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Medical Dictionary


manchette (man-shet′)
A conical array of microtubules that invests the nucleus of a spermatid; believed to play a role in shaping the nucleus during spermatogenesis. [Fr. cuff, dim. of manche, sleeve, fr. L. manicae; fr. manus, hand]

mandelate (man′de-lat)
A salt or ester of mandelic acid.

mandelic acid (man-del′ik)
A urinary antibacterial agent (both bactericidal and bacteriostatic). SYN: hydroxytoluic acid, phenylglycolic acid. [Ger. Mandel, almond]

Mandelin reagent
See under reagent.

mandelytropine (man-de-lit′ro-pen)
SYN: homatropine.

mandible (man′di-bl) [TA]
A U-shaped bone (in superior view), forming the lower jaw, articulating by its upturned extremities with the temporal bone on either side. SYN: mandibula [TA] , jaw bone, lower jaw, mandibulum, submaxilla.

mandibula, pl .mandibulae (man-dib′u-la, -le) [TA]
SYN: mandible. [L. a jaw, fr. mando, pp. mansus, to chew]

mandibular (man-dib′u-lar)
Relating to the lower jaw. SYN: inframaxillary, submaxillary (1) .

mandibulectomy (man-dib-u-lek′to-me)
Resection of the lower jaw. [mandibula + G. ektome, excision]

mandibulofacial (man-dib′u-lo-fa′shal)
Relating to the mandible and the face.

mandibulo-oculofacial (man-dib′u-lo-ok′u-lo-fa′shal)
Relating to the mandible and the orbital part of the face.

mandibulopharyngeal (man-dib′u-lo-fa-rin′je-al)
Relating to the mandible and the pharynx; denoting the region between the pharynx and the ramus of the mandible, in which are found the internal carotid artery, the internal jugular vein, and the vagus, glossopharyngeal, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves.

mandibulum (man-dib′u-lum)
SYN: mandible.

mandragora (man-drag′o-ra)
The European mandrake, M. officinalis, or Atropa m. (family Solanaceae), the mandrake of the Bible; its properties are similar to those of stramonium, hyoscyamus, and belladonna. [G. mandragoras]

mandrake (man′drak)
1. See mandragora. 2. See podophyllum. [thr. L., fr. G. mandragoras] wild m. SYN: podophyllum resin.

mandrel, mandril
1. The shaft or spindle to which a tool is attached and by means of which it is rotated. 2. SYN: mandrin. 3. In dentistry, an instrument used in a handpiece to hold a disk, stone, or cup used for grinding, smoothing, or finishing. [G. mandra, a stable; the bed in which a ring's stone is set]

Common name for a species of monkey of the genus Cynocephalus, with a short tail and doglike head.

A stiff wire or stylet inserted in the lumen of a soft catheter to give it shape and firmness while passing through a hollow tubular structure. SYN: mandrel (2) , mandril. [Fr. m., mandrel]

maneuver (ma-noo′ver)
A planned movement or procedure. [Fr. manoeuvre, fr. L. manu operari, to work by hand] Adson m. SYN: Adson test. Barlow m. test for hip instability, with dislocation occurring with flexion, adduction, and posterior force. SYN: Barlow test. Bill m. forceps rotation of the fetal head at mid-pelvis before extraction of the head. Bracht m. delivery of a fetus in breech position by extension of the legs and trunk of the fetus over the symphysis pubis and abdomen of the mother; the fetal head is born spontaneously as the legs and trunk are lifted above the maternal pelvis, and as the body of the infant is extended by the operator. Buzzard m. testing the patellar reflex while the sitting patient makes firm pressure on the floor with the toes. Credé maneuvers SYN: Credé methods, under method. Dix-Hallpike m. test for eliciting paroxysmal vertigo and nystagmus in which the patient is brought from the sitting to the supine position with the head hanging over the examining table and turned to the right or left; vertigo and nystagmus are elicited when the head is rotated toward the affected ear. Ejrup m. demonstration of collateral circulation by reduction in the prominence of activity of the greater arteries and reduced pulse volume following muscular activity. Hampton m. rolling a supine patient to the right and then left side to obtain an air contrast radiograph of the contrast-coated antrum and duodenum in gastrointestinal fluoroscopy. Heimlich m. an action designed to expel an obstructing bolus of food from the throat by placing a fist on the abdomen between the navel and the costal margin, grasping the fist from behind with the other hand, and forcefully thrusting it inward and upward so as to force the diaphragm upward, forcing air up the trachea to dislodge the obstruction. Hillis-Müller m. manual pressure on the term fundus while a finger in the vagina determines the descent of the head into the pelvis. Hueter m. pressing the patient's tongue downward and forward with the left forefinger in passing a stomach tube. Jendrassik m. a method of emphasizing the patellar reflex: the subject hooks the hands together by the flexed fingers and pulls against them with all possible strength. LeCompte m. a repair of double outlet right ventricle with pulmonary stenosis and other abnormalities of ventricular arterial connection and ventricular septal defect in which the LV is connected to the aorta and the RV to the pulmonary artery using a technique that does not require an extracardiac conduit. SYN: LeCompte operation. Leopold maneuvers four maneuvers employed to determine fetal position: 1) determination of what is in the fundus; 2) evaluation of the fetal back and extremities; 3) palpation of the presenting part above the symphysis; 4) determination of the direction and degree of flexion of the head. load-and-shift m. a test of shoulder instability in which the humeral head is pushed against the glenoid and moved anteriorly and posteriorly. Mauriceau m. a method of assisted breech delivery in which the infant's body is astraddle the right forearm, and the middle finger of the right hand is in the fetal mouth to maintain flexion while traction is made upon the shoulders by the other hand. SYN: Mauriceau-Levret m.. Mauriceau-Levret m. SYN: Mauriceau m.. McDonald m. measurement of uterus from the upper border of the symphysis to a line tangential to the fundus over the abdomen with a tape to determine the height of the uterus; each centimeter approximately corresponds to the gestational age in weeks from 20–34 weeks' gestation. McRoberts m. m. to reduce a fetal shoulder dystocia by flexion of the maternal hips. Müller m. after a forced expiration, an attempt at inspiration is made with closed mouth and nose or closed glottis, whereby the negative pressure in the chest and lungs is made very subatmospheric; the reverse of Valsalva m.. Ortolani m. a m. for reduction of hip dislocation, using thigh flexion and abduction with anterior movement of the femoral head; reduction is accompanied by palpable reseating of the femoral head in the acetabulum. SYN: Ortolani test. Phalen m. m. in which the wrist is maintained in volar flexion; paresthesia occurring in the distribution of the median nerve within 60 sec may be indicative of carpal tunnel syndrome. Pinard m. in management of a frank breech presentation, pressure on the popliteal space is made by the index finger while the other three fingers flex the leg while sliding it along the other thigh as the foot of the flexed leg is brought down and out. Ritgen m. delivery of a child's head by pressure on the perineum while controlling the speed of delivery by pressure with the other hand on the head. Scanzoni m. forceps rotation and traction in a spiral course, with reapplication of forceps for delivery. Sellick m. pressure applied to the cricoid cartilage, to prevent regurgitation during tracheal intubation in the anesthetized patient. Valsalva m. any forced expiratory effort (“strain”) against a closed airway, whether at the nose and mouth or at the glottis, the reverse of Müller m.; because high intrathoracic pressure impedes venous return to the right atrium, this m. is used to study cardiovascular effects of raised peripheral venous pressure and decreased cardiac filling and cardiac output, as well as post-strain responses. Wigand m. an assisted breech delivery with pressure above the symphysis while the fetus lies astraddle the operator's other arm. Zavanelli m. SYN: cephalic replacement.

manganese (Mn) (mang′ga-nez)
A metallic element resembling and often associated, particularly in ores, with iron; atomic no. 25, atomic wt. 54.94; manganous salts are sometimes used in medicine. SYN: manganum. [Mod. L. manganesium, manganum, an altered form of magnesium]

manganic (mang-gan′ik)
Denoting the trivalent cation of manganese, Mn3+.

manganous (mang′ga-nus)
Denoting the divalent cation of manganese, Mn2+.

manganum (man′ga-num)
SYN: manganese. [L.]

mange (manj)
A cutaneous disease of domestic and wild animals caused by any one of several genera of skin-burrowing mites; in humans, mite infestations are usually referred to as scabies. [Fr. manger, to eat] demodectic m. an infestation of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands with mites of the genus Demodex; they occur in humans and a number of domesticated animals; although asymptomatic in most species, these mites can cause severe and extensive dermatitis (“red m.”) in dogs. See Demodex. sarcoptic m. a cutaneous disease of animals caused by mites of the genus Sarcoptes including Sarcoptes scabiei.

John H., U.S. dentist, *1919 See Volpe-M. Index.

mania (ma′ne-a)
An emotional disorder characterized by euphoria or irritability, increased psychomotor activity, rapid speech, flight of ideas, decreased need for sleep, distractibility, grandiosity, and poor judgment; usually occurs in bipolar disorder. See manic-depressive, manic excitement. [G. frenzy] acute m. SYN: manic excitement.

An abnormal love for, or morbid impulse toward, some specific object, place, or action. [G. frenzy]

maniac (ma′ne-ak)
1. Obsolete term for a mentally ill or disturbed person. 2. One suffering from mania.

maniacal (ma-ni′a-kal)
Relating to or characterized by mania. See amok. SYN: manic.

manic (man′ik, ma′nik)
SYN: maniacal.

1. Pertaining to a m. psychosis (bipolar disorder). 2. One suffering from such a disorder.

manicky (man′i-ke)
Behavior characteristic of the manic phase of bipolar disorder.

manifestation (man′i-fes-ta′shun)
The display or disclosure of characteristic signs or symptoms of an illness. [L. manifestus, caught in the act] behavioral m. a m. characterized by defects in personality structure and attendant behavior with minimal anxiety and little or no sense of distress, indicative of a psychiatric disorder; occasionally encephalitis or head injury will produce the clinical picture which is properly diagnosed as chronic brain disorder with behavioral manifestations. neurotic m. a m. characterized by such defenses as conversion, dissociation, displacement, phobia formation, or repetitive thoughts and acts being utilized to handle anxiety; in contrast to psychotic manifestations, gross distortion or falsification of reality is not exhibited, and gross disintegration of the personality is not usually observed. psychophysiologic m. a m. characterized by the visceral expression of affect, the symptoms due to a chronic and exaggerated state of the physiologic expression of emotion with the feeling repressed; such manifestations are commonly characteristic of psychosomatic disorders. psychotic m. a m. characterized by thoughts, feelings, and behavior evidencing a varying degree of personality disintegration and distortion or falsification of reality in various spheres; persons exhibiting such a m. fail in effective relationships to other people or to their work.

manikin (man′i-kin)
A model, especially one with removable pieces, of the human body or any of its parts. SEE ALSO: phantom (2) . [dim. of man]

maniphalanx (man′i-fa′langks)
A phalanx of the hand; a bony segment of a finger; distinguished from pediphalanx. [L. manus, hand, + phalanx]

Frank C., U.S. surgeon, 1887–1962. See M.-Bollman fistula, M.-Williamson operation, M.-Williamson ulcer.

manna (man′a)
A saccharine exudation from Fraxinus ornus, flowering ash, a tree of the Mediterranean shores, used as a laxative, especially for children. It is available as m. cannellata, a flake m.; m. in lacrimis, m. in tears or small flakes; and m. communis or m. in sortis, m. in sorts. [L., fr. G. m., fr. Heb. man]

mannans (man′anz)
1. Polysaccharides of mannose, found in various legumes and in the ivory nut. 2. Polysaccharides in which mannose is the monosaccharide present in highest proportion. SYN: mannosans.

mannerism (man′er-izm)
A peculiar or unusual characteristic mode of movement, action, or speech.

mannite (man′it)
SYN: mannitol.

mannitol (man′i-tol)
The hexahydric alcohol, widespread in plants, derived by reduction of fructose; used in renal function testing to measure glomerular filtration, and intravenously as an osmotic diuretic. SYN: manna sugar, mannite. m. hexanitrate an explosive compound formed by the nitration of m.; when diluted with carbohydrate substances (one part of m. hexanitrate to nine or more parts of carbohydrate) it is not explosive, and is used as a vasodilator and hypotensive agent; it is slower in action than nitroglycerin; acts via the formation of nitric oxide. SYN: nitromannitol.

Emil W., German physician, 1836–1918. See M. sign.

Mann methyl blue-eosin stain
See under stain.

mannoheptulose (man-o-hep′too-los)
See d-manno-heptulose.

mannomustine (man-o-mus′ten)
1-6-Bis(2-chloroethylamino)-1,6-dideoxy-d-mannitol dihydrochloride;an antineoplastic agent.

mannoproteins (man′o-pro-tenz)
Yeast cell wall components that are proteins with large numbers of mannose groups attached; highly antigenic.

mannosamine (man-os′a-men)
2-Amino-2-deoxymannose;the d-isomer is a constituent of neuraminic acids as well as mucolipids and mucoproteins.

mannosans (man′o-sanz)
SYN: mannans.

mannose (Man) (man′os)
An aldohexose obtained from various plant sources ( i.e., from mannans); an epimer of glucose.

mannose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase (GDP)
A transferase that catalyzes the reaction of GTP and mannose 1-phosphate to produce GDPmannose and pyrophosphate. SYN: GDPmannose phosphorylase.

mannosephosphate isomerase
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of d-mannose 6-phosphate to d-fructose 6-phosphate; a key step in the synthesis of mannose derivatives, as well as the entry of mannose into the central pathways of carbohydrate metabolism.

mannosidases (man-o′si-das′es)
A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing d-mannose residues of mannosides (particularly in glycoproteins and glycolipids); α-m. act on α-d-mannosides while β-m. act on β-d-mannosides; a deficiency of α-m. is associated with mannosidosis.

mannoside (man′o-sid)
A glycoside of mannose.

mannosidosis (man′o-si-do′sis) [MIM*248500]
Congenital deficiency of α-mannosidase; associated with coarse facial features, enlarged tongue, mental retardation, kyphosis, radiographic skeletal abnormalities, and vacuolated lymphocytes, with accumulation of mannose in tissues; autosomal recessive inheritance, caused by mutation in the alpha-mannosidase gene (MANB) on chromosome 19p.

mannuronic acid (man-u-ron′ik)
Uronic acid derived from the oxidation of mannose; a component of alginic acid.


manometer (ma-nom′e-ter)
An instrument for indicating the pressure of any fluid or the difference in pressure between two fluids, whether gas or liquid. [G. manos, thin, scanty, + metron, measure] aneroid m. a m. in which the pressure is indicated by a revolving pointer moved by a diaphragm or Bourdon tube exposed to the pressure. SYN: dial m.. dial m. SYN: aneroid m.. differential m. any device that indicates the difference in pressure between two fluids, regardless of any changes in their absolute pressures. mercurial m. an m. in which the varying pressures are shown by differences of elevation in a column of mercury.

manometric (man-o-met′rik)
Relating to a manometer.

manometry (ma-nom′e-tre)
Measurement of the pressure of gases or fluids by means of a manometer. SYN: manoscopy. [see manometer] esophageal m. measurement of intra-esophageal pressures at one or more sites by intraluminal pressure-sensitive instruments.

manoscopy (ma-nos′ko-pe)
SYN: manometry.

man. pr.
Abbreviation for L. mane primo, early morning, first thing in the morning.

Sir Patrick, English authority on tropical medicine, 1844–1922. See Mansonella, Mansonia, M. disease, M. schistosomiasis, Schistosoma mansoni, schistosomiasis mansoni, M. eye worm.

Mansonella (man-so-nel′a)
A genus of filaria, widely distributed in tropical Africa and South America, that infects the peritoneal cavity, serous surfaces, or skin of humans and other primates with unsheathed microfilariae. The important human parasites M. perstans and M. streptocerca formerly were placed in the genera Dipetalonema, Acanthocheilonema, and Tetrapetalonema. M. demarquayi SYN: M. ozzardi. M. ozzardi a filarial parasite occurring in Yucatan, Panama, Colombia, northern Argentina, Guyana, French Guiana, and the islands of St. Vincent and Dominica, causing mansonelliasis; the microfilariae are not ensheathed, and there are no nuclei in the pointed tail; the life cycle is similar to that of Wuchereria bancrofti; humans are the only known definitive host, and the intermediate hosts are biting midges, Culicoides furens and possibly C. paraensis. SYN: M. demarquayi, M. tucumana. M. perstans the “persistent filaria,” a species widely prevalent in tropical Africa and northern South America where it infects human peritoneal and other body cavities, but is non- or mildly pathogenic; characteristic subperiodic microfilariae occur in peripheral blood. It is transmitted in Africa by the biting midges Culicoides austeni and C. grahami. M. streptocerca a filarial species in humans that produces nonperiodic sheathless microfilariae found in the circulating blood; may cause a lichenoid condition or edema of the skin; commonly found in the corium of the skin of west African residents and transmitted by the biting midge, Culicoides grahami. M. tucumana SYN: M. ozzardi.

mansonelliasis (man′so-nel-i′a-sis)
Infection with a species of Mansonella, transmitted to humans by biting midges of the genus Culicoides; adult worms live in the serous cavities, especially the peritoneal cavity, in mesenteric and perivisceral adipose tissue, and in the skin.

mansonellosis (man-so-nel′lo-sis)
Infection with the filarial parasite Mansonella ozzardi.

Mansonia (man-so′ne-a)
A genus of brown or black medium-sized mosquitoes (tribe Culicini), often having banded abdomen and legs; larvae and pupae have modified breathing tubes enabling them to pierce aquatic plants to obtain air. M. mosquitoes are distributed worldwide and, in tropical areas, are important vectors of Brugia malayi; in some areas they also transmit Wuchereria bancrofti. [P. Manson]

Mansonoides (man-so-noy′dez)
A subgenus of Mansonia.

Nathan, U.S. biostatistician, *1927. See M.-Haenszel test.

mantle (man′tl)
1. A covering layer. 2. SYN: cerebral cortex. brain m. SYN: cerebral cortex. myoepicardial m. the dorsal wall of the primitive pericardium which, in the early somite embryo, becomes both the epicardium and the myocardium.

Charles, French physician, 1877–1947. See M. pit, M. test.

manual English
A means of communicating in English with a person with profound hearing impairment by a combination of signs, finger spelling, and gestures.

manubrium, pl .manubria (ma-noo′bre-um, -a) [TA]
The portion of the sternum or of the malleus that represents the handle of a sword or hammer. [L. handle] m. mallei SYN: m. of malleus. m. of malleus the handle of the malleus; the portion that extends downward, inward, and backward from the neck of the malleus; it is embedded throughout its length in the tympanic membrane. SYN: m. mallei. m. sterni [TA] SYN: m. of sternum. m. of sternum [TA] the upper segment of the sternum, a flattened, roughly triangular bone, occasionally fused with the body of the sternum, forming with it a slight angle, the sternal angle. SYN: m. sterni [TA] , episternum, presternum.


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