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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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mallebrin (mal′e-brin)
SYN: aluminum chlorate nonahydrate.

malleoincudal (mal′e-o-ing′koo-dal)
Relating to the malleus and the incus in the tympanum.

malleolar (ma-le′o-lar)
Relating to one or both malleoli.

malleolus, pl .malleoli (ma-le′o-lus, -li) [TA]
A rounded bony prominence such as those on either side of the ankle joint. [L. dim. of malleus, hammer] external m. SYN: lateral m.. inner m. SYN: medial m.. internal m. SYN: medial m.. lateral m. [TA] the process at the lateral side of the lower end of the fibula, forming the projection of the lateral part of the ankle; the lateral m. extends farther inferiorly than the medial m.. SYN: m. lateralis [TA] , external m., extramalleolus, outer m.. m. lateralis [TA] SYN: lateral m.. medial m. [TA] the process at the medial side of the lower end of the tibia, forming the projection of the medial side of the ankle; the medial m. lies superior to the level of the lateral m.. SYN: m. medialis [TA] , inner m., internal m.. m. medialis [TA] SYN: medial m.. outer m. SYN: lateral m..

malleotomy (mal′e-ot′o-me)
Division of the malleus. [malleus + G. tome, incision]

malleus, gen. and pl. mallei (mal′e-us, mal′e-i) [TA]
The largest of the three auditory ossicles, resembling a club rather than a hammer; it is regarded as having a head, below which is the neck, and from this diverge the handle or manubrium, and the slender, anterior process; from the base of the manubrium the short lateral process arises. The manubrium and lateral process are firmly attached to the tympanic membrane, and the head articulates with a saddle-shaped surface on the body of the incus. SYN: hammer. [L. a hammer]

Mallophaga (ma-lof′a-ga)
An order of biting lice that cause irritation by feeding on hair, feathers, and skin, and on blood and exudates when present; most species are found on birds, but some are found on common domestic animals. The genera Menacanthus and Menopon (family Menoponidae) attack domestic fowl, as do Columbicola, Chelopistes, Lipeurus, and other genera of the family Philopteridae, while Bovicola, Felicola, and Trichodectes (family Trichodectidae) infest domestic mammals. [G. mallos, wool, + phagein, to eat]

Mallory
G. Kenneth, U.S. pathologist, *1926. See M.-Weiss lesion, M.-Weiss syndrome, M.-Weiss tear.

Mallory
Frank B., U.S. pathologist, 1862–1941. See M. bodies, under body, picro-M. trichrome stain. See entries under stain.

malnutrition (mal-noo-trish′un)
Faulty nutrition resulting from malabsorption, poor diet, or overeating. malignant m. SYN: kwashiorkor. protein m. undernutrition resulting from inadequate intake of protein; characteristic manifestations include nutritional edema, kwashiorkor.

malocclusion (mal-o-kloo′zhun)
1. Any deviation from a physiologically acceptable contact of opposing dentitions. 2. Any deviation from a normal occlusion.

malonate (mal′on-at)
The salt or ester of malonic acid.

malonate semialdehyde
The transaminated product of β-alanine; elevated in hyper-β-alaninemia.

Maloney bougies
See under bougie.

malonic acid (ma-lo′nik, -lon′ik)
A dicarboxylic acid of importance in intermediary metabolism; an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase. SYN: propanedioic acid.

malonyl (mal′o-nil)
The divalent moiety derived from malonic acid. m. transacylase SYN: ACP-malonyltransferase.

malonyl-CoA
The condensation product of malonic acid and coenzyme A, an intermediate in fatty acid biosynthesis. SYN: malonylcoenzyme A.

malonylcoenzyme A (mal′o-nil-ko-en′zim)
SYN: malonyl-CoA.

malonylurea (mal′o-nil-u-re′a)
SYN: barbituric acid.

Malpighi
Marcello, Italian anatomist, histologist, and embryologist, 1628–1694. See malpighian bodies, under body, malpighian capsule, malpighian cell, malpighian corpuscles, under corpuscle, malpighian glands, under gland, malpighian glomerulus, malpighian layer, malpighian nodules, under nodule, malpighian pyramid, malpighian rete, malpighian stigmas, under stigma, malpighian stratum, malpighian tubules, under tubule, malpighian tuft, malpighian vesicles, under vesicle.

malpighian (mahl-pig′e-an)
Described by or attributed to Marcello Malpighi.

malposition (mal-po-zish′un)
SYN: dystopia.

malpractice (mal-prak′tis)
Mistreatment of a patient through ignorance, carelessness, neglect, or criminal intent.

malpresentation (mal′pre-sen-ta′shun)
Faulty presentation of the fetus; presentation of any part other than the occiput.

malrotation (mal-ro-ta′shun)
Failure during embryonic development of normal rotation of all or part of an organ or system such as gut tube or kidney.

MALT
Abbreviation for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.

malt (mawlt)
The seed of barley or other grain, artificially germinated and dried, containing dextrin, maltose, small amounts of glucose, and amylolytic enzymes. Used in the form of an extract as a digestive and flavoring agent. [A.S. mealt]

maltase (mawl-tas)
See α-d-glucosidase. acid m. SYN: exo-1,4-α-d-glucosidase.

maltobiose (mawl-to-bi′os)
SYN: maltose.

MALToma
B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. SYN: extranodal marginal zone lymphoma.

maltose (mawl-tos)
A disaccharide formed in the hydrolysis of starch and consisting of two d-glucose residues bound by a 1,4-α-glycoside link. SYN: malt sugar, maltobiose.

maltotetrose (mawl-to-tet′ros)
A saccharide composed of four d-glucose units in the α-1,4 linkage.

malum (ma′lum)
A disease. [L. an evil] m. articulorum senilis arthritis in the aged. m. perforans pedis perforating ulcer of the foot occurring in certain neuropathies. m. venereum SYN: syphilis.

malunion (mal-un′yun)
Union of the ends of a broken bone resulting in a deformity or a crooked limb; frequently used interchangeably with faulty union. SYN: vicious union.

mamanpian (ma-mon-pe-on′)
Formerly used term for mother yaw. [Fr. maman, mother + pian, yaw]

mamelon (mam′e-lon)
One of the rounded prominences, three in number, on the cutting edge of an incisor tooth when it first pierces the gum. [Fr. nipple]

mamelonated (mam′e-lon-at-ed)
Having rounded, teatlike elevations; nodulated. [Fr. mamelon, nipple]

mamelonation (mam′e-lo-na′shun)
The formation of rounded projections or nodules on bony and other structures.

mamil-, mamilli-
The mamillae. SEE ALSO: mammil-. Cf.:thelo-. [L. mamilla, nipple]

mamma, gen. and pl. mammae (mam′a, mam′e) [TA]
SYN: breast. SEE ALSO: mammary gland. [L.] m. accessoria [TA] SYN: accessory breast. m. erratica a supernumerary breast aberrantly located, i.e., in some part other than the milk line. m. masculina [TA] SYN: male breast. supernumerary m. SYN: accessory breast. m. virilis SYN: male breast.

mammal (mam′al)
An animal of the class Mammalia.

mammalgia (ma-mal′je-a)
SYN: mastodynia. [L. mamma, breast, + G. algos, pain]

Mammalia (ma-ma′le-a)
The highest class of living organisms; it includes all the vertebrate animals (monotremes, marsupials, and placentals) that suckle their young, possess hair, and (except for the egg-laying monotremes) bring forth living young rather than eggs. [L. mamma, breast]

mammaplasty (mam′a-plas-te)
Plastic surgery of the breast to alter its shape, size, or position, or all of these. SYN: mammoplasty, mastoplasty. [L. mamma, breast, + G. plastos, formed] augmentation m. plastic surgery to enlarge the breast, often by insertion of an implant. reconstructive m. making a simulated breast by plastic surgery, to replace a breast that has been removed. reduction m. plastic surgery of the breast to reduce its size and (frequently) to improve its shape and position.

mammary (mam′a-re)
Relating to the breasts.

mammectomy (ma-mek′to-me)
SYN: mastectomy. [L. mamma, breast, + ektome, excision]

mammiform (mam′i-form)
Resembling a breast; breast-shaped. SYN: mammose (1) . [L. mamma, breast, + forma, form]

mammil-, mammilli-
The mamillae. SEE ALSO: mamil-. Cf.:thelo-. [L. mammilla (mamilla), nipple]

mammilla, pl .mammillae (ma-mil′a, ma-mil′e)
1. A small rounded elevation resembling the female breast. 2. SYN: nipple. [L. nipple]

mammillaplasty (ma-mil′a-plas-te)
Plastic surgery of the nipple and areola. [L. mammilla, nipple, + G. plastos, formed]

mammillare (mam-i-la′re) [TA]
SYN: mammillary. [L.]

mammillaria
See mammillary body.

mammillary (mam′i-lar-e) [TA]
Relating to or shaped like a nipple. SYN: mammillare [TA] .

mammillate (mam′i-lat)
Studded with nipple-like projections.

mammillation (mam-i-la′shun)
1. A nipple-like projection. 2. The condition of being mamillated.

mammilliform (ma-mil′i-form)
Nipple-shaped. [L. mamilla, nipple, + forma, form]

mammillitis (mam-i-li′tis)
Inflammation of the nipple. [L., mamilla, nipple, + G. -itis, inflammation]

mammo-
The breasts. Cf.:masto-. [L. mamma, breast]

mammogram (mam′o-gram)
The record produced by mammography.

mammography (ma-mog′ra-fe)
Radiologic examination of the female breast with equipment and techniques designed to screen for cancer. [mammo- + G. grapho, to write] M. can detect carcinoma of the breast sometimes as early as 2 years before it becomes palpable and in many cases before lymph node metastasis has occurred. Mammographic findings that strongly suggest carcinoma are microcalcifications and ill-defined densities within breast tissue. These findings are not specific, however, and the cumulative probability of a woman's having a false-positive mammogram during 10 years of annual examinations approaches 50%. Scintimammography after intravenous injection of Tc-99m sestamibi may be used to follow up an equivocal mammogram. Positron emission tomography (PET) has shown promise in discriminating between benign and malignant breast masses as well as in detecting axillary lymph node metastases in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and distant metastases in patients with advanced or recurrent breast carcinoma. Because of the high cost of this procedure, its use is currently limited to high-risk subjects and those with dense breasts. The value of m. in the early detection of breast cancer is well established for women of average risk aged 50–69 years. For this group, annual m. reduces breast cancer mortality by 30–40%. Analysis of numerous clinical studies has revealed that mammograms may not save lives for healthy women under 50 (only 17% of all breast cancers occur in women under 40). The higher density of breast tissue in younger women limits the ability of radiography to identify tumors in women aged 40–50, for whom ultrasonography is preferred in evaluation of palpable breast lesions. Research has suggested that for a small fraction of women, exposure to radiation during m. may actually trigger breast cancer. The American Cancer Society, the National Cancer Institute, and the American College of Radiology recommend a baseline mammogram for all women by age 40 and annual mammograms after age 50. Mammograms should begin at age 25 for women who are at special risk because of family history. Because some 10% of breast cancers that can be felt on examination are missed by m., annual examination of the breasts by a physician is also recommended. Surveillance by the Food and Drug Administration has shown an improvement in the sensitivity of mammograms during the past 5 years, largely because of improvements in screen and film systems. A digital scanning technique approved in 1998 further enhances the detection of microcalcifications and spiculated masses on m.. However, m. remains a screening procedure, and diagnosis of breast lesions depends on physical examination and biopsy findings. Federal law requires all facilities in the U.S. that perform m. to provide each examinee with a report of the results in clear, simple language within 30 days after the examination, besides a detailed report to the physician who ordered the examination. See Also carcinoma of the breast.

Mammomonogamus (mam′o-mon-og′a-mus)
Genus of syngamid trematode (family Syngamidae) found in the respiratory system of ruminants and occasionally reported in humans; worms usually joined together in a Y-shaped formation. M. laryngeus nematode found in upper respiratory tract of some mammals; approximately 100 human cases, most from Caribbean islands; worm is red to reddish-brown; copulating male and female present a Y shape; life cycle not known.

mammoplasty (mam′o-plas-te)
SYN: mammaplasty. [mammo- + G. plastos, formed]

mammose (mam′mos)
1. SYN: mammiform. 2. Having large breasts.

mammosomatotroph (mam′o-so-mat′o-trof)
A cell of the adenohypophysis that produces prolactin and somatotropin.

mammotomy (ma-mot′o-me)
SYN: mastotomy. [mammo- + G. tome, incision]

mammotroph (mam′o-trof)
An acidophilic cell of the adenohypophysis that produces prolactin. SYN: prolactin cell.

mammotropic, mammotrophic (mam-o-trop′ik, -trof′ik)
Having a stimulating effect upon the development, growth, or function of the mammary glands. [mammo- + G. tropos, a turning]

mammotropin, mammotrophin (mam-o-tro′pin, -tro′fin)
Obsolete term for prolactin.

Man
Symbol for mannose and mannosyl.

management
component m. the approach to health care cost containment that involves trying to control individual components such as drug, hospitalization, or laboratory testing costs. SEE ALSO: managed care.




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