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Medical Dictionary


mulling (mul′ing)
In dentistry, the final step of mixing dental amalgam, when the triturated mass is kneaded to complete the amalgamation.

multangular (mul-tang′gu-lar)
Having many angles.

Many. SEE ALSO: pluri-. Cf.:poly-. [L. multus, much]

multiarticular (mul′te-ar-tik′u-lar)
Relating to or involving many joints. SYN: polyarthric, polyarticular. [multi- + L. articulus, joint]

multibacillary (mul-te-bas′i-lar-e)
Made up of, or denoting the presence of, many bacilli.

multicapsular (mul-te-kap′soo-lar)
Having numerous capsules.

multicellular (mul-te-sel′u-lar)
Composed of many cells.

Multiceps (mul′ti-seps)
A genus of taeniid tapeworms in which the larval forms in herbivores occur in the form of a coenurus (multiple scoleces invaginated within a single cyst). [multi- + L. caput, head] M. m. a species the mature form of which occurs in the intestines of dogs; the coenurus develops in the brains of herbivorous animals, especially sheep; the cyst is often called Coenurus cerebralis. M. serialis a species the mature form of which is found in the intestine of dogs; the coenurus is found in the subcutaneous tissues of rabbits.

multicollinearity (mul′te-kol′in-e-ar′i-te)
In multiple regression analysis, a situation in which at least some independent variables in a set are highly correlated with each other. [multi- + L. col-lineo, to line up together]

Abbreviation for multicolony-stimulating factor.

multicuspid (mul-te-kus′pid)
SYN: multicuspidate (2) .

multicuspidate (mul-te-kus′pi-dat)
1. Having more than two cusps. 2. A molar tooth with three or more cusps or projections on the crown. SYN: multicuspid.

multienzyme (mul′ti-en′zim, mul′te-)
Referring to several enzymes; E.G., m. complex.

multifetation (mul-te-fe-ta′shun)
SYN: superfetation.

multifid (mul′te-fid)
Divided into many clefts or segments. SYN: multifidus (1) . [L. multifidus, fr. multus, much, + findo, to cleave]

multifidus (mul-tif′i-dus)
1. SYN: multifid. 2. See m. (muscle). [L.]

multifocal (mul-te-fo′kal)
Relating to or arising from many foci.

multiform (mul′ti-form)
SYN: polymorphic.

multiglandular (mul-te-glan′du-lar)
SYN: pluriglandular.

multigravida (mul-te-grav′i-da)
A pregnant woman who has been pregnant one or more times previously. [multi- + L. gravida, pregnant]

multi-infection (mul′te-in-fek′shun)
Mixed infection with two or more varieties of microorganisms developing simultaneously.

multilobar, multilobate, multilobed (mul-te-lo′bar, -lo′bat, -lobd′)
Having several lobes.

multilobular (mul-te-lob′u-lar)
Having many lobules.

multilocal (mul-te-lo′kal)
Denoting traits with an etiology comprising effects of multiple genetic loci operating together and simultaneously. Cf.:galtonian.

multilocular (mul-te-lok′u-lar)
Many-celled; having many compartments or loculi. SYN: plurilocular.

multimammae (mul-te-mam′e)
SYN: polymastia. [multi- + L. mamma, breast]

multinodal (mul-te-no′dal)
Having many nodes.

multinodular, multinodulate (mul-te-nod′u-lar, -u-lat)
Having many nodules.

multinuclear, multinucleate (mul-te-noo′kle-ar, -at)
Having two or more nuclei. SYN: plurinuclear, polynuclear, polynucleate.

multinucleosis (mool′te-nook-le-o′sis)
SYN: polynucleosis.

multipara (mul-tip′a-ra)
A woman who has given birth at least two times to an infant, liveborn or not, weighing 500 g or more, or having an estimated length of gestation of at least 20 weeks. [multi- + L. pario, to bring forth, to bear] grand m. a m. who has given birth five or more times.

multiparity (mul-te-par′i-te)
Condition of being a multipara.

multiparous (mul-tip′a-rus)
Relating to a multipara.

multipartial (mul′te-par′shal)
Polyvalent, with respect to an antiserum.

multiple (mul′ti-pl)
Manifold; repeated several times; occurring in several parts at the same time, as m. arthritis, m. neuritis. [L. multiplex, fr. multus, many, + plico, pp. -atus, to fold]

multipolar (mul-te-po′lar)
Having more than two poles; denoting a nerve cell in which the branches project from several points.

multirooted (mul-te-root′ed)
Having more than two roots.

multirotation (mul′te-ro-ta′shun)
SYN: mutarotation.

multisubstrate (mul-ti-sub′stat, mul-te′-)
Referring to an enzyme, receptor, or acceptor protein, which requires two or more substrates.

multisynaptic (mul′te-si-nap′tik)
SYN: polysynaptic.

multivalence, multivalency (mul-te-va′lens, -va′len-se)
The state of being multivalent.

multivalent (mul-te-va′lent)
1. In chemistry, having a combining power (valence) of more than one hydrogen atom. 2. Efficacious in more than one direction. 3. An antiserum specific for more than one antigen or organism. 4. Antigen or antibody with a combining power greater than two. SYN: polyvalent (1) .

mummification (mum′i-fi-ka′shun)
1. SYN: dry gangrene. 2. Shrivelling of a dead, retained fetus. 3. In dentistry, treatment of inflamed dental pulp with fixative drugs (usually formaldehyde derivatives) in order to retain teeth so treated for relatively short periods; generally acceptable only for primary (deciduous) teeth. [mummy + L. facio, to make]

mumps (mumps)
An acute infectious and contagious disease caused by a m. virus of the genus Rubulavirus and characterized by fever, inflammation and swelling of the parotid gland, sometimes of other salivary glands, and occasionally by inflammation of the testis, ovary, pancreas, or meninges. SYN: epidemic parotiditis. [dialectic Eng. mump, a lump or bump] metastatic m. m. complicated by involvement of organs other than parotid glands, such as the testis, breast, or pancreas.

SYN: Rubulavirus.

Baron Karl F.H. von, German nobleman, soldier, and raconteur, 1720–1797. See Munchausen syndrome, Munchausen syndrome by proxy.

William J., Australian dermatologist, 1863–1908. See M. abscess, M. microabscess.

John C., U.S. surgeon, 1858–1910. See M. point.

Albert H., U.S. artist, 1858–1918. See Farnsworth-M. color test.

Hazel E., U.S. chemist, *1891. See Sherman-M. unit.

Edward Sterling, U.S. ophthalmologist, *1933. See M. sign.

Egmont, Austrian physician, 1865–1924. See tract of M. and Wiener.

Abbreviation for muramic acid.

mural (mu′ral)
Relating to the wall of any cavity. [L. muralis; fr. murus, wall]

muramic acid (Mur) (mu-ram′ik)
2-Amino-3-O-(1-carboxyethyl)-2-deoxy-d-glucose;d-glucosamine and lactate in ether linkage between the 3 and 2 positions, respectively; a constituent of the mureins in bacterial cell walls.

muramidase (mu-ram′i-das)
SYN: lysozyme.

mureins (mur′enz)
Peptidoglycans composing the sacculus or cell casing of bacteria, consisting of linear polysaccharides of alternating N-acetyl-d-glucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid units, to the lactate side chains of which are linked oligopeptides; independent chains are cross-linked in three dimensions via the peptides or the 6-OH groups (the latter may be linked via phosphate to a teichoic acid). [L. murus, wall]

Paul-Louis, French physician, *1878. See Quénu-M. sign.

murexide (mu-rek′sid, -sid)
The ammonium salt of purpuric acid, formerly used as a dye but superseded by the aniline colors.

muriate (mu′re-at)
Former term for chloride. [L. muria, brine]

muriatic (mu-re-at′ik)
Relating to brine. [L. muriaticus, pickled in brine, fr. muria, brine]

muriatic acid
SYN: hydrochloric acid.

Muridae (mu′ri-de)
The largest family of Rodentia and of mammals, embracing the Old World mice and rats. [L. mus (mur-), a mouse]

muriform (mur′i-form)
Multicellular with cross and longitudinal septa; denoting an aggregation of cells fitting together like stones in a stone wall. [L. murus, wall, + -form]

murine (mu′rin, -rin, -ren)
Relating to animals of the family Muridae. [L. murinus, relating to mice, fr. mus (mur-), a mouse]

murmur (mer′mer)
1. A soft sound, like that made by a somewhat forcible expiration with the mouth open, heard on auscultation of the heart, lungs, or blood vessels. SYN: susurrus. 2. An other-than-soft sound, which may be loud, harsh, frictional, etc.; e.g., organic cardiac murmurs may be soft or loud and harsh; pericardial murmurs usually are frictional and are more properly described as “rubs” rather than murmurs. [L.] accidental m. an evanescent cardiac m. not due to valvular lesion. anemic m. a nonvalvular m. heard on auscultation of the heart and large blood vessels in cases of profound anemia associated mainly with turbulent blood flow due to decreased blood viscosity. aneurysmal m. a systolic or systolic-diastolic m. heard over some cardiac aneurysms. aortic m. a m. produced at the aortic orifice, either obstructive or regurgitant. arterial m. a m. heard on auscultating an artery. atriosystolic m. SYN: presystolic m.. Austin Flint m. SYN: Austin Flint phenomenon, Flint m.. bellows m. a blowing m.. brain m. sounds produced by intracranial aneurysms or arterial venous aneurysms in congenital dysplastic angiomatosis. Cabot-Locke m. an early diastolic m., like that of aortic insufficiency, heard best at the left lower sternal border in severe anemia. cardiac m. a m. produced within the heart, at one of its valvular orifices or across ventricular septal defects. cardiopulmonary m. an innocent extracardiac m., synchronous with the heart's beat but disappearing when the breath is held, believed due to movement of air in a segment of lung compressed by the contracting heart. SYN: cardiorespiratory m.. cardiorespiratory m. SYN: cardiopulmonary m.. Carey Coombs m. a blubbering apical middiastolic m. occurring in the acute stage of rheumatic mitral valvulitis and disappearing as the valvulitis subsides. SYN: Coombs m.. Cole-Cecil m. the diastolic m. of aortic insufficiency when well or predominantly heard in the left axilla. continuous m. a m. that is heard without interruption throughout systole and into diastole. cooing m. a m., usually of mitral regurgitation, of very high pitch resembling the cooing of a pigeon or a dove. Coombs m. SYN: Carey Coombs m.. crescendo m. a m. that increases in intensity and suddenly ceases; the presystolic m. of mitral stenosis is a common example. Cruveilhier-Baumgarten m. a venous m. heard over collateral veins, connecting portal and caval venous systems, on the abdominal wall. SEE ALSO: Cruveilhier-Baumgarten sign. diamond-shaped m. a crescendo-decrescendo m., from the shape of the frequency intensity curve of the phonocardiogram, often audible as such. diastolic m. (DM) a m. heard during diastole. Duroziez m. a two-phase m. over peripheral arteries, especially the femoral artery, due to rapid ebb and flow of blood during aortic insufficiency. SYN: Duroziez sign. dynamic m. a heart m. due to anemia or to any cause other than a valvular lesion. early diastolic m. a m. that begins with the second heart sound, as the m. of aortic insufficiency. ejection m. a diamond-shaped systolic m. produced by the ejection of blood into the aorta or pulmonary artery and ending by the time of the second heart sound component produced, respectively, by closing of the aortic or pulmonic valve. endocardial m. a m. arising, from any cause, within the heart. extracardiac m. a bruit heard over or near the precordium originating from structures other than the heart; the term includes pericardial friction rubs and cardiopulmonary murmurs. Flint m. a diastolic m., similar to that of mitral stenosis, heard best at the cardiac apex in some cases of free aortic insufficiency; it is thought to be caused by the turbulent regurgitating stream from the aorta mixing into the stream simultaneously entering from the left atrium through the mitral valve, causing posterior movement of the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve with transient acceleration of blood flow through the mitral valve. SYN: Austin Flint m.. Fräntzel m. m. of mitral stenosis when louder at its beginning and end than in its midportion. friction m. SYN: friction sound. functional m. a cardiac m. not associated with a significant heart lesion. SYN: innocent m., inorganic m.. Gibson m. the typical continuous “machinerylike” m. of patent ductus arteriosus. Graham Steell m. an early diastolic m. of pulmonic insufficiency secondary to pulmonary hypertension, as in mitral stenosis and various congenital defects associated with pulmonary hypertension. SYN: Steell m.. Hamman m. a crunching precordial sound synchronous with the heart beat; heard in mediastinal emphysema; also known as Hamman crunch. hemic m. a cardiac or vascular m. heard in anemic persons who have no valvular lesion, probably due to the increased blood velocity and turbulence that characterizes anemia. Hodgkin-Key m. a musical diastolic m. associated with retroversion of an aortic cusp; often very loud. holosystolic m. SYN: pansystolic m.. hourglass m. one in which there are two areas of maximum loudness decreasing to a point midway between the two. innocent m. SYN: functional m.. inorganic m. SYN: functional m.. late apical systolic m. a m. previously considered benign, or even extracardiac, with a possible relationship to pericardial disease; it often represents mitral insufficiency, often localized and of moderate severity but with propensity for developing bacterial endocarditis, and is frequently associated with systolic click and mitral prolapse (Barlow syndrome; a balloon or billowing mitral valve leaflet) often producing a click, m., or both, as it prolapses during systole into the left atrium. late diastolic m. SYN: presystolic m.. machinery m. the long “continuous” rumbling m. of patent ductus arteriosus. middiastolic m. a m. beginning after the A-V valves have opened in diastole, i.e., an appreciable time after the second heart sound, as the m. of mitral stenosis. mill wheel m. churning cardiac m. produced by air embolism to the heart; also heard in pneumohydropericardium. SYN: water wheel m.. mitral m. a m. produced at the mitral valve, either obstructive or regurgitant. musical m. a cardiac or vascular m. having a high-pitched musical character. nun's m. SYN: venous hum. obstructive m. a m. caused by narrowing of one of the valvular orifices. organic m. a m. caused by an organic lesion. pansystolic m. a m. occupying the entire systolic interval, from first to second heart sounds. SYN: holosystolic m.. pericardial m. a friction sound, synchronous with the heart movements, heard in certain cases of pericarditis. pleuropericardial m. a pleural friction sound over the pericardial region, synchronous with the heart's action, and simulating a pericardial m. (rub). presystolic m. a m. heard at the end of ventricular diastole (during atrial systole if in sinus rhythm), usually due to obstruction at one of the atrioventricular orifices. SYN: atriosystolic m., late diastolic m.. pulmonary m., pulmonic m. a m. produced at the pulmonary orifice of the heart, either obstructive or regurgitant. regurgitant m. a m. due to leakage or backward flow at one of the valvular orifices of the heart. respiratory m. SYN: vesicular respiration. Roger m. a loud pansystolic m. maximal at the left sternal border, caused by a small ventricular septal defect. SYN: bruit de Roger, Roger bruit. sea gull m. a m. imitating the cooing sound of a seagull nearly always due to aortic stenosis or mitral regurgitation. seesaw m. SYN: to-and-fro m.. Steell m. SYN: Graham Steell m.. stenosal m. an arterial m. due to narrowing of the vessel from pressure or organic change. Still m. an innocent musical m. resembling the noise produced by a twanging string; almost exclusively in young children, of uncertain origin and ultimately disappearing. systolic m. a m. heard during ventricular systole. to-and-fro m. m. heard in both systole and diastole of the heart, as in aortic stenosis and insufficiency. SYN: seesaw m.. tricuspid m. a m. produced at the tricuspid orifice, either obstructive or regurgitant. vascular m. a m. originating in a blood vessel. venous m. a m. heard over a vein. vesicular m. SYN: vesicular respiration. water wheel m. SYN: mill wheel m..

muromonab-CD3 (mu-ro-mo′nab)
A murine monoclonal antibody to the T3 (CD3) antigen of human T lymphocytes, used as an immunosuppressant in the treatment of acute allograft rejection following renal transplantation.

John B., U.S. surgeon, 1857–1916. See M. drip, M. button, M. percussion.

Mus (mus)
A genus of the family Muridae that includes about 16 species of mice; domesticated strains are numerous and genetically well defined, the most popular being the albino and piebald strains. [L. m. (mur-), a mouse]

Musca (mus′ka)
A genus of flies (family Muscidae, order Diptera) that includes the common housefly, M. domestica, a species universally associated with humans, particularly under unsanitary conditions; it breeds in filth and organic waste, and is involved in the mechanical transfer of numerous pathogens. [L. fly]

muscae volitantes (mus′se, mus′ke vol-i-tan′tes)
Floaters;appearance of moving spots before the eyes, arising from remnants of the embryologic hyaloid vascular system in the vitreous humor. [L. pl. of musca, fly; pres. ppl. of volito, to fly to and fro]

muscarine (mus′ka-ren, -rin)
A toxin with neurologic effects, first isolated from Amanita muscaria (fly agaric) and also present in some species of Hebeloma and Inocybe. The quaternary trimethylammonium salt of 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-5-(aminomethyl)tetrahydrofuran, it is a cholinergic substance whose pharmacologic effects resemble those of acetylcholine and postganglionic parasympathetic stimulation (cardiac inhibition, vasodilation, salivation, lacrimation, bronchoconstriction, gastrointestinal stimulation).


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