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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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monamine (mon-am′in)
SYN: monoamine.

monaminuria (mon′am-i-noo′re-a)
SYN: monoaminuria.

monangle (mon′ang-gl)
Having only one angle, denoting a dental instrument that has only one angle between the handle or shaft and the working portion (blade or nib).

monarda (mon-ar′da)
The leaves of M. punctata (family Labiatae), American horsemint, a labiate plant of the U.S. east of the Mississippi; the main commercial source of natural thymol; used as a carminative in colic.

monarthric (mon-ar′thrik)
SYN: monarticular.

monarthritis (mon-ar-thri′tis)
Arthritis of a single joint.

monarticular (mon-ar-tik′u-lar)
Relating to a single joint. SYN: monarthric, uniarticular.

monaster (mon-as′ter)
The single star figure at the end of prophase in mitosis. SYN: mother star. [mono- + G. aster, star]

monatomic (mon-a-tom′ik)
1. Relating to or containing a single atom. 2. SYN: monovalent (1) .

monaural (mon-aw′ral)
Pertaining to one ear. [mono- + L. auris, ear]

monaxonic (mon-aks-on′ik)
1. Having but one axis, being therefore elongated and slender. 2. Having one axon. [mono- + G. axon, axle]

Mönckeberg
Johann G., German pathologist, 1877–1925. See M. arteriosclerosis, M. calcification, M. degeneration, M. sclerosis.

Mondini
C., Italian physician, 1729–1803. See M. hearing impairment, M. dysplasia.

Mondonesi
Filippo, Italian physician. See M. reflex.

Mondor
Henri, French surgeon, 1885–1962. See M. disease.

-mone
A termination denoting a hormone or hormonelike substance. [Fr. hormone]

Monera (mo-ne′ra)
The prokaryotes, a kingdom of primitive microbial organisms characterized by having no defined nucleus or chromosomes; DNA that is not membrane-bound; and absence of centrioles, mitotic spindle, microtubules, and mitochondria; division of the ill-defined nuclear zone (nucleoid) is by separation of two masses attached to parts of the cell membrane, then growing apart (a form of amitosis). M. includes the blue-green algae and bacteria; viruses, which lack a true cell, may have originated as “escaped nucleic acids” or “wild genes” from eukaryotic cells and are not included. [pl. of Mod. L. moneron, fr. G. moneres, solitary]

moneran (mo-ne′ran)
A member of the prokaryote kingdom Monera.

monestrous (mon-es′trus)
Having but one estrous cycle in a mating season.

Monge Medrano
Carlos, Peruvian professor of medicine and high altitude specialist, 1884–1970. See Monge disease.

mongolian (mon-go′le-an)
1. Relating to a member of the M. race. 2. Obsolete. Relating to Down syndrome (because of the Asian-appearing facies).

monilethrix (mo-nil′e-thriks)
An autosomal dominant trichodystrophy in which brittle hairs show a series of constrictions, usually without a medulla. SYN: beaded hair, moniliform hair. [L. monile, necklace, + G. thrix, hair]

Monilia (mo-nil′e-a)
Generic term for a group of fungi that are commonly known as fruit molds; the sexual state is Neurospora. A few closely related pathogenic organisms formerly classified in this genus are now properly termed Candida. [L. monile, necklace]

Moniliaceae (mo-nil-e-a′se-e)
A family of Fungi Imperfecti (order Moniliales) which includes Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis.

monilial (mo-nil′e-al)
Precisely, pertaining to the Monilia, but, in medicine, frequently used incorrectly with reference to the genus Candida.

moniliasis (mo-ni-li′a-sis)
SYN: candidiasis.

moniliform (mo-nil′i-form)
Shaped like a string of beads or beaded necklace. [L. monile, necklace, + forma, appearance]

Moniliformis (mo-nil-i-for′mis)
A genus of the class (or phylum) Acanthocephala, the thorny-headed worms. M. dubius, the common spiny-headed worm of house rats, is transmitted by infected cockroaches, Periplaneta americana; a few infections in humans have been reported. M. m. is a species normally found in rodents and is a rare parasite of humans. [L. monile, necklace, + forma, appearance]

monism (mo′nizm)
A metaphysical system in which all of reality is conceived as a unified whole. [G. monos, single]

monistic (mo-nis′tik)
Pertaining to monism.

monitor (mon′i-ter, -tor)
A device that displays and/or records specified data for a given series of events, operations, or circumstances. [L., one who warns, fr. moneo, pp. monitum, to warn] cardiac m. an electronic m. which, when connected to the patient, signals each heart beat with a flashing light, an electrocardiographic curve, an audible signal, or all three. electronic fetal m. an instrument for continuous monitoring of the fetal heart before or during labor. Holter m. a technique for long-term, continuous usually ambulatory, recording of electrocardiographic signals on magnetic tape for scanning and selection of significant but fleeting changes that might otherwise escape notice. home m. a m. for heart and respiratory rate, usually used for infants believed to be at risk for sudden infant death syndrome or apnea.

monitoring
1. Performance and analysis of routine measurements aimed at detecting a change in the environment or health status of a population. 2. Ongoing measurement of performance of a health service. 3. Continuous oversight of implementation of an activity.

monkey-paw (mong′ke-paw)
SYN: ape hand.

monkeypox (mong′ke-poks)
A disease of monkeys and, rarely, of humans caused by the m. virus, a member of the family Poxviridae; the human disease is serious and clinically resembles smallpox.

monkshood (monks′hud)
See aconite.

mono-, mon-
The participation or involvement of a single element or part. Cf.:uni-. [G. monos, single]

monoacylglycerol (mon-o-as-il-gli′ser-ol)
Glycerol with an acyl moiety esterified to position 1 ( i.e., 1-m.) or position 2 ( i.e., 2-m.); an intermediate in the degradation and synthesis of lipids; 2 monoacylglycerols are a major end product of triacylglycerol degradation. SYN: monoglyceride. m. acyltransferase an intestinal enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of 2-m. and acyl-CoA to form coenzyme A and 1,2-diacylglycerol. m. lipase an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of m. to produce a fatty acid anion and glycerol; a part of lipid degradation.

monoamelia (mon-o-a-me′le-a)
Absence of one limb.

monoamide (mon-o-am′id, -id)
A molecule containing one amide group. SYN: monamide.

monoamine (mon-o-am′in, -in)
A molecule containing one amine group. SYN: monamine.

monoamine oxidase (MAO)
SYN: amine oxidase (flavin-containing).

monoaminergic (mon′o-am-i-ner′jik)
Referring to nerve cells or fibers that transmit nervous impulses by the medium of a catecholamine or indolamine. [monoamine + G. ergon, work]

monoaminuria (mon′o-am-i-noo′re-a)
The excretion of any monoamine in the urine. SYN: monaminuria.

monoamniotic (mon′o-am-ne-ot′ik)
Denoting two or more progeny of a multiple pregnancy that have shared a common amniotic sac.

monoassociated (mon′o-a-so′she-a-ted)
Denoting a germ-free organism that becomes colonized by a single microbial species.

monoauxotroph (mon-o-auks′o-troph)
A mutant microorganism that requires a particular nutrient that is not required by the wild-type organism. Cf.:auxotroph, polyauxotroph.

monobactam (mon-o-bak′tam)
A class of antibiotic that has a monocyclic β-lactam nucleus and is structurally different from other β-lactams; e.g., aztreonam.

monobasic (mon-o-ba′sik)
Denoting an acid with only one replaceable hydrogen atom, or only one replaced hydrogen atom.

monobenzone (mon-o-ben′zon)
A melanin-pigment inhibiting agent; used topically for the treatment of hyperpigmentation caused by formation of melanin.

monoblast (mon′o-blast)
An immature cell that develops into a monocyte. [mono- + G. blastos, germ]

monobrachius (mon-o-bra′ke-us)
The condition of being one-armed. [mono- + G. brachion, arm]

monobromated, monobrominated (mon-o-bro′mat-ed, -bro′min-at-ed)
Denoting a chemical compound with one atom of bromine per molecule.

monocardian (mon-o-kar′de-an)
Having a heart with a single atrium and ventricle.

monocephalus (mon-o-sef′a-lus)
SYN: syncephalus.

monochlorphenamide (mon′o-klor-fen′a-mid)
SYN: clofenamide.

monochorial (mon-o-ko-re′al)
SYN: monochorionic.

monochorionic (mon′o-kor-e-on′ik)
Relating to or having a single chorion; denoting monovular twins. SYN: monochorial.

monochroic (mon-o-kro′ik)
SYN: monochromatic.

monochromasia (mon′o-kro-ma′ze-a)
SYN: achromatopsia.

monochromasy (mon-o-kro′ma-se)
SYN: achromatopsia.

monochromatic (mon′o-kro-mat′ik)
1. Having but one color. 2. Indicating a light of a single wavelength. 3. Relating to or characterized by monochromatism. SYN: monochroic, monochromic.

monochromatism (mon-o-kro′ma-tizm)
1. The state of having or exhibiting only one color. 2. SYN: achromatopsia. [mono- + G. chroma, color] blue cone m. incomplete achromatopsia. pi cone m. incomplete achromatopsia. rod m. SYN: complete achromatopsia.

monochromatophil, monochromatophile (mon′o-kro-mat′o-fil, -fil)
1. Taking only one stain. 2. A cell or any histologic element staining with only one kind of dye. SYN: monochromophil, monochromophile. [mono- + G. chroma, color, + philos, fond]

monochromator (mon-o-kro′ma-ter, -tor)
A prism or diffraction grating used in spectrophotometry to isolate a narrow spectral range.

monochromic (mon-o-kro′mik)
SYN: monochromatic.

monochromophil, monochromophile (mon-o-kro′mo-fil, -fil)
SYN: monochromatophil.

monocistronic (mon-o-sis-tron′ik)
Referring to fully processed mRNA that codes for a single protein.

monocle (mon′o-kl)
A lens used for one eye, usually in the correction of presbyopia.

monoclinic (mon-o-klin′ik)
Relating to crystals with a single oblique inclination. [mono- + G. klino, to incline]

monoclonal (mon-o-klo′nal)
In immunochemistry, pertaining to a protein from a single clone of cells, all molecules of which are the same; e.g., in the case of Bence Jones protein, the chains are all κ or λ.

monocranius (mon-o-kra′ne-us)
SYN: syncephalus. [mono- + G. kranion, cranium]

monocrotic (mon′o-krot′ik)
Denoting a pulse the curve of which presents no notch or subsidiary wave in its descending line. [mono- + G. krotos, a beat]




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