. L. intermedius one of a group of sandfly species that are vectors of Leishmania braziliensis, the agent of espundia. L. longipalpis SYN: Phlebotomus longipalpis. L. peruensis a sandfly species that is a vector of Leishmania peruviana, the agent of uta.

lux (lx) (luks)
A unit of light or illumination; the reception of a luminous flux of 1 lumen per square meter of surface. SYN: candle-meter, meter-candle. [L. light]

luxatio (luk-sa′she-o)
See luxation. [L. luxo, pp. -atus, to dislocate] l. erecta subglenoid dislocation of the head of the humerus in which the arm is raised and abducted and cannot be lowered. l. perinealis a condition in which the head of the femur is dislocated to the perineum.

luxation (luk-sa′shun)
1. SYN: dislocation. 2. In dentistry, the dislocation or displacement of the condyle in the temporomandibular fossa, or of a tooth from the alveolus. [L. luxatio] Malgaigne l. SYN: nursemaid's elbow.

Luxol fast blue
Name for a group of closely related copper phthalocyanin dyes used as stains (with PAS, PTAH, hematoxylin, silver nitrate, etc.) for myelin in nerve fibers.

luxus (luks′us)
Excess of any sort. [L. extravagance, luxury]

Jules Bernard, French physician, 1828–1897. See L. body, centre médian de L., corpus luysi, nucleus of L..

Abbreviation for left ventricular ejection time.

Abbreviation for licensed vocational nurse.

Former symbol for lawrencium.

Abbreviation for lux.

lyase (li′as)
Class name for those enzymes removing groups nonhydrolytically (EC class 4); prefixes such as “hydro-” and “ammonia-” are used to indicate the type of reaction. Trivial names for lyases include synthases, decarboxylases, aldolases, dehydratases. Cf.:synthase, synthetase.

lycanthropy (li-kan′thro-pe)
The morbid delusion that one is a wolf, possibly a mental atavism of the werewolf superstition. [G. lykos, wolf, + anthropos, man]

lycoctonine (li-kok′to-nen)
An alkaloid, C25H41NO7, obtained from Aconitum lycoctonum, an exceedingly poisonous species of aconite; it also occurs in other species of Aconitum and Delphinium.

lycopene (li′ko-pen)
Ψ,Ψ-Carotene;the characteristic red pigment of the tomato that may be considered chemically as the parent substance from which all natural carotenoid pigments are derived; an unsaturated hydrocarbon made up of eight isoprene units, two of them hydrogenated, with 11 conjugated double bonds.

lycopenemia (li′ko-pe-ne′me-a)
A condition in which there is a high concentration of lycopene in the blood, producing carotenoidlike yellowish pigmentation of the skin; found in people who consume excessive amounts of tomatoes or tomato juice, or lycopene-containing fruits and berries. [lycopene + G. haima, blood]

Lycoperdon (liko-per′don)
A genus of fungi (family Lycoperdaceae), some species of which have been used medicinally, e.g., in folk medicine, by nasal inhalation to treat epistaxis. The spores of L. bovista (L. gemmatum, L. caelatum) and of L. pyriforme may rarely produce lycoperdonosis. SYN: puffball. [G. lykos, wolf, + perdomai, to break wind]

lycoperdonosis (li′ko-per-don-o′sis)
A persisting pneumonitis following inhalation of spores of the puffballs Lycoperdon pyriforme and L. bovista.

lycophora (li-kof′o-ra)
The 10-hooked larva of primitive tapeworms of the subclass Cestodaria.

lycopodium (li-ko-po′de-um)
The spores of L. clavatum (family Lycopodiaceae) and other species of L.; a yellow, tasteless, and odorless powder; was used as a dusting powder and in pharmacy to prevent the agglutination of pills in a box. SYN: club moss, vegetable sulfur. [G. lykos, wolf, + pous, foot]

lye (li)
The liquid obtained by leaching wood ashes. See potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide. SYN: lixivium. [A.S. leáh]

Aian. See L. disease, L. syndrome.

Lymnaea (lim-ne′a)
A genus of snails, species of which are invertebrate hosts for the liver or sheep liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, and other trematodes. [G. limne, marsh]

lymph (limf) [TA]
A clear, transparent, sometimes faintly yellow and slightly opalescent fluid that is collected from the tissues throughout the body, flows in the lymphatic vessels (through the l. nodes), and is eventually added to the venous blood circulation. L. consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells (chiefly lymphocytes), and a few red blood cells. SYN: lympha [TA] . [L. lympha, clear spring water] aplastic l. l. containing a relatively large number of leukocytes, but comparatively little fibrinogen; such l. does not form a good clot and manifests only a slight tendency to become organized. SYN: corpuscular l.. blood l. l. exuded from the blood vessels and not derived from the fluid in the tissue spaces. corpuscular l. SYN: aplastic l.. croupous l. a form of inflammatory l. with an unusually large content of fibrinogen; as a result of the fibrin that is formed in relatively dense mats, a pseudomembrane is likely to be produced. dental l. SYN: dentinal fluid. euplastic l. l. that contains relatively few leukocytes, but a comparatively high concentration of fibrinogen; such l. clots fairly well and tends to become organized with fibrous tissue. fibrinous l. a euplastic or croupous l.. inflammatory l. a faintly yellow, usually coagulable fluid ( i.e., euplastic l.) that collects on the surface of an acutely inflamed membrane or cutaneous wound. intercellular l. the fluid in the potential spaces between cells in the various organs and tissues. intravascular l. l. within the lymphatic vessels, in contrast to intercellular l. and l. that has exuded from the vessels. plastic l. inflammatory l. that has a tendency to become organized. tissue l. true l., i.e., l. derived chiefly from fluid in tissue spaces (in contrast to blood l.). vaccine l., vaccinia l. that collected from the vesicles of vaccinia infection, and used for active immunization against smallpox.

See lympho-.

lympha (lim′fa) [TA]
SYN: lymph. [L.]

lymphaden (limf′a-den)
SYN: lymph node. [lymph- + G. aden, gland]

See lymphadeno-.

lymphadenectomy (lim-fad-e-nek′to-me)
Excision of lymph nodes. [lymphadeno- + G. ektome, excision]


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