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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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mother (muth′er)
1. The female parent. 2. Any cell or other structure from which other similar bodies are formed. [A.S. modor] surrogate m. a woman who has been contracted with to carry a pregnancy for another woman or couple.

motile (mo′til)
1. Having the power of spontaneous movement. 2. Denoting the type of mental imagery in which one learns and recalls most readily that which has been felt, i.e., having a kinesthetic representational system. Cf.:audile. 3. A person having such mental imagery. [see motion]

motilin (mo-til′in)
A 22-amino acid polypeptide occurring in duodenal mucosa as a controller of normal gastrointestinal motor activity; in minute (ng) doses it induces powerful motor activity increases in the fundic gland area and antral pouches of the stomach, with an increase in pepsin output from the former. [motility + -in]

motility (mo-til′i-te)
The power of spontaneous movement.

motion (mo′shun)
1. A change of place or position. Cf.:movement (1) . 2. SYN: defecation. 3. SYN: stool. [L. motio, movement, fr. moveo, pp. motus, to move] brownian m. SYN: brownian movement. [R. Brown, British botanist, 1773–1858] continuous passive m. (CPM) a technique in which a joint, usually the knee, is moved constantly through a variable range of m. to prevent stiffness and to increase the range of m.; most often accomplished using a motorized device specifically designed for this purpose.

motivation (mo-ti-va′shun)
In psychology, the aggregate of all the individual motives, needs, and drives operative in an individual at any given moment which influence will and cause behavior. [ML. motivus, moving] extrinsic m. the search for satisfaction, or to avoid dissatisfaction, through nontask aspects of the environment such as seeking comfort, safety, and security from others or through the efforts of others. intrinsic m. derivation of personal satisfaction through self-initiated achievement and behavior. personal m. an individual's predispositions and expectations that give meaning and direction to personality functioning.

motive (mo′tiv)
1. An acquired predisposition, need, or specific state of tension within an individual which arouses, maintains, and directs behavior toward a goal. SYN: learned drive. 2. The reason attributed to or given by an individual for a behavioral act. Cf.:instinct. [L. moveo, to move, to set in motion] achievement m. an acquired, chronic need to succeed in the face of recognizable obstacles; its strength is usually diagnosed from recurring themes in stories told by the individual while taking a thematic apperception test or from other assessment instruments used by clinical psychologists. mastery m. an acquired need to be assertive, to stand out in a crowd, to be dominant.

motofacient (mo-to-fa′shent)
Causing motion; denoting the second phase of muscular activity in which actual movement is produced. [L. motus, motion, + facio, to make]

motoneuron (mo′to-noo′ron)
SYN: motor neuron.

motor (mo′ter)
1. In anatomy and physiology, denoting those neural structures which by the impulses generated and transmitted by them cause muscle fibers or pigment cells to contract, or glands to secrete. SEE ALSO: m. cortex, m. endplate, m. neuron. 2. In psychology, denoting the organism's overt reaction to a stimulus (m. response). [L. a mover, fr. moveo, to move] m. oculi SYN: oculomotor nerve [CN III]. plastic m. an artificial point of attachment on an amputation stump to which is fastened the cord or extensor by which movement is transmitted to an artificial limb; used in cinematization.

motorial (mo-tor′e-al)
Relating to motion, to a motor nerve or the motor nucleus.

motormeter (mo′ter-me′ter)
A device for determining the amount, force, and rapidity of movement.

MOTT
Term used to describe mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bovis, and M. africanum, (M. tuberculosiscomplex).

mottle (mot′tl)
Fine inhomogeneity of an area of generally uniform opacity on a photograph or radiograph; noise. [fr. motley, fr. M.E. mot, speck] quantum m. m. caused by the statistical fluctuation of the number of photons absorbed by the intensifying screens to form the light image on the film; faster screens produce more quantum m..

mottling (mot′ling)
An area of skin composed of macular lesions of varying shades or colors. [E. motley, variegated in color]

Motulsky dye reduction test
See under test.

moulage (moo-lazh′)
A reproduction in wax of a skin lesion, tumor, or other pathologic state. [F. a molding]

mould (mold)
SYN: mold.

moult (molt)
SYN: molt.

mounding (mownd′ing)
SYN: myoedema.

Mounier-Kuhn
Pierre, French physician, *1901. See Mounier-Kuhn syndrome.

mount (mownt)
1. To prepare for microscopic examination. 2. To climb on for purposes of copulation. 3. To organize and present, as a fever, an immunologic response, etc.

mounting (mownt′ing)
In dentistry, the laboratory procedure of attaching the maxillary and/or mandibular cast to an articulator. split cast m. 1. a cast with key grooves on its base, mounted on an articulator for the purpose of easy removal and accurate replacement; split remounting metal plates may be used instead of grooves in casts; 2. a means for testing the accuracy of articulator adjustment.

mourn (morn)
To express grief or sorrow as a result of loss. In psychoanalysis, mourning is the frequently unexpressed process of responding to loss of a cathected object which, in contrast to melancholia, usually does not involve loss of self-esteem. [O.E. murnan]

mouse (mows)
A small rodent belonging to the genus Mus. joint mice Small fibrous, cartilaginous, or bony loose bodies in the synovial cavity of a joint. knockout m. a m. from whose genome a single gene has been artificially deleted.Experimental animals lacking specific genes have become valuable research tools in many branches of medicine, including genetics, physiology, pharmacology, immunology, cell biology, and oncology. A transgenic animal is one into whose genome a foreign gene, constructed by recombinant DNA technology, has been deliberately inserted. Placement of the inserted gene at a specific locus in the genome is made possible by incorporating it in a vector in which it is flanked by DNA sequences unique to the target site. The artificial genetic material is introduced into an embryo, which then develops into a chimera whose tissues contain both normal cells and cells containing the transgene. Matings among such animals yield some offspring that are homozygous for the transgene. If the inserted gene is a nonfunctional (null) allele, it deletes or “knocks out” the normal, wild allele. Not only is the deleted gene not expressed, but the offspring of matings among homozygous individuals constitute a pure strain, all of whose members lack the gene. Although theoretically any animal could be subjected to the knockout technique, mice have been used almost exclusively. Mice are small and easily maintained, and they reproduce rapidly and have a short life span. In addition, m. and human genomes are strikingly similar, with about 75% correspondence of genes. The fact that knockout mice lacking a wide variety of genes are often phenotypically normal indicates that the m. genome, like that of human beings, often has sufficient redundancy to compensate for a single missing pair of alleles. Knockout mice lacking the p53 tumor suppressor gene are used in studies of carcinogenesis, while those lacking the gene for the LDL receptor constitute an animal model of human familial hypercholesterolemia. Knockout mice have proved valuable in revealing the functions of genes for which mutant strains were not previously available. multimammate m. an African rodent, Praomys natalensis, widely used in cancer research. New Zealand mice inbred strains of mice, either black (NZB) or white (NZW), unique among strains used in experimental immunology because of their proclivity to spontaneous immunologic abnormalities and disorders including systemic lupus erythematosus similar to that found in humans. nude m. a hairless mutant m. with thymic hypoplasia, lacking T cells. transgenic mice (tranz′jen-ik) Mice that have a piece of foreign DNA integrated into their genome.

mouth (mowth)
1. SYN: oral cavity. 2. The opening, usually the external opening, of a cavity or canal. See os (2) , ostium, orifice, stoma (2) . [A.S. muth] carp m. a m. like that of the carp, with downturning of the corners; observed in Cornelia de Lange syndrome and Silver-Russell dwarfism. denture sore m. mucosal erythema underlying a denture base, usually representing inflammation caused by ill-fitting dentures, poor oral hygiene, or Candida albicans. scabby m. SYN: orf. sore m. soremouth. tapir m. protrusion of the lips due to weakness of the orbicularis oris muscles; seen with some dystrophies. SYN: bouche de tapir. trench m. SYN: necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis. m. of the womb SYN: external os of uterus.

mouth guard
A pliable plastic device, adapted to cover the maxillary teeth, which is worn to reduce potential injury to oral structures during participation in contact sports.

mouth stick
A prosthesis which is held by the teeth and utilized by handicapped persons to perform such actions as typing, painting, and lifting small objects.

mouthwash
A medicated liquid used for cleaning the mouth and treating diseased states of its mucous membranes. SYN: collutorium, collutory.

movement (moov′ment)
1. The act of motion; said of the entire body or of one or more of its members or parts. 2. SYN: stool. 3. SYN: defecation. [L. moveo, pp. motus, to move] active m. 1. m. effected by the organism itself, unaided by external influences. 2. in physical therapy, a m. that is effected entirely by the patient's muscles, often with the guidance of the therapist. adversive m. a rotation of the eyes, head, or trunk about the long axis of the body. after-m. aftermovement. ameboid m. the form of m. characteristic of the protoplasm of leukocytes, amebae, and other unicellular organisms; it involves the massing of the protoplasm at a point where surface pressure is least and its extrusion in the form of a pseudopod; the protoplasm may return to the body of the cell, resulting in the retraction of the pseudopod, or the entire mass may flow into the latter and thereby result in locomotion of the cell. SYN: streaming m.. assistive m. in physical therapy, a m. which is effected with the graduated assistance of the therapist. associated movements normal involuntary limb movements that accompany voluntary m., e.g., arm swing with walking. Bennett m. the bodily lateral m. or lateral shift of the mandible during a laterotrusive m.. border movements any extreme compass of mandibular m. limited by bone, ligaments, or soft tissues; usually applied to horizontal mandibular movements. border tissue movements the action of the muscles and other tissues adjacent to the borders of a denture. bowel m. defecation. brownian m. erratic, nondirectional, zigzag m. observed by ultramicroscope in certain colloidal solutions and by microscope in suspensions of light particulate matter that results from the jostling or bumping of the larger particles by the molecules in the suspending medium which are regarded as being in continuous motion. SYN: brownian motion, brownian-Zsigmondy m., molecular m., pedesis. brownian-Zsigmondy m. SYN: brownian m.. cardinal ocular movements eye rotations to the right and left, upward to the right and left, and downward to the right and left, to diagnose positions of gaze. choreic m. an involuntary spasmodic twitching or jerking in groups of muscles not associated in the production of definite purposeful movements. ciliary m. the rhythmic, sweeping m. of epithelial cell cilia, of ciliate protozoans, or the sculling m. of flagella, effected possibly by the alternate contraction and relaxation of contractile threads (myoids) on one side of the cilium or flagellum. circus m. a contraction or excitation wave traveling continuously in circular fashion around a ring of muscle or through the wall of the heart. SYN: circus rhythm. cogwheel ocular movements loose, jerky ocular rotations replacing smooth following rotations. conjugate m. of eyes rotation of the two eyes in the same direction. SEE ALSO: version (4) . decomposition of m. a manifestation of cerebellar disease in which a muscular m. is not carried out smoothly but in a series of component motions. disconjugate m. of eyes rotation of the two eyes in opposite directions, as in convergence or divergence. drift movements SYN: drifts. fetal m. the m. characteristic of the fetus in utero; usually commences between the sixteenth and eighteenth weeks of pregnancy. SEE ALSO: quickening. fixational ocular m. rotation of the eyes during voluntary fixation on an object; tremors, flicks, and drifts occur. flick movements SYN: flicks. free mandibular movements 1. any mandibular movements made without tooth interference; 2. any uninhibited movements of the mandible. functional mandibular movements all natural, proper, or characteristic movements of the mandible made during speech, mastication, yawning, swallowing, and other associated movements. fusional m. a reflex m. that tends to move the visual axes to the object of fixation so that stereoscopic vision is possible. hinge m. an opening or closing m. of the mandible on the hinge axis. intermediary movements in dentistry, all movements between the extremes of mandibular excursions. lateral m. in dentistry, m. of the mandible to the side. Magnan trombone m. an involuntary forward and back m. of the tongue when it is drawn out of the mouth; may be seen in several basal ganglia disorders. mandibular m. 1. movements of the lower jaw; 2. all changes in position of which the mandible is capable. mass m. SYN: mass peristalsis. molecular m. SYN: brownian m.. morphogenetic m. the streaming of cells in the early embryo to form tissues or organs. muscular m. m. caused by the contraction of the myofibrils of the muscle cells. neurobiotactic m. the streaming of nerve cells toward the area from which they receive the most stimuli. non-rapid eye m. (NREM) slow oscillation of the eyes during sleep. opening m. in dentistry, m. of the mandible executed during jaw separation. paradoxical m. of eyelids spontaneous, involuntary elevation or lowering of the eyelids, associated with m. of extraocular muscles or muscles of mastication (external pterygoids). See jaw winking. paradoxical vocal cord m. adduction of the vocal cords on inspiration, resulting in stridor and airway obstruction. passive m. 1. m. imparted to an organism or any of its parts by external agency. 2. in physical therapy, a m. that is effected entirely by the therapist without the assistance of the patient's muscles. pendular m. a to-and-fro m. of the intestine, without any propelling or peristaltic action, whereby the contents are churned and thoroughly mixed with the intestinal ferments. protoplasmic m. m. produced by the inherent power of contraction and relaxation of protoplasm; such movements are of three kinds: muscular, streaming, and ciliary. rapid eye movements (REM) symmetrical quick scanning movements of the eyes occurring many times during sleep in clusters for 5 to 60 minutes; associated with dreaming. reflex m. an involuntary m. resulting from a sensory stimulus. resistive m. in physical therapy, a m. made by the patient against the efforts of the therapist, or one forced by the operator against the resistance of the patient. saccadic m. 1. a quick rotation of the eyes from one fixation point to another as in reading; 2. the rapid correction m. of a jerky nystagmus, as in labyrinthine and optokinetic nystagmus. streaming m. SYN: ameboid m.. Swedish movements a form of kinesitherapy in which certain systematized movements of the body and limbs are regulated by resistance made by an attendant. SYN: Swedish gymnastics. translatory m. the motion of the body at any instant when all points within the body are moving at the same velocity and in the same direction. vermicular m. SYN: peristalsis.

moxa (mok′sa)
A cone or cylinder of cotton wool or other combustible material, placed on the skin and ignited in order to produce counterirritation. SEE ALSO: moxibustion. [Jap. moe kusa, burning herb]

moxalactam (moks-a-lak′tam)
A third-generation cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of antibacterial action; causes bleeding disorders, which limit its use.

moxibustion (mok-si-bus′chun)
Burning of herbal agents, such as moxa, on the skin as a counterirritant in the treatment of disease; a component of traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine.

moxisylyte (mok-si′si-lit)
Used as an α-adrenergic blocking agent for treatment of peripheral vascular disease. SYN: thymoxamine.

MP
Abbreviation for mentoposterior position.

m.p.
1. Abbreviation for melting point. 2. Abbreviation for [L] modo praescripto, in the manner prescribed.

MPD
Abbreviation for maximum permissible dose.

MPR
Abbreviation for mannose-6-phosphate receptors, under receptor.

MPS
Abbreviation for mononuclear phagocyte system.

MPTP
Piperidine derivative which causes irreversible symptoms of parkinsonism in humans and monkeys. A by-product of illicitly manufactured meperidine that caused numerous cases of parkinsonism. Used as an experimental tool in research on parkinsonism.

MQ
Former abbreviation for menaquinone; now MK.

MRA
Abbreviation for MR angiography.

M.R.C.P.
Abbreviation for Member of the Royal College of Physicians (of England).

M.R.C.P.(E)
Abbreviation for Member of the Royal College of Physicians (Edinburgh).

M.R.C.P.(I)
Abbreviation for Member of the Royal College of Physicians (Ireland).

M.R.C.S.
Abbreviation for Member of the Royal College of Surgeons (England).

M.R.C.S.(E)
Abbreviation for Member of the Royal College of Surgeons (Edinburgh).

M.R.C.S.(I)
Abbreviation for Member of the Royal College of Surgeons (Ireland).

MRD, mrd
Abbreviation for minimal reacting dose.

MRF
Abbreviation for melanotropin-releasing factor.

MRH
Abbreviation for melanotropin-releasing hormone.

MRI
Abbreviation for magnetic resonance imaging.

mRNA
Abbreviation for messenger RNA. See entries under ribonucleic acid.

MS
Abbreviation for multiple sclerosis; morphine sulfate; mitral stenosis; and myasthenic syndrome (Lambert-Eaton syndrome).

ms
Abbreviation for millisecond.

M.S.D.
Abbreviation for Master of Science in Dentistry.

msec
Abbreviation for millisecond.

MSG
Abbreviation for monosodium glutamate.

MSH
Abbreviation for melanocyte-stimulating hormone.

MTBE
Abbreviation for methyl-tert-butyl ether.

MTF
Abbreviation for modulation transfer function.

m.u.
Abbreviation for mouse unit.

mu (mu)
Twelfth letter of the Greek alphabet, &m.;.

mucase (mu′kas)
SYN: mucinase.

Much
Hans C.R., German physician, 1880–1932. See M. bacillus.

Mucha
Victor, Austrian dermatologist, 1877–1919. See M.-Habermann disease.

muci-
Mucous, mucin. SEE ALSO: muco-, myxo-. [L. mucus]

mucicarmine (mu-si-kar′min)
A red stain containing aluminum chloride and carmine; used to detect epithelial mucins and mucin-secreting adenocarcinomas; also used to demonstrate the capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans and other fungi.




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