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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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monocrotism (mon-ok′ro-tizm)
The state in which the pulse is monocrotic. [mono- + G. krotos, a beat]

monocular (mon-ok′u-lar)
Relating to, affecting, or visible by one eye only. [mono- + L. oculus, eye]

monoculus (mon-ok′u-lus)
1. SYN: cyclops. 2. A bandage applied to one eye only. [L. a one-eyed man, a hybrid word fr. G. monos, single, + L. oculus, eye]

monocyte (mon′o-sit)
A relatively large mononuclear leukocyte (16–22 μm in diameter), that normally constitutes 3–7% of the leukocytes of the circulating blood, and is normally found in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and loose connective tissue. When treated with the usual dyes, monocytes manifest an abundant pale blue or blue-gray cytoplasm that contains numerous, fine, dustlike, red-blue granules; vacuoles are frequently present; the nucleus is usually indented, or slightly folded, and has a stringy chromatin structure that seems more condensed where the delicate strands are in contact. SEE ALSO: monocytoid cell, endothelial leukocyte. [mono- + G. kytos, cell]

monocytopenia (mon′o-si-to-pe′ne-a)
Diminution in the number of monocytes in the circulating blood. SYN: monocytic leukopenia, monopenia. [mono- + G. kytos, cell, + penia, poverty]

monocytosis (mon′o-si-to′sis)
An abnormal increase in the number of monocytes in the circulating blood. SYN: monocytic leukocytosis.

Monod
Jacques L., French biochemist and Nobel laureate, 1910–1976. See M.-Wyman-Changeux model.

monodactyly, monodactylism (mon-o-dak′ti-le, -dak′-ti-lizm)
The presence of a single finger on the hand, or a single toe on the foot. [mono- + G. daktylos, digit]

monodisperse (mon′o-dis-pers)
Of relatively uniform size; said of aerosol suspensions with size variation of less than ±20%.

monoethanolamine (mon′o-eth-a-nol′a-men)
A surfactant; the oleate is used as a sclerosing agent in the treatment of varicose veins.

monogametic (mon′o-ga-met′ik)
SYN: homogametic.

monogamy (mon-og′a-me)
The marriage or mating system in which each partner has but one mate. [mono- + G. gamos, marriage]

monogenesis (mon-o-jen′e-sis)
1. The production of similar organisms in each generation. 2. The production of young by one parent only, as in nonsexual generation and parthenogenesis. 3. The process of parasitizing a single host, in which the life cycle of the parasite is passed; e.g., Boophilus annulatus, the one-host cattle tick, or certain trematodes of the order Monogenea. [mono- + G. genesis, origin, production]

monogenetic (mon′o-je-net′ik)
Relating to monogenesis. SYN: monoxenous.

monogenic (mon-o-jen′ik)
Relating to a hereditary disease or syndrome, or to an inherited characteristic, controlled by alleles at a single genetic locus.

monogenous (mo-noj′e-nus)
Asexually produced, as by fission, gemmation, or sporulation.

monogerminal (mon-o-jer′mi-nal)
SYN: unigerminal.

monoglyceride (mon-o-gli′ser-id)
SYN: monoacylglycerol.

monograph (mon′o-graf)
A treatise on a particular subject or specific aspect of a subject. [mono- + G. graphe, a writing]

monohydrated (mon-o-hi′dra-ted)
Containing or united with a single molecule of water per molecule of substance.

monohydric (mon-o-hi′drik)
Having but one hydrogen atom in the molecule.

monohydroxysuccinic acid (mon-o-hi-droks′e-suk-sin′ik)
SYN: malic acid.

monoideism (mon′o-i-de′izm)
A marked preoccupation with one idea or subject; a slight degree of monomania. [mono- + G. idea, form, idea]

monoinfection (mon′o-in-fek′shoon)
Simple infection with a single variety of microorganism.

monoiodotyrosine (MIT) (mon′o-i-o′do-ti-ro-sen)
An intermediate in thyroid hormone synthesis.

monoisonitrosoacetone (mon′o-i′so-ni-tro′so-as′e-ton)
SYN: isonitrosoacetone.

monokine (mon′o-kin)
Cytokines secreted by both monocytes and macrophages. These substances influence the activity of other cells. See cytokine. [monocyte + G. kineo, to set in motion]

monolayers (mon-o-la′erz)
1. Films, one molecule thick, formed on water by certain substances, such as proteins and fatty acids, characterized by molecules containing some atom groupings that are soluble in water and other atom groupings that are insoluble in water. 2. A confluent sheet of cells, one cell deep, growing on a surface in a cell culture.

monolocular (mon-o-lok′u-lar)
Having one cavity or chamber. SYN: unicameral, unicamerate. [mono- + L. loculus, a small place]

monomania (mon-o-ma′ne-a)
An obsession or abnormally extreme enthusiasm for a single idea or subject; a psychosis marked by the limitation of the symptoms rather strictly to a certain group, as the delusion in paranoia. [mono- + G. mania, frenzy]

monomaniac (mon-o-ma′ne-ak)
1. One exhibiting monomania. 2. Characterized by or relating to monomania.

monomastigote (mon-o-mas′ti-got)
A mastigote having only one flagellum. [mono- + Roman mastix, a whip]

monomelic (mon-o-mel′ik)
Relating to one limb. [mono- + G. melos, limb]

monomer (mon′o-mer)
1. The molecular unit that, by repetition, constitutes a large structure or polymer; e.g., ethylene, H2C&dbond;CH2, is the m. of polyethylene, H(CH2)nH. SEE ALSO: subunit (1) . 2. The protein structural unit of a virion capsid. See virion. 3. The protein subunit of a protein composed of several loosely associated such units, usually noncovalently bound together. [mono- + -mer]

monomeric (mon-o-mer′ik)
1. Consisting of a single component. 2. In genetics, relating to a hereditary disease or characteristic controlled by genes at a single locus. 3. Consisting of monomers. [mono- + G. meros, part]

monometallic (mon′o-me-tal′ik)
Containing one atom of a metal per molecule.

monomicrobic (mon′o-mi-kro′bik)
Denoting a monoinfection.

monomolecular (mon′o-mo-lek′u-lar)
1. SYN: unimolecular. 2. Relating to a singular molecular entity.

monomorphic (mon-o-mor′fik)
Of one shape; unchangeable in shape. [mono- + G. morphe, shape]

monomphalus (mon-om′fa-lus)
SYN: omphalopagus. [mono- + G. omphalos, umbilicus]

monomyoplegia (mon′o-mi′o-ple′je-a)
Paralysis limited to one muscle. [mono- + G. mys, muscle, + plege, a stroke]

monomyositis (mon′o-mi-o-si′tis)
Inflammation of a single muscle.

mononeme (mon′o-nem)
An unpaired helix of nucleic acid, as occurs in a chromatid.

mononeural, mononeuric (mon′o-noo′ral, -noo′rik)
1. Having only one neuron. 2. Supplied by a single nerve.

mononeuritis multiplex
SYN: mononeuropathy multiplex.

mononeuropathy (mon′o-noo-rop′a-the)
Disorder involving a single nerve. m. multiplex nontraumatic involvement of two or more portions of the peripheral nervous system ( e.g., roots, plexus elements, nerve trunks), usually sequentially and in different areas of the body; most often the result of vasculitides. SYN: mononeuritis multiplex.

mononuclear (mon-o-noo′kle-ar)
Having only one nucleus; used especially in reference to blood cells.

mononucleosis (mon′o-noo-kle-o′sis)
Presence of abnormally large numbers of mononuclear leukocytes in the circulating blood, especially with reference to forms that are not normal. infectious m. an acute febrile illness of young adults caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, a member of the Herpesviridae family; frequently spread by saliva transfer; characterized by fever, sore throat, enlargement of lymph nodes and spleen, and leukopenia that changes to lymphocytosis during the second week; the circulating blood usually contains abnormal, large T lymphocytes that resemble monocytes even though B cells are infected, and there is heterophil antibody that may be completely adsorbed on beef erythrocytes, but not on guinea pig kidney antigen. Collections of the characteristic abnormal lymphocytes may be present not only in the lymph nodes and spleen, but in various other sites, such as the meninges, brain, and myocardium. SYN: benign lymphadenosis, glandular fever.

mononucleotide (mon-o-noo′kle-o-tid)
SYN: nucleotide.

monooctanoin (mon′o-ok′-ta′no′in)
A semisynthetic esterified glycerol used as a solubilizing agent for radiolucent gallstones retained in the biliary tract following cholecystectomy.

monooxygenases (mon-o-ok′si-je-na-sez)
Oxidoreductases that induce the incorporation of one atom of oxygen from O2 into the substance being oxidized.

monoparesis (mon′o-pa-re′sis, -par′e-sis)
Paresis affecting a single extremity or part of an extremity.

monoparesthesia (mon′o-par-es-the′ze-a)
Paresthesia affecting a single region only.

monopathic (mon-o-path′ik)
Relating to a monopathy.

monopathy (mon-op′a-the)
1. A single uncomplicated disease. 2. A local disease affecting only one organ or part. [mono- + G. pathos, suffering]

monopenia (mon-o-pe′ne-a)
SYN: monocytopenia.

monophagism (mo-nof′a-jizm)
Habitual eating of but one kind of food or but one meal a day when the latter is clearly an aberration. [mono- + G. phago, to eat]

monophasia (mon-o-fa′ze-a)
Inability to speak other than a single word or sentence. [mono- + G. phasis, speech]

monophasic (mon-o-fa′zik)
1. Marked by monophasia. 2. Occurring in or characterized by only one phase or stage. 3. Fluctuating from the baseline in one direction only.

monophenol monooxygenase (mon-o-fe′nol)
1. A copper-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones by O2, with the incorporation of one of the two oxygen atoms in the product; it also catalyzes the oxidation of monophenols, such as l-tyrosine, to dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (dopa), a precursor of melanin and epinephrine (catecholamines), and can act as a catechol oxidase; a deficiency of this enzyme is observed in a number of forms of albinism. SYN: cresolase, monophenol oxidase, tyrosinase. 2. SYN: laccase.

monophenol oxidase
SYN: monophenol monooxygenase (1) .

monophobia (mon-o-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of solitude or of being left alone. [mono- + G. phobos, fear]

monophthalmos (mon-of-thal′mos)
Failure of outgrowth of a primary optic vesicle with absence of ocular tissues; the remaining eye is often maldeveloped. [mono- + G. ophthalmos, eye]

monophthalmus (mon′of-thal′mus)
SYN: cyclops. [mono- + G. ophthalmos, eye]

monophyletic (mon′o-fi-let′ik)
1. Having a single cell type of origin; derived from one line of descent, in contrast to polyphyletic. 2. In hematology, relating to monophyletism. [mono- + G. phyle, tribe]

monophyletism (mon-o-fi′le-tizm)
In hematology, the theory that all the blood cells are derived from one common stem cell or histioblast. SYN: monophyletic theory. [mono- + G. phyle, tribe]

monophyodont (mon-o-fi′o-dont)
Having one set of teeth only; without deciduous dentition. [mono- + G. phyo, to grow, + odous (odont-), tooth]

monoplasmatic (mon′o-plas-mat′ik)
Formed of but one tissue. [mono- + G. plasma, thing formed]

monoplast (mon′o-plast)
A unicellular organism that retains the same structure or form throughout its existence. [mono- + G. plastos, formed]

monoplastic (mon-o-plas′tik)
Undergoing no change in structure; relating to a monoplast.

monoplegia (mon-o-ple′je-a)
Paralysis of one limb. [mono- + G. plege, a stroke] m. masticatoria unilateral paralysis of the muscles of mastication (masseter, temporal, pterygoid).

monoploid (mon′o-ployd)
SYN: haploid. [mono- + G. ploides, in form]




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