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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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nasopharyngeal (na′zo-fa-rin′je-al)
Relating to the nose or nasal cavity and the pharynx. SYN: rhinopharyngeal (1) .

nasopharyngolaryngoscope (na′zo-fa-ring′go-la-ring′go-skop)
An instrument, often of fiberoptic type, used to visualize the upper airways and pharynx.

nasopharyngoscope (na′zo-fa-ring′go-skop)
Telescopic instrument, electrically lighted, for examination of the nasal passages and the nasopharynx.

nasopharyngoscopy (na′zo-fa-ring-gos′ko-pe)
Examination of the nasopharynx by flexible or rigid optical instruments, or with a mirror. [nasopharynx + G. skopeo, to view]

nasopharynx (na′zo-far′ingks) [TA]
The part of the pharynx that lies above the soft palate; anteriorly it opens into the nasal cavities via the choanae; inferiorly, it communicates with the oropharynx via the pharyngeal isthmus; laterally it communicates with tympanic cavities via pharyngotympanic (auditory) tubes. SYN: pars nasalis pharyngis [TA] , epipharynx, nasal part of pharynx, nasal pharynx, pharyngonasal cavity, rhinopharynx.

nasorostral (na′zo-ros′tral)
Relating to the nasal cavity and the rostrum of the sphenoid bone.

nasosinusitis (na′zo-si-nu-si′tis)
Inflammation of the nasal cavities and of the accessory sinuses.

Nasse
Christian Friedrich, German physician, 1788–1851.

Nasse law
See under law.

nasus (na′sus)
1. SYN: external nose. 2. SYN: nose. [L.] n. externus SYN: external nose.

natal (na′tal)
1. Relating to birth. [L. natalis, fr. nascor, pp. natus, to be born] 2. Relating to the buttocks or nates. [L. nates, buttocks]

natality (na-tal′i-te)
The birth rate; the ratio of births to the general population. [see natal (1)]

natamycin (na-ta-mi′sin)
SYN: pimaricin.

nates (na′tez) [TA]
SYN: buttocks. [L. pl. of natis]

National Formulary (NF)
An official compendium formerly issued by the American Pharmaceutical Association but now published by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention for the purpose of providing standards and specifications which can be used to evaluate the quality of pharmaceuticals and therapeutic agents.

natremia, natriemia (na-tre′me-a, na′tre-e′me-a)
The presence of sodium in the blood. [natrium, sodium, + G. haima, blood]

natrexone hydrochloride (na-treks′on)
An orally active narcotic antagonist used in maintenance therapy of detoxified, formerly opioid-dependent, patients.

natriferic (na-trif′er-ik)
Tending to increase sodium transport. [natrium + L. fero, to carry]

natrium (Na) (na′tre-um)
SYN: sodium. [Ar. natrum, fr. G. nitron, carbonate of soda]

natriuresis (na′tre-u-re′sis)
Urinary excretion of sodium; commonly designates enhanced sodium excretion, which may occur in certain diseases or as a result of the administration of diuretic drugs. [natrium + G. ouron, urine]

natriuretic (na′tre-u-ret′ik)
1. Pertaining to or characterized by natriuresis. 2. A substance that increases urinary excretion of sodium, usually as a result of decreased tubular reabsorption of sodium ions from glomerular filtrate.

Nattrassia mangiferae
A dematiaceous mold, previously known as Hendersonula toruloidea, that causes onychomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis. Scytalidium dimidiatum is a synanamorph. SYN: Hendersonula toruloidea.

naturopath (na′choor-o-path)
One who practices naturopathy.

naturopathic (na′choor-o-path′ik)
Relating to or by means of naturopathy.

naturopathy (na-choor-op′a-the)
A system of therapeutics in which neither surgical nor medicinal agents are used, dependence being placed only on natural (nonmedicinal) forces.

naupathia (naw-path′e-a)
SYN: seasickness. [G. naus, ship, + pathos, suffering]

nausea (naw′ze-a, -zha)
An inclination to vomit. SYN: sicchasia (1) . [L. fr. G. nausia, seasickness, fr. naus, ship] epidemic n. SYN: epidemic vomiting. n. gravidarum SYN: morning sickness.

nauseant (naw′ze-ant)
1. Nauseating; causing nausea. 2. An agent that causes nausea.

nauseate (naw′ze-at)
To cause an inclination to vomit.

nauseated (naw′ze-a-ted)
Affected with nausea. SYN: sick (2) .

nauseous (naw′ze-us, naw′shus)
1. Nauseated. 2. Causing nausea.

Nauta
Walle J.H., U.S. neuroscientist, *1916. See N. stain.

navel (na′vel)
SYN: umbilicus. [A.S. nafela]

navicula (na-vik′u-la)
A small boat-shaped structure. [L. dim of navis, ship]

navicular (na-vik′u-lar) [TA]
Flattened, medially placed tarsal bone, concave on its posterior surface to accommodate the head of the talus, and convex on its anterior surface to articulate with the three cuneiform bones. SYN: os naviculare [TA] , central bone of ankle, n. (bone), os centrale tarsi. [L. navicularis, relating to shipping]

Nb
Symbol for niobium.

NBT
Abbreviation for nitroblue tetrazolium.

Nd
Symbol for neodymium.

NDP
Abbreviation for nucleoside diphosphate.

Ne
Symbol for neon.

nearsightedness (ner′sit-ed-nes)
SYN: myopia.

nearthrosis (ne-ar-thro′sis)
A new joint; e.g., a pseudarthrosis arising in an ununited fracture, or an artificial joint resulting from a total joint replacement operation. SYN: neoarthrosis. [G. neos, new, + arthrosis, a jointing]

nebramycin (neb-ra-mi′sin)
A complex of substances produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius; an antibacterial agent.

nebul.
Abbreviation for n..

nebula (nebul.) , pl .nebulae (neb′u-la, -le)
1. A translucent foglike opacity of the cornea. 2. A class of oily preparations, intended for application by atomization. See spray. 3. A spray. [L. fog, cloud, mist]

nebularine (neb-u-lar′in)
A toxic nucleoside isolated from the mushroom Agaricus nebularis and from Streptomyces sp. SYN: 9-β-ribofuranosylpurine, purine ribonucleoside, ribosylpurine.

nebulin (neb′u-lin)
A very large protein, constituting about 3% of skeletal muscle protein; may aid in the organization of actin filaments as well as in actin polymerization. [L. nebula, mist, fog, fr. G. nephele, + -in]

nebulization (neb′u-li-za′shun)
Spraying or vaporization. [L. nebula, mist]

nebulize (neb′u-liz)
To break up a liquid into a fine spray or vapor; to vaporize. [L. nebula, mist]

nebulizer (neb′u-liz-er)
A device used to reduce liquid medication to extremely fine cloudlike particles; useful in delivering medication to deeper parts of the respiratory tract. SEE ALSO: atomizer, vaporizer. jet n. an atomizer that uses an air or gas stream to change a liquid into small particles. spinning disk n. a n. in which water is changed into small particles as it is thrown by centrifugal force from a spinning disk. ultrasonic n. a humidifier using high-frequency electricity to power a transducer that vibrates 1,350,000 times per second and changes water up into particles 0.5–3 μm in size in its nebulizing chamber; used in inhalation therapy.

Necator (ne-ka′tor)
A genus of nematode hookworms (family Ancylostomatidae, subfamily Necatorinae) distinguished by two chitinous cutting plates in the buccal cavity and fused male copulatory spicules. Species include N. americanus, the so-called New World hookworm (although it is also prevalent in the tropics of Africa, southern Asia, and Polynesia); the adults of this species attach to villi in the small intestine and suck blood, causing abdominal discomfort, diarrhea (usually with melena) and cramps, anorexia, loss of weight, and hypochromic microcytic anemia, which may occur in advanced disease. SEE ALSO: Ancylostoma. [L. a murderer]

necatoriasis (ne-ka-to-ri′a-sis)
Hookworm disease caused by Necator, the resulting anemia being usually less severe than that from ancylostomiasis.

neck (nek) [TA]
1. Part of body by which the head is connected to the trunk: it extends from the base of the cranium to the top of the shoulders. 2. In anatomy, any constricted portion having a fancied resemblance to the n. of an animal. 3. The germinative portion of an adult tapeworm which develops the segments or proglottids; the region of cestode segmentation behind the scolex. SYN: cervix (1) [TA] , collum&star. [A.S. hnecca] anatomical n. of humerus [TA] a groove separating the head of the humerus from the tuberosities, giving attachment to the articular capsule. SYN: collum anatomicum humeri [TA] . buffalo n. combination of moderate kyphosis with thick heavy fat pad on the n., seen especially in persons with Cushing disease or syndrome. bull n. a heavy thick n. caused by hypertrophied muscles or enlarged cervical lymph nodes. dental n. SYN: n. of tooth. n. of femur [TA] a short, constricted, strong bar projecting at an obtuse angle (about 125°) from the upper end of the shaft of the thigh bone and supporting its head. SYN: collum femoris [TA] , collum ossis femoris, n. of thigh bone. n. of fibula [TA] the slightly constricted region between the head and body of the fibula. SYN: collum fibulae [TA] . n. of gallbladder [TA] the narrow portion between the body of the gallbladder and beginning of the cystic duct. SYN: collum vesicae biliaris [TA] , collum vesicae felleae&star. n. of glans [TA] a constriction behind the corona of the glans penis. SYN: collum glandis [TA] . n. of hair follicle the narrowed part of the hair follicle between the hair bulb and the surface of the skin. SYN: collum folliculi pili. n. of humerus anatomical n. of humerus, surgical n. of humerus. Madelung n. multiple symmetric lipomatosis (Madelung disease) confined to the n.. n. of malleus [TA] the constricted portion of the malleus between the head and the manubrium. SYN: collum mallei [TA] . n. of mandible [TA] the constricted portion of the condylar process below the head of the mandible. SYN: collum mandibulae [TA] . n. of pancreas [TA] segment of pancreas, approximately 2 cm long, connecting head and body of pancreas; it intervenes between the duodenum anteriorly and the junction of the splenic and superior mesenteric veins, forming the beginning of the portal vein, posteriorly. SYN: collum pancreaticus [TA] . n. of radius [TA] the narrow part of the shaft just below the head. SYN: collum radii [TA] . n. of rib [TA] the flattened portion of a rib between the head and the tuberosity. SYN: collum costae [TA] . n. of scapula [TA] a slight constriction marking the separation of that portion bearing the glenoid cavity and coracoid process from the remainder of the scapula. SYN: collum scapulae [TA] . stiff n. nonspecific term for limited n. mobility, often due to muscle cramps and accompanied by pain. surgical n. of humerus [TA] the narrow portion below the head and tuberosities. SYN: collum chirurgicum humeri [TA] . n. of talus [TA] a constriction separating the head, or anterior portion, from the body of the talus. SYN: collum tali [TA] . n. of thigh bone SYN: n. of femur. n. of tooth [TA] the slightly constricted part of a tooth, between the crown and the root. SYN: cervix dentis [TA] , cervix of tooth&star, cervical margin of tooth, cervical zone of tooth, collum dentis, dental n.. turkey gobbler n. large skin folds hanging under the chin. n. of (urinary) bladder [TA] the lowest part of the bladder formed by the junction of the fundus and the inferolateral surfaces. SYN: cervix vesicae urinariae [TA] , collum vesicae&star. n. of uterus SYN: cervix of uterus. webbed n. the broad n. due to lateral folds of skin extending from the clavicle to the head but containing no muscles, bones, or other structures; occurs in Turner syndrome and in Noonan syndrome. n. of womb SYN: cervix of uterus. wry n. SYN: torticollis.

necklace (nek′las)
Term used to describe a skin rash that encircles the neck. Casal n. a dermatitis partly or completely encircling the lower part of the neck in pellagra.

necr-
See necro-.

necrectomy (ne-krek′to-me)
Operative removal of any necrosed tissue. [necr- + G. ektome, excision]

necro-, necr-
Death, necrosis. [G. nekros, corpse]

necrobacillosis (nek′ro-bas-il-o′sis)
Any disease with which the bacterium Fusobacterium necrophorum is associated.

necrobiosis (nek′ro-bi-o′sis)
1. Physiologic or normal death of cells or tissues as a result of changes associated with development, aging, or use. 2. Necrosis of a small area of tissue. [necro- + G. bios, life] n. lipoidica, n. lipoidica diabeticorum a condition, in many cases associated with diabetes, in which one or more yellow, atrophic, shiny lesions develop on the legs (typically pretibial); characterized histologically by indistinct areas of necrosis in the cutis.

necrobiotic (nek′ro-bi-ot′ik)
Pertaining to or characterized by necrobiosis.

necrocytosis (nek′ro-si-to′sis)
A process that results in, or a condition that is characterized by, the abnormal or pathologic death of cells. [necro- + G. kytos, cell, + -osis, condition]

necrogenic (nek-ro-jen′ik)
Relating to, living in, or having origin in dead matter. SYN: necrogenous. [necro- + G. genesis, origin]

necrogenous (ne-kroj′e-nus)
SYN: necrogenic.

necrogranulomatous (nek′ro-gran-u-lo′ma-tus)
Obsolete term for the characteristics of a granuloma with central necrosis.

necrologist (ne-krol′o-jist)
A student of, or a specialist in, necrology.

necrology (ne-krol′o-je)
The science of the collection, classification, and interpretation of mortality statistics. [necro- + G. logos, study]

necrolysis (ne-krol′i-sis)
Necrosis and loosening of tissue. [necro- + G. lysis, loosening] toxic epidermal n. (TEN) a syndrome in which a large portion of the skin becomes intensely erythematous with epidermal necrosis, and peels off in the manner of a second-degree burn, often simultaneous with the formation of flaccid bullae, resulting from drug sensitivity or of unknown cause; the level of separation is subepidermal, unlike staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in which there is subcorneal change. SYN: Lyell syndrome.

necromania (nek-ro-ma′ne-a)
1. A morbid tendency to dwell with longing on death. 2. A morbid attraction to dead bodies. [necro- + G. mania, frenzy]




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