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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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misoprostol (mi-so-prost′ol)
A prostaglandin analog used in the treatment of ulcer disease; particularly useful in persons taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; antiulcerative.

missense (mis′ens)
As used in genetics, a mutation that causes a sequence such that there is a substitution of one amino acid residue for another. m. suppression a mutation in tRNA that allows for incorporation of an amino acid residue that allows for full function of the gene product.

mistletoe (mis′l-to)
SYN: viscum (1) .

MIT
Abbreviation for monoiodotyrosine.

Mitchell
See Weir M..

mite (mit)
A minute arthropod of the order Acarina, a vast assemblage of parasitic and (primarily) free-living organisms. Most are still undescribed, and only a relatively small number are of medical or veterinary importance as vectors or intermediate hosts of pathogenic agents, by directly causing dermatitis or tissue damage, or by causing blood or tissue fluid loss. The six-legged larvae of trombiculid mites, the chigger mites (Trombicula), are parasitic of humans and many mammals and birds, and are important as vectors of scrub typhus (tsutsugamushi disease) and other rickettsial agents. Some other important mites are Acarus hordei (barley m.), Demodex folliculorum (follicular or mange m.), Dermanyssus gallinae (red hen m.), Ornithonyssus bacoti (tropical rat m.), Ornithonyssus bursa (tropical fowl m.), Ornithonyssus sylviarum (northern fowl m.), Pyemotes tritici (straw or grain itch m.), and Sarcoptes scabiei (itch m.). [A.S.]

mithramycin (mith-ra-mi′sin)
An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces argillaceus and S. tanashiensis; possesses antineoplastic activity. SYN: aureolic acid, mitramycin.

mithridatism (mith′ri-da′tizm, mith-rid′a-tizm)
Immunity against the action of a poison produced by small and gradually increasing doses of the same. [Mithridates, King of Pontus (132–63 B.C.), supposedly an unsuccessful suicide (by poison) because of repeated small doses taken to become invulnerable to assassination by poison]

miticidal (mi-ti-si′dal)
Destructive to mites.

miticide (mi′ti-sid)
An agent destructive to mites. [mite + L. caedo, to kill]

mitigate (mit′i-gat)
SYN: palliate. [L. mitigo, pp. -atus, to make mild or gentle, fr. mitis, mild, + ago, to do, make]

mitis (mi′tis)
Mild. [L.]

mitochondria (-a)
Plural of mitochondrion.

mitochondrial (mi-to-kon′dre-al)
Relating to mitochondria.

mitochondrion, pl .mitochondria (mi-to-kon′dre-on, -a)
An organelle of the cell cytoplasm consisting of two sets of membranes, a smooth continuous outer coat and an inner membrane arranged in tubules or more often in folds that form platelike double membranes called cristae; mitochondria are the principal energy source of the cell and contain the cytochrome enzymes of terminal electron transport and the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation. SYN: Altmann granule (2) . [G. mitos, thread, + chondros, granule, grits] m. of hemoflagellates the “mother m.,” from which smaller mitochondria appear to arise.

mitogen (mi′to-jen)
A substance frequently derived from plants that stimulates mitosis and lymphocyte transformation; includes not only lectins such as phytohemagglutinins and concanavalin A, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of α-toxin-producing staphylococci. SYN: transforming agent (1) . [mitosis + G. -gen, producing] pokeweed m. (PWM) a m. (lectin) from Phytolacca americana (pokeweed) which stimulates chiefly B lymphocytes.

mitogenesis (mi-to-jen′e-sis)
The process of induction of mitosis in or transformation of a cell. [mitosis + G. genesis, origin]

mitogenetic (mi′to-je-net′ik)
Pertaining to the factor or factors promoting cell mitosis.

mitogenic (mi-to-jen′ik)
Causing mitosis or transformation.

mitomycin (mi-to-mi′sin)
Antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus, variants of which are designated m. A, m. B, etc.; m. C is an antineoplastic agent and a bacteriocide; inhibits DNA synthesis.

mitoplast (mi′to-plast)
A mitochondrion without its outer membrane.

mitosis, pl .mitoses (mi-to′sis, -sez)
The usual process of somatic reproduction of cells consisting of a sequence of modifications of the nucleus (prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase) that result in the formation of two daughter cells with exactly the same chromosome and nuclear DNA content as that of the original cell. SEE ALSO: cell cycle. SYN: indirect nuclear division, mitotic division. [G. mitos, thread] heterotype m. a variety of m. in which the halved chromosomes are united at their ends forming ringlike figures. Occurs in the first division of meiosis. multipolar m. a pathologic form in which the spindle has three or more poles, resulting in the formation of a corresponding number of nuclei. somatic m. the ordinary process of m. as it occurs in the somatic or body cells, characterized by the formation of the prescribed number of chromosomes, appropriate for the species (in humans the number is 46).

mitotane (mi′to-tan)
An antineoplastic agent.

mitotic (mi-tot′ik)
Relating to or marked by mitosis.

mitoxantrone hydrochloride (mi-to-zan′tron)
A synthetic anti-neoplastic used intravenously in the initial therapy for acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in adults.

mitral (mi′tral)
1. Relating to the m. or bicuspid valve. 2. Shaped like a bishop's miter; denoting a structure resembling the shape of a headband or turban. [L. mitra, a coif or turban]

mitralization (mi′tra-li-za′shun)
Straightening of the left heart border on a chest radiograph due to prominence of the left atrial appendage or the pulmonary outflow tract; an unreliable indication of mitral valve disease.

mitramycin (mit-ra-mi′sin)
SYN: mithramycin.

Mitrofanoff
Paul, French pediatric surgeon, *1934. See M. principle.

Mitsuda
Kensuke, Japanese physician, 1876–1964. See M. antigen, M. reaction.

Mitsuo
Gentaro, Japanese ophthalmologist, 1876–1913. See M. phenomenon.

mittelschmerz (mit′el-schmarts)
Abdominal pain occurring at the time of ovulation, resulting from irritation of the peritoneum by bleeding from the ovulation site. SYN: intermenstrual pain (2) , middle pain. [Ger. M., middle + pain]

mivacurium (mi′va-kur′e-um)
A neuromuscular blocking agent resembling d-tubocurarine, but having a shorter duration of action.

mixing (mik′sing)
The mingling or blending of particles or components, especially of different kinds. phenotypic m. a nongenetic interaction in which virus particles released from a cell that is infected with two different viruses have components from both the infecting agents, but with a genome from one of them.

mixotrophy (miks-o′tro-fe)
The property of certain microorganisms that can assimilate organic compounds as carbon sources but not as energy sources. [G. mixis, mixture, fr. mignumi, to mix, + trophe, nourishment]

mixture (miks′chur)
1. A mutual incorporation of two or more substances, without chemical union, the physical characteristics of each of the components being retained. A mechanical m. is a m. of particles or masses distinguishable as such under the microscope or in other ways; a physical m. is a more intimate m. of molecules, as in the case of gases and many solutions. 2. In chemistry, a mingling together of two or more substances without the occurrence of a reaction by which they would lose their individual properties, i.e., without permanent gain or loss of electrons. 3. In pharmacy, a preparation, consisting of a liquid holding an insoluble medicinal substance in suspension by means of acacia, sugar, or some other viscid material. [L. mixtura or mistura] Bordeaux m. a plant fungicidal m., comprising copper sulfate (5 parts) and calcium oxide (5 parts) in water (400 parts) freshly mixed; the CaO is added to the CuSO4 solution. extemporaneous m. a m. prepared at the time ordered, according to the directions of a prescription, as distinguished from a stock preparation. Seidlitz m. a m. of 3 parts Rochelle salt and 1 part sodium bicarbonate. Ten grams of the m. are employed with 2.17 g tartaric acid for one Seidlitz powder. The powder, which effervesces when placed in water, was widely used as a cathartic.

Miyagawa
Yoneji, Japanese bacteriologist, 1885–1959. See Miyagawanella, M. bodies, under body.

Miyagawanella (me′ya-gah′wa-nel′a)
Formerly considered a genus of Chlamydiaceae, but now synonymous with Chlamydia. [Y. Miyagawa]

MK
Abbreviation for menaquinone.

MK-6
Abbreviation for menaquinone-6.

MK-7
Abbreviation for menaquinone-7.

MLC
Abbreviation for Marginal Line Calculus Index.

MLD, mld
Abbreviation for minimal lethal dose.

mlRNA
Abbreviation for messengerlike RNA.

mM, mm
Abbreviation for millimolar.

mm
Abbreviation for millimeter.

MMMT
Abbreviation for malignant mixed müllerian tumor or malignant mixed mesodermal tumor.

M-mode
A diagnostic ultrasound presentation of the temporal changes in echoes in which the depth of echo-producing interfaces is displayed along one axis with time (T) along the second axis; motion (M) of the interfaces toward and away from the transducer is displayed. SYN: TM-mode.

mmol
Abbreviation for millimole.

MMPI
Abbreviation for Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory test.

MMR
Abbreviation for measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.

Mn
Symbol for manganese.

M'Naghten
Daniel, British criminal, tried in March, 1843. See M. rule.

MND
Abbreviation for motor neuron disease.

mneme (ne′me)
The enduring quality in the mind that accounts for the facts of memory; the engram of a specific experience. [G. m., memory]

mnemenic, mnemic (ne-men′ik, ne′mik)
Relating to memory.

mnemism (ne′mizm)
SYN: mnemic hypothesis. [G. mneme, memory]

mnemonic (ne-mon′ik)
SYN: anamnestic (1) .

mnemonics (ne-mon′iks)
The art of improving the memory; a system for aiding the memory. [G. mnemonikos, mnemonic, pertaining to memory]

MNSs blood group
See Blood Groups appendix.

M.O.
Abbreviation for Medical Officer.

Mo
Symbol for molybdenum.

99Mo
Abbreviation for molybdenum-99.

MoAb
Abbreviation for monoclonal antibody.

mobilization (mo′bi-li-za′shun)
1. Making movable; restoring the power of motion in a joint. 2. The act or the result of the act of mobilizing; exciting a hitherto quiescent process into physiologic activity. SEE ALSO: mobilize. 3. The process by which a conjugative plastid brings about the transfer from one cell to another of DNA. stapes m. an operation to remobilize the footplate of the stapes to relieve conductive hearing impairment caused by its immobilization through otosclerosis or other middle ear disease.

mobilize (mo′bi-liz)
1. To liberate material stored in the body; more specifically, to move a substance from tissue stores into the bloodstream. 2. To excite quiescent material to physiologic activity. [Fr. mobiliser, to liberate, make ready, fr. L. mobilis, movable]

Mobitz
Woldemar, German cardiologist, *1889. See M. types of atrioventricular block.

Möbius
Paul J., German physician, 1853–1907. See M. sign, M. syndrome, Leyden-M. muscular dystrophy.

MOD
Abbreviation for mesiodistocclusal.

modality (mo-dal′i-te)
1. A form of application or employment of a therapeutic agent or regimen. 2. Various forms of sensation, e.g., touch, vision, etc.. [Mediev. L. modalitas, fr. L. modus, a mode]




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