|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
Endoscopic examination of the mediastinum through a suprasternal incision, usually for biopsy of paratracheal lymph nodes. [mediastinum + G. skopeo, to view] anterior m. modification of the Chamberlain procedure in which a mediastinoscope is used for exploration of the anterior mediastinum and subaortic regions. extended m. cervical m. in which, in addition to the standard pre- and paratracheal exploration, the mediastinoscope is passed anterior to the innominate artery and aortic arch to provide access to the subaortic (aortopulmonary window) and anterior mediastinal lymph nodes; an alternative to the Chamberlain procedure.
Incision into the mediastinum. [mediastinum + G. tome, incision] anterior m. SYN: Chamberlain procedure.
1. A septum between two parts of an organ or a cavity. 2. [TA] The median partition of the thoracic cavity, covered by the mediastinal part of the parietal pleura and containing all the thoracic viscera and structures except the lungs. It is divided arbitrarily into two major divisions: a superior m. [TA] (m. superus [TA]), which lies directly superior to a horizontal plane intersecting the sternal angle and approximately the T4–5 intervertebral disk, and an inferior m. [TA] (m. inferius [TA]) inferior to that plane; the latter is, in turn, subdivided in 3 parts: a middle m. [TA] (m. medium [TA]), which is coterminus with the pericardial sac containing the heart, a nearly potential anterior m. [TA] (m. anterius [TA]) lying in front, and a posterior m. [TA] (m. posterius [TA]) behind, containing the esophagus, descending aorta, and thoracic duct. SYN: interpleural space, interpulmonary septum, mediastinal space, septum mediastinale. [Mod. L. a middle septum, fr. Mediev. L. mediastinus, medial, fr. L. mediastinus, a lower servant, fr. medius, middle] anterior m. [TA] the narrow nearly potential space region between the pericardium posteriorly and the sternum anteriorly containing the thymus or its remnants, some lymph nodes and vessels and branches of the internal thoracic artery. SYN: m. anterius [TA] . m. anterius [TA] SYN: anterior m.. inferior m. [TA] the region below a horizontal plane transecting approximately the T4–5 intervertebral disk posteriorly and the sternal angle anteriorly, demarcating the inferior limit of the superior m.. It is subdivided into three regions: middle, anterior, and posterior. SYN: m. inferius [TA] . m. inferius [TA] SYN: inferior m.. m. medium [TA] SYN: middle m.. middle m. [TA] the large central portion of the inferior m., which includes the pericardium and the contained heart, as well as the phrenic nerves and cardiacophrenic vessels. SYN: m. medium [TA] . posterior m. [TA] lies between the pericardium anteriorly and the vertebral column posteriorly and below the level of the plane that interesects the sternal angle and the T4–5 intervertebral disk. It contains the descending aorta, thoracic duct, esophagus, azygos veins, and vagus nerves. SYN: m. posterius [TA] , postmediastinum. m. posterius [TA] SYN: posterior m.. superior m. [TA] part of the m. lying superior to the horizontal plane intersecting the sternal angle and approximately the T4–5 intervertebral disc ( i.e., above the pericardium); it contains the arch of the aorta and the vessels arising from it, the brachiocephalic veins, and upper portion of the superior vena cava, the trachea, the esophagus, the thoracic duct, the thymus, and the phrenic, vagus, cardiac, and left recurrent laryngeal nerves. SYN: m. superius [TA] . m. superius [TA] SYN: superior m.. m. testis [TA] SYN: m. of testis. m. of testis [TA] a mass of fibrous tissue continuous with the tunica albuginea, projecting into the testis from its posterior border; testicular septa radiate as continuations surrounding the testicular lobules. SYN: m. testis [TA] , corpus highmori, corpus highmorianum, Highmore body, septum of testis.
1. (me′de-it)Situated between; intermediate. 2. (me′de-at)To effect something by means of an intermediary substance, as in complement-mediated phagocytosis. [L. mediatus, fr. medio, pp. -atus, to divide in the middle]
The action of an intermediary substance (mediator).
mediator (me′de-a-ter, -tor)
An intermediary substance or thing. pharmacologic mediators of anaphylaxis substances released from mast (and other) cells by the reaction of antigen and specific homocytotropic antibody on their surfaces; they include histamine, slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A), bradykinin, and (in some species of animals) serotonin.
Treatable, with hope of a cure.
1. Relating to medicine or the practice of medicine. SYN: medicinal (2) . 2. SYN: medicinal (1) . [L. medicalis, fr medicus, physician]
The subdivision of a military organization, such as the U.S. Army, devoted to medical care of the troops.
An individual who performs machine transcription of physician-dictated medical reports concerning a patient's health care, which become part of the patient's permanent medical record; a certified m. (CMT) has satisfied the requirements for certification by the American Association for Medical Transcription.
medicament (me-dik′a-ment, med′i-ka-ment)
A medicine, medicinal application, or remedy. [L. medicamentum, medicine]
Relating to a drug; denoting a drug eruption. [L.]
1. To treat disease by the giving of drugs. 2. To impregnate with a medicinal substance. [L. medico, pp. -atus, to heal]
Impregnated with a medicinal substance.
1. The act of medicating. 2. A medicinal substance, or medicament. ionic m. SYN: iontophoresis. maintenance m. m. taken to stabilize an illness or symptoms of illness. preanesthetic m. drugs administered prior to an anesthetic to decrease anxiety and to obtain a smoother induction of, maintenance of, and emergence from anesthesia. sublingual m. a drug dosage form intended to be used by placement under the tongue; the drug ( e.g., nitroglycerin) is absorbed from the mucosal tissues and bypasses the gastrointestinal tract, where it may be partially or totally degraded.
medicator (med′i-ka-ter, -tor)
1. An instrument for use in making therapeutic applications to the deeper parts of the body. 2. One who gives medicaments for the relief of disease; sometimes applied in derision to one who prescribes drugs excessively for minor ailments.
Median cephalic, denoting the communicating vessel between the median and the cephalic veins of the forearm.
1. Relating to medicine having curative properties. SYN: medical (2) . 2. SYN: medical (1) .
medicinal scarlet red
SYN: scarlet red.
1. A drug. 2. The art of preventing or curing disease; the science concerned with disease in all its relations. 3. The study and treatment of general diseases or those affecting the internal parts of the body, especially those not usually requiring surgical intervention. [L. medicina, fr. medicus, physician (see medicus)] adolescent m. the branch of m. concerned with the treatment of youth in the approximate age range of 13 to 21 years. SYN: hebiatrics. aerospace m. a branch of m. combining the areas of concern of both aviation and space m.. alternative m. a term referring to a heterogeneous group of hygienic, diagnostic, and therapeutic philosophies and practices whose theoretical bases and techniques diverge from those of modern scientific m.. Some of these differ from traditional m. only in preferring natural hygienic and therapeutic methods to drug treatment and surgery; some are supernatural, magical, or cultist, with roots in ancient or modern philosophical or religious systems; some are based on naive, false, or inconsistent notions of anatomy, physiology, psychology, pathology, and pharmacology; and some are fraudulent schemes designed to exploit unsophisticated health care consumers and those whose perceived health needs have not been met by scientific m.. Alternative health practices have been imported into some parts of the U.S. by migrant populations, particularly Asians and Hispanics. Many branches of alternative m. have in common a holistic view of human health, emphasizing integration of body, mind, and spirit. All have failed to gain acceptance as part of mainstream m. because they lack both a plausible scientific basis and evidence of efficacy. SYN: complementary m., holistic m. (2) .Americans make more visits annually to alternative m. (AM) practitioners than to primary care physicians, and the total cost of AM in this country exceeds $21 billion a year. Three-fifths of adults queried have made use of AM within the past year, but only 5% rely on it exclusively. AM appeals particularly to people of advanced education, those who believe strongly in the role of the mind in health and disease, and those with an interest in esoteric forms of spirituality and personal growth psychology. Users of AM tend to be in poorer general health than others and to have certain chronic conditions (including anxiety, depression, headache, and backache), but dissatisfaction with conventional m. appears to be less important in their choice than a preference for a healing system that is congruent with their personal beliefs and values. Practitioners of some forms of AM are overtly hostile to traditional m. and habitually impugn the competence and integrity of legitimate health practitioners. On the other hand, alternative methods such as acupuncture and hypnosis are employed by some physicians, particularly those espousing a holistic view of medical practice. Some insurance plans provide coverage for certain alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, biofeedback, and massage therapy. Although the use of AM may benefit some people by providing hope and needed emotional support, exerting placebo effects, or relieving symptoms through mechanisms not yet understood, it prevents many from receiving appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, alternative therapies can interact adversely with more orthodox forms of treatment, and some are inherently dangerous to health. In 1992, the U.S. Congress established the Office of Alternative M. (OAM) within the Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health to facilitate the full scientific evaluation of alternative therapies, to establish a clearinghouse for the exchange of information, and to support research training in topics related to AM that are not typically included in the training curriculum of mainstream health professionals. In 1998 OAM was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative M. (NCCAM) and accorded a $50 million annual budget. Philosophies or methods of alternative diagnosis or treatment that are popular in the U.S. include acupressure, acupuncture, aromatherapy, biofeedback, chelation therapy, chiropractic, Christian Science, herbal m., homeopathy, hydrotherapy, hypnotherapy, iridology, macrobiotics, massage therapy, meditation, megavitamin therapy, moxibustion, naturopathy, osteopathy, relaxation techniques, rolfing, shiatsu, tai chi, and yoga. aviation m. the study and practice of m. as it applies to physiologic problems peculiar to aviation. SYN: aeromedicine. behavioral m. an interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science knowledge and techniques relevant to health and illness, and to its application to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation. clinical m. the study and practice of m. in relation to the care of patients; the art of m. as distinguished from laboratory science. community m. the study of health and disease in a defined community; the practice of m. in such a setting. comparative m. a field of study concentrating on similarities and differences between veterinary m. and human m.. complementary m. SYN: alternative m.. defensive m. diagnostic or therapeutic measures conducted primarily as a safeguard against possible subsequent malpractice liability. desmoteric m. the branch of medical practice that deals with health problems occurring among prison inmates. [G. desmoterion, prison, fr. deo, to bind, + -ic] electrodiagnostic m. the specific area of medical practice in which specially trained physicians use information from the clinical history and physical examination, along with the scientific method of recording and analyzing biologic electrical potentials, to diagnose and treat neuromuscular disorders. evidence-based m. the process of applying relevant information derived from peer-reviewed medical literature to address a specific clinical problem; the application of simple rules of science and common sense to determine the validity of the information; and the application of the information to the clinical problem. SEE ALSO: Cochrane collaboration, clinical practice guidelines, under guideline. experimental m. the scientific investigation of medical problems by experimentation upon animals or by clinical research. family m. the medical specialty concerned with providing continuous, comprehensive care to all age groups, from first patient contact to terminal care, with special emphasis on care of the family as a unit. folk m. treatment of ailments outside of organized m. by remedies and simple measures based upon experience and knowledge handed on from generation to generation. forensic m. 1. the relation and application of medical facts to legal matters; 2. the law in its bearing on the practice of m.. SYN: legal m., medical jurisprudence. geriatric m. a specialty of m. that is concerned with the disease and health problems of older people, usually those over 65 years of age. Considered a subspecialty of internal m.. holistic m. 1. an approach to medical care that emphasizes the study of all aspects of a person's health, especially that a person should be considered as a unit, including psychological as well as social and economic influences on health status. 2. SYN: alternative m.. hyperbaric m. the medicinal use of high barometric pressure, usually in specially constructed chambers, to increase oxygen content of blood and tissues. internal m. (IM) the branch of m. concerned with nonsurgical diseases in adults, but not including diseases limited to the skin or to the nervous system. legal m. SYN: forensic m.. maternal-fetal m. a subspecialty of obstetrics/gynecology devoted to the study of the obstetrical, medical, and surgical complications of pregnancy. SYN: fetology. military m. the practice of m. as applied to the special circumstances associated with military life. neonatal m. SYN: neonatology. nuclear m. the clinical discipline concerned with the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radionuclides, including sealed radiation sources. osteopathic m. SYN: osteopathy (2) . patent m. a m., usually originally patented, advertised to the public. perinatal m. SYN: perinatology. physical m. the study and treatment of disease mainly by mechanical and other physical methods. SYN: physiatry. podiatric m. SYN: podiatry. preventive m. the branch of medical science concerned with the prevention of disease and with promotion of physical and mental health, through study of the etiology and epidemiology of disease processes. proprietary m. a medicinal compound the formula and mode of manufacture of which are the property of the maker. psychosomatic m. the study and treatment of diseases, disorders, or abnormal states in which psychological processes resulting in physiological reactions are believed to play a prominent role. quack m. a compound advertised falsely as curative of a certain disease or diseases. Cf.:nostrum. social m. a specialized field of medical knowledge concentrating on the social, cultural and economic impact of medical phenomena. socialized m. the organization and control of medical practice by a government agency, the practitioners being employed by the organization from which they receive standardized compensation for their services, and to which the public contributes usually in the form of taxation rather than fee-for-service. space m. the field of m. concerned with physiologic diseases or disturbances resulting from the unique conditions of space travel. sports m. a field of m. that uses a holistic, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary approach to health care for those engaged in a sporting or recreational activity. tropical m. the branch of m. concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, in areas having a tropical climate. veterinary m. the field concerned with the diseases and health of all animal species other than humans.
Medical. Cf.:iatro-. [L. medicus, physician]
medicobiologic, medicobiological (med′i-ko-bi-o-loj′ik, -loj′i-kal)
Pertaining to the biologic aspects of medicine.
Relating to both medicine and surgery, or to both physicians and surgeons. [medico- G. cheirourgia, surgery]
Relating to both medicine and the law. SEE ALSO: forensic medicine. [medico- + L. legalis, legal]
Relating to both medicinal and mechanical measures in therapeutics.
Relating to disease and the condition of the body in general; e.g., a m. examination, in which a person is examined in order to determine the presence or absence of disease as well as to note the general physical condition.
Psychology in its relation to medicine. See medical psychology, health psychology.
Middle, median. [L. medius]
A supernumerary tooth located between the two maxillary central incisors. [medio- + L. dens, tooth]
Relating to the median plane and the dorsal plane.
Relating to the median plane and a side.
Necrosis of a tunica media. m. of the aorta SYN: cystic medial necrosis. m. aortae idiopathica cystica SYN: cystic medial necrosis.
A thrusting of the mandibular condyle toward the midline during movement of the mandible. [medio- + L. trudo, pp. trusus, to thrust]
To incise in the median line. [L. medius, middle, + seco, pp. sectus, to cut]
medium, pl .media (me′de-um, -a)
1. A means; that through which an action is performed. 2. A substance through which impulses or impressions are transmitted. 3. SYN: culture m.. 4. The liquid holding a substance in solution or suspension. 5. Any of the substances in which a chromatographic or electrophoretic separation is effected. [L. neuter of medius, middle] Acanthamoeba m. nonnutrient agar plates with an E. coli overlay used to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba or Naegleria from tissue or soil samples. Balamuth aqueous egg yolk infusion m. used to detect the presence of intestinal amebae, primarily Entamoeba histolytica. Boeck and Drbohlav Locke-egg-serum m. m. of whole eggs, human serum, and rice powder used to detect the presence of intestinal amebae, primarily Entamoeba histolytica. clearing m. a m. used in histology for making specimens translucent or transparent. complete m. a m. for an in vitro culture that contains the supplemental nutrients as well as the basic nutrients to support fastidious or mutant growth requirements. contrast m. any internally administered substance that has a different opacity from soft tissue on radiography or computed tomography; includes barium, used to opacify parts of the gastrointestinal tract; water-soluble iodinated compounds, used to opacify blood vessels or the genitourinary tract; may refer to air occurring naturally or introduced into the body; also, paramagnetic substances used in magnetic resonance imaging. SYN: contrast agent, contrast material. culture m. a substance, either solid or liquid, used for the cultivation, isolation, identification, or storage of microorganisms. SYN: growth m., m. (3) , nutrient m.. Czapek-Dox m. SYN: Czapek solution agar. Diamond TYM m. m. of trypticase, yeast extract, maltose, and serum used to detect the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis. dispersion m. SYN: external phase. Dorset culture egg m. a m. for cultivating Mycobacterium tuberculosis; it consists of the whites and yolks of four fresh eggs and a solution of sodium chloride. Eagle basal m. a solution of various salts containing 13 naturally occurring amino acids, several vitamins, two antibiotics, and phenol red; used as a tissue culture m.. Eagle minimum essential m. (MEM) a tissue culture m. similar to Eagle basal m. but with different amounts and a few exclusions ( e.g., antibiotics and phenol red). Endo m. SYN: Endo agar. external m. SYN: external phase. growth m. SYN: culture m.. high osmolar contrast m. (HOCM) SYN: high osmolar contrast agent. Lash casein hydrolysate-serum m. used to detect the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis. Loeffler blood culture m. a culture m. consisting of beef blood serum, sheep blood serum, and beef bouillon containing peptone, glucose, and sodium chloride; used for the isolation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Lowenstein-Jensen m. SYN: Lowenstein-Jensen culture m.. Lowenstein-Jensen culture m. primary mycobacterial recovery media composed of fresh whole eggs, defined salts, glycerol, potato flour, and malachite green (as an inhibitory agent). SYN: Lowenstein-Jensen m.. low osmolar contrast m. (LOCM) SYN: low osmolar contrast agent. McCarey-Kaufmann media a culture solution used for storage of enucleated eyes for corneal transplantation. motility test m. a culture m. with a concentration of agar that produces a less solid consistency than usual and allows motile organisms to grow away from the line of inoculation; used to differentiate species of bacteria. mounting m. a substance, usually resinous, used for mounting a cover glass on histologic suspensions. Mueller-Hinton m. an agar-based m. composed of beef infusion, casamino acids, and starch; the recommended m. for antibacterial susceptibility tests for most common aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria. NNN m. agar slant overlaid with defibrinated rabbit blood used to detect the presence of leishmania or Trypanosoma cruzi. nutrient m. SYN: culture m.. passive m. a m. that produces no change in the specimens placed in it. selective m. a culture m. containing ingredients that inhibit growth of contaminants or microorganisms other than that desired. separating m. 1. any coating which serves to prevent one surface from adhering to another; 2. in dentistry, a material usually applied to a cast to facilitate separation from the resin denture base after curing; a coating on impressions to facilitate removal of the cast. Simmons citrate m. a diagnostic m. used in the differentiation of species of Enterobacteriaceae, based on their ability to utilize sodium citrate as the sole source of carbon. support m. the material in which separation takes place, as in separation of components in electrophoresis. Thayer-Martin m. SYN: Thayer-Martin agar. transport m. a m. for transporting clinical specimens to the laboratory for examination. TY1-S-33 m. m. of biosate peptone, dextrose, vitamins, and bovine serum used to detect the presence of Entamoeba histolytica. TYSGM-9 m. m. of gastric mucin, nutrient broth, bovine serum, and rice starch used to detect the presence of Entamoeba histolytica.
medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)
See acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (NADPH).
SYN: middle. [L.]
Abbreviation for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, a computerized index system of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
[MEDLARS-on-line] A computer-based telephone and internet linkage to MEDLARS for rapid provision of medical bibliographies.
An antineoplastic agent. SYN: medfalan.
An oral progestin.
medroxyprogesterone acetate (med-rok′se-pro-jes′ter-on)
A progestational agent that is active orally as well as parenterally, and more potent than progesterone; used to control uterine bleeding and, in combination with ethynyl estradiol, as an oral contraceptive.
An H1 antihistaminic.
A glucocorticoid used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent, usually on the eye.
medulla, pl .medullae (me-dool′a, me-dool′e) [TA]
Any soft marrow-like structure, especially in the center of a part. SEE ALSO: m. oblongata. SYN: substantia medullaris (1) . [L. marrow, fr. medius, middle] m. of adrenal gland m. of suprarenal gland. m. glandulae suprarenalis [TA] SYN: m. of suprarenal gland. m. of hair shaft the central axis of some hairs, containing a column of large vacuolated and keratinized cells; the medullary portion is surrounded by the cortex. m. of kidney SYN: renal m.. m. of lymph node [TA] the central portion of a node consisting of cordlike masses of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages in a stroma of reticular fibers separated by lymph sinuses; it reaches the surface of the node at the hilum. SYN: m. nodi lymphoidei [TA] . m. nodi lymphoidei [TA] SYN: m. of lymph node. m. oblongata [TA] the most caudal subdivision of the brainstem, immediately continuous with the spinal cord, extending from the lower border of the decussation of the pyramid to the pons; its ventral surface resembles that of the spinal cord except for the bilateral prominence of the inferior olive; the dorsal surface of its upper half forms part of the floor of the fourth ventricle. Motor nuclei of the m. oblongata include the hypoglossal nucleus, the dorsal motor nucleus, inferior salivatory nucleus, and the nucleus ambiguus; sensory nuclei include the nuclei of the posterior column (gracile and cuneate), the cochlear and vestibular nuclei, the mid and caudal portions of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, and the nucleus of the solitary tract. SEE ALSO: m.. SYN: myelencephalon [TA] , oblongata. m. ossium [TA] SYN: bone marrow. m. ossium flava [TA] SYN: yellow bone marrow. m. ossium rubra [TA] SYN: red bone marrow. renal m. [TA] the inner, darker portion of the kidney parenchyma consisting of the renal pyramids. SYN: m. renalis [TA] , m. of kidney. m. renalis [TA] SYN: renal m.. m. spinalis [TA] SYN: spinal cord. suprarenal m. SYN: m. of suprarenal gland. m. of suprarenal gland [TA] it is composed principally of anastomosing cords of cells in the core of the gland; the cells display a chromaffin reaction because of the presence of epinephrine and norepinephrine in their granules. SYN: m. glandulae suprarenalis [TA] , m. of adrenal gland&star, suprarenal m..
medullary (med′ul-er-e, med′oo-lar-e)
Relating to the medulla or marrow. SYN: medullar.
medullated (med′u-la-ted, med′oo-)
1. Having a medulla or medullary substance. 2. SYN: myelinated.
medullation (med′u-la′shun, med′oo-)
1. Acquiring, or the act of formation of, marrow or medulla. 2. SYN: myelination.
medullectomy (med-oo-lek′to-me, med-u-)
Excision of any medullary substance. [medulla + G. ektome, excision]
medullization (med′u-li-za′shun, med′u-)
Enlargement of the medullary spaces in the treatment of various skeletal disorders.
Medulla. Cf.:myel-. [L. medulla]
Inflammation of the cancellous articular extremity of a long bone.
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