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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


macrochylomicron (mak′ro-ki-lo-mi′kron)
An unusually large chylomicron.

macrocnemia (mak-ro-ne′me-a)
A condition characterized by enlargement of the legs below the knee. [macro- + G. kneme, leg]

macrococcus (mak′ro-kok′us)
SYN: megacoccus.

macrocolon (mak′ro-ko′lon)
A sigmoid colon of unusual length; a variety of megacolon.

macroconidium, pl .macroconidia (mak′ro-ko-nid′e-um, -a)
1. A conidium, or exospore, of large size. 2. In fungi, the larger of two distinctively different-sized types of conidia in a single species, thick- or thin-walled and composed of 2 to 10 cells; characteristic of most dermatophytes and some other genera e.g., Histoplasma, Fusarium. [macro- + Mod. L. dim. fr. G. konis, dust]

macrocornea (mak-ro-kor′ne-a)
An abnormally large cornea.

macrocranium (mak-ro-kra′ne-um)
An enlarged skull, especially the bones containing the brain, as seen in hydrocephalus; the face appears relatively small in comparison.

macrocryoglobulin (mak-ro-kri-o-glob′u-lin)
A macroglobulin that has the properties of a cryoglobulin.

macrocryoglobulinemia (mak′ro-kri-o-glob′u-lin-e′me-a)
The presence of cold-precipitating macroglobulins in the peripheral blood; such macrocryoglobulins are often called cold hemagglutinins.

macrocyst (mak′ro-sist)
A cyst of macroscopic proportions.

macrocyte (mak′ro-sit)
A large erythrocyte, such as those observed in pernicious anemia. SYN: macroerythrocyte. [macro- + G. kytos, a hollow (cell)]

macrocythemia (mak′ro-si-the′me-a)
The occurrence of unusually large numbers of macrocytes in the circulating blood. SYN: macrocytosis, megalocythemia, megalocytosis. [macrocyte + G. haima, blood] hyperchromatic m. an inexact term frequently used for macrocytes that contain an unusually large amount of hemoglobin, but are actually normochromic; although the total mass of hemoglobin is greater than normal (owing to the large cells), the percentage of hemoglobin in the cells is not greater than normal.

macrocytosis (mak′ro-si-to′sis)
SYN: macrocythemia. [macrocyte + G. -osis, condition]

macrodactylia, macrodactylism, macrodactyly (mak-ro-dak-til′e-a, -dak′til-izm, dak′ti-le)
SYN: megadactyly.

macrodont (mak′ro-dont)
1. A tooth of abnormally large and frequently distorted proportions; the condition may be localized or generalized. 2. Denoting a skull with a dental index above 44. SYN: megadont, megalodont. [macro- + G. odous (odont-), tooth]

macrodontia, macrodontism (mak-ro-don′she-a, -don′tizm)
The state of having abnormally large teeth. SYN: megadontism, megalodontia.

macrodystrophia lipomatosa (mak′ro-dis-tro′fe-a lip-o-ma-to′sa)
A rare nonfamilial disease characterized by enlargement of the fingers by lipomas, with painful degenerative arthropathy of the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints.

macroelements (mak′ro-el′e-ments)
Inorganic nutrients needed in relatively high daily amounts ( i.e., more than 100 mg per day) e.g., calcium, phosphorus, sodium, etc. SYN: macrominerals.

macroencephalon (mak′ro-en-sef′a-lon)
SYN: megaloencephalon. [macro- + G. enkephalos, brain]

macroerythroblast (mak′ro-e-rith′ro-blast)
A large erythroblast. SYN: macronormochromoblast.

macroerythrocyte (mak′ro-e-rith′ro-sit)
SYN: macrocyte.

macroesthesia (mak′ro-es-the′ze-a)
A subjective sensation that all objects are larger than they are. [macro- + G. aisthesis, sensation]

macrogamete (mak-ro-gam′et)
The female element in anisogamy; it is the larger of the two sex cells, with more reserve material, and usually nonmotile. SYN: megagamete. [macro- + G. gamete, wife]

macrogametocyte (mak′ro-ga-me′to-sit)
The female gametocyte or mother cell producing the female or macrogamete among fungi or protozoa that undergo anisogamy. SYN: macrogamont.

macrogamont (mak-ro-gam′ont)
SYN: macrogametocyte.

macrogamy (ma-krog′a-me)
Conjugation of two adult cells or gametes. [macro- + G. gamos, marriage]

macrogastria (mak-ro-gas′tre-a)
SYN: megalogastria.

macrogenitosomia (mak′ro-jen′i-to-so′me-a)
Excessive bodily and genital development. [macro- + L. genitalis, genital, + G. soma, body] m. praecox a disorder in which gonadal maturation (puberty) and the adolescent growth spurt in bodily height occur in the first decade of life; often associated with a pineal tumor or lesions in hypothalamic areas known to regulate gonadotrophin secretion. SYN: Pellizzi syndrome. m. praecox suprarenalis precocious somatic growth and isosexual maturation of secondary sexual characteristics, resulting from an adrenocortical tumor.

macroglia (ma-krog′le-a)
SYN: astrocyte. [macro- + G. glia, glue]

macroglobulinemia (mak′ro-glob′u-li-ne′me-a)
The presence of increased levels of macroglobulins in the circulating blood. Waldenström m. m. occurring in elderly persons, characterized by proliferation of cells resembling lymphocytes or plasma cells in the bone marrow, anemia, increased sedimentation rate, and hyperglobulinemia with a narrow peak in γ-globulin or β2-globulin at about 19 S units. The spleen, liver, or lymph nodes are often enlarged and there is frequently purpura or mucosal bleeding. SYN: hyperglobulinemic purpura, Waldenström purpura, Waldenström syndrome.

macroglobulins (mak-ro-glob′u-lins)
Plasma globulins of unusually large molecular weight, e.g., as much as 1,000,000; α2-macroglobulin inhibits thrombin and other proteases.

macroglossia (mak-ro-glos′e-a)
Enlargement of the tongue, either developmental in origin or secondary to a neoplasm or vascular hamartoma. SYN: megaloglossia. [macro- + G. glossa, tongue]

macrognathia (mak-ro-na′the-a)
Enlargement or elongation of the jaw. SYN: megagnathia. [macro- + G. gnathos, jaw]

macrography (ma-krog′ra-fe)
Rarely used term for writing with very large letters. SYN: megalographia. [macro- + G. grapho, to write]

macrogyria (mak-ro-ji′re-a)
SYN: pachygyria. [macro- + G. gyros, circle (gyrus)]

macrolabia (mak′ro-la′be-a)
SYN: macrocheilia (1) . [macro- + L. labium, lip]

macroleukoblast (mak-ro-loo′ko-blast)
An unusually large leukoblast.

macrolide (mak′ro-lid)
A natural lactone, whose ring is large, usually of 14–20 atoms; several antibiotics, including erythromycin, are macrolides. They inhibit protein biosynthesis.

macrolides (mak′ro-lidz)
A class of antibiotics discovered in streptomycetes, characterized by molecules made up of large-ring lactones; e.g., erythromycin; many inhibit protein biosynthesis.

macromastia, macromazia (mak-ro-mas′te-a, -ma′ze-a)
Abnormally large breasts. SEE ALSO: hypermastia (2) . [macro- + G. mastos, breast]

macromelanosome (mak-ro-mel′a-no-som)
SYN: giant melanosome.

macromelia (mak-ro-me′le-a)
Abnormal size of one or more of the limbs. SYN: megalomelia. [macro- + G. melos, limb]

macromere
A blastomere of large size, as in amphibians. [macro- + G. meros, part]

macromerozoite (mak′ro-mer-o-zo′it)
A large merozoite. SYN: megamerozoite. [macro- + G. meros, part, + zoon, animal]

macrominerals (mak-ro-min-er-alz)
SYN: macroelements.

macromolecule (mak-ro-mol′e-kul)
A molecule of colloidal size; e.g., proteins, polynucleic acids, polysaccharides.

macromonocyte (mak-ro-mon′o-sit)
An unusually large monocyte.

macromyeloblast (mak-ro-mi′e-lo-blast)
An abnormally large myeloblast.

macronormoblast (mak-ro-nor′mo-blast)
1. A large normoblast. 2. A large, incompletely hemoglobiniferous, nucleated red blood cell with a “cart-wheel” nucleus.

macronormochromoblast (mak′ro-nor-mo-kro′mo-blast)
SYN: macroerythroblast.

macronucleus (mak-ro-noo′kle-us)
1. A nucleus that occupies a relatively large portion of the cell, or the larger nucleus where two or more are present in a cell. SYN: meganucleus. 2. The larger of the two nuclei in ciliates, which governs vegetative metabolic functions and not reproduction. SYN: somatic nucleus, trophic nucleus, trophonucleus. SEE ALSO: micronucleus (2) .

macronutrients (mak-ro-noo′tre-ents)
Nutrients required in the greatest amount; e.g., carbohydrates, protein, fats.

macronychia (mak-ro-nik′e-a)
Abnormally large fingernails or toenails. [macro- + G. onyx, nail]

macroorchidism (mak-ro-or′ki-dizm)
Having abnormally large testes; seen in males with fragile X syndrome. [macro- + G. orchis (orchid-), testicle]

macroparasite (mak-ro-par′a-sit)
A parasite, such as a louse or an intestinal worm, that is visible to the naked eye.

macropathology (mak′ro-pa-thol′o-je)
The phase of pathology that pertains to the gross anatomic changes in disease.

macropenis (mak-ro-pe′nis)
An abnormally large penis. SYN: macrophallus.

macrophage (mak′ro-faj)
Any mononuclear, actively phagocytic cell arising from monocytic stem cells in the bone marrow; these cells are widely distributed in the body and vary in morphology and motility, though most are large, long-lived cells with a nearly round nucleus and have abundant endocytic vacuoles, lysosomes, and phagolysosomes. Phagocytic activity is typically mediated by serum recognition factors, including certain immunoglobulins and components of the complement system, but also may be nonspecific for some inert materials and bacteria, as in the case of alveolar macrophages; macrophages also are involved in both the production of antibodies and in cell-mediated immune responses, participate in presenting antigens to lymphocytes, and secrete a variety of immunoregulatory molecules. SYN: macrophagocyte, rhagiocrine cell. [macro- + G. phago, to eat] activated m. a mature m., in an active metabolic state, that is cytotoxic to tumor/target cells, usually following exposure to certain cytokines. SYN: armed m.. alveolar m. a vigorously phagocytic m. on the epithelial surface of lung alveoli where it ingests inhaled particulate matter. SYN: coniophage, dust cell. armed m. SYN: activated m.. fixed m. a relatively immotile m. found in connective tissue, lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. SYN: resting wandering cell. free m. an actively motile m. typically found in sites of inflammation. Hansemann m. obsolete term for large histiocytes with abundant cytoplasm that may contain Michaelis-Gutmann bodies and one or several nuclei; described in lesions of malacoplakia. inflammatory m. a m. found at sites of inflammation. tangible body m. a m. that specializes in phagocytosis of lymphoid cells.

macrophagocyte (mak-ro-fag′o-sit)
SYN: macrophage.

macrophallus (mak-ro-fal′lus)
SYN: macropenis. [macro- + G. phallos, penis]

macrophthalmia (mak-rof-thal′me-a)
SYN: megalophthalmos. [macro- + G. ophthalmos, eye]

macropodia (mak-ro-po′de-a)
Abnormally large feet. SYN: megalopodia, pes gigas. [macro- + G. pous, foot]

macropolycyte (mak-ro-pol′e-sit)
An unusually large polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte that contains a multisegmented nucleus ( e.g., 8, 10, or more lobes); the arrangement of chromatin is less compact than in the normal neutrophil, and the cytoplasmic granules tend to be larger and more acidophilic. Such changes frequently precede significant alterations in the red blood cells, e.g., as in pernicious anemia and certain other forms of anemia. [macro- + G. polys, many, + kytos, cell]

macropromyelocyte (mak′ro-pro-mi′e-lo-sit)
An unusually large promyelocyte.

macroprosopia (mak′ro-pro-so′pe-a)
A condition in which the face is too large in proportion to the size of the cranial vault. SYN: megaprosopia. [macro- + G. prosopon, face]

macroprosopous (mak-ro-pro′so-pus, -pro-so′pus)
Relating to or exhibiting macroprosopia. SYN: megaprosopous.

macropsia (ma-krop′se-a)
Perception of objects as larger than they are. [macro- + G. opsis, vision]

macrorhinia (mak-ro-rin′e-a)
Excessive size of the nose, either congenital or pathologic. [macro- + G. rhis (rhin-), nose]

macroscelia (mak-ro-se′le-a)
Abnormally increased length or thickness of the legs. [macro- + G. skelos, leg]

macroscopic (mak-ro-skop′ik)
1. Of a size visible with the naked eye or without the use of a microscope. 2. Relating to macroscopy.

macroscopy (ma-kros′ko-pe)
Examination of objects with the naked eye. [macro- + G. skopeo, to view]




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