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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


neobladder (ne′o-blad′er)
Surgically constricted (usually using stomach or intestine) replacement for urinary bladder.

neoblastic (ne-o-blas′tik)
Developing in or characteristic of new tissue. [neo- + G. blastos, germ, offspring]

neocerebellum (ne′o-ser-e-bel′um) [TA]
Phylogenetic term referring to the larger lateral portion of the cerebellar hemisphere receiving its dominant input from the pontine nuclei which, in turn, are dominated by afferent nerves originating from all parts of the cerebral cortex; phylogenetically, of more recent origin than the archicerebellum and paleocerebellum, q.v., the n. reaches its largest development in humans and other primates. SYN: corticocerebellum.

neochymotrypsinogen (ne-o-ki′mo-trip-sin′o-jen)
An intermediate in the conversion of chymotrypsin to α-chymotrypsin by chymotrypsin cleavage.

neocinchophen (ne-o-sin′ko-fen)
The ethyl ester of 6-methyl-2-phenylquinolin-4-carboxylic acid; its action and uses are similar to those of cinchophen.

neocortex (ne-o-kor′teks) [TA]
SYN: isocortex.

neocystostomy (ne′o-sis-tos′to-me)
SYN: ureteroneocystostomy. [neo- + G. kystis, bladder, + stoma, mouth]

neodymium (Nd) (ne-o-dim′e-um)
One of the rare earth elements; atomic no. 60, atomic wt. 144.24. [neo-, new, + G. didymos, twin (of lanthanum)]

neoencephalon (ne-o-en-sef′a-lon)
SYN: neencephalon.

neofetal (ne-o-fe′tal)
Relating to the neofetus or to the transition between the embryonic and fetal periods of development.

neofetus (ne-o-fe′tus)
The intrauterine organism at about 8 weeks of development.

neoformation (ne′o-for-ma′shun)
1. Formation of neoplasia, or a neoplasm. 2. Sometimes used to indicate the process of regeneration, or a regenerated tissue or part.

neogenesis (ne-o-jen′e-sis)
SYN: regeneration (1) . [neo- + G. genesis, origin]

neogenetic (ne′o-je-net′ik)
Pertaining to or characterized by neogenesis.

neokinetic (ne′o-ki-net′ik)
Denoting one of the divisions of the motor system, the function of which is the transmission of isolated synergic movements of voluntary origin; it represents a more highly specialized form of movement than the paleokinetic function. [neo- + G. kinetikos, relating to movement]

neolallism (ne-o-lal′izm)
Abnormal use of neologisms in speech. [neo- + G. laleo, to chatter]

neologism (ne-ol′o-jizm)
A new word or phrase of the patient's own making often seen in schizophrenia ( e.g., headshoe to mean hat), or an existing word used in a new sense; in psychiatry, such usages may have meaning only to the patient or be indicative of the patient's condition. [neo- + G. logos, word]

neomorph, neomorphism (ne′o-morf, ne′o-mor′fizm)
A new formation; a structure found in higher organisms, only slight or no traces of which exist in lower orders. [neo- + G. morphe, form]

neomycin sulfate (ne-o-mi′sin)
The sulfate of an antibacterial antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces fradiae, active against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

neon (Ne) (ne′on)
An inert gaseous element in the atmosphere, separated from argon by W. Ramsay and M. Travers in 1898; atomic no. 10, atomic wt. 20.1797. [G. neos, new]

neonatal (ne-o-na′tal)
Relating to the period immediately succeeding birth and continuing through the first 28 days of extrauterine life. SYN: newborn. [neo- + L. natalis, relating to birth]

neonate (ne′o-nat)
An infant aged 1 month or less. SYN: newborn. [neo- + L. natus, born, fr. nascor, to be born]

neonatologist (ne′o-na-tol′o-jist)
One who specializes in neonatology.

neonatology (ne′o-na-tol′o-je)
The pediatric subspecialty concerned with disorders of the neonate. SYN: neonatal medicine. [neo- + L. natus, pp. born, + G. logos, theory]

neoneurotization (ne-o-noo-rot′i-za′shun)
Rarely observed phenomenon of return of facial motor function following deliberate transection of the facial nerve; believed to represent trigeminal reinnervation of the facial muscles.

neopallium (ne-o-pal′e-um)
SYN: isocortex.

neophobia (ne-o-fo′be-a)
Morbid aversion to, or dread of, novelty or the unknown. [neo- + G. phobos, fear]

neoplasia (ne-o-pla′ze-a)
The pathologic process that results in the formation and growth of a neoplasm. [neo- + G. plasis, a molding] cervical intraepithelial n. dysplastic changes beginning at the squamocolumnar junction in the uterine cervix that may be precursors of squamous cell carcinoma: grade 1, mild dysplasia involving the lower one-third or less of the epithelial thickness; grade 2, moderate dysplasia with one-third to two-thirds involvement; grade 3, severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ, with two-thirds to full-thickness involvement. lobular n. SYN: noninfiltrating lobular carcinoma. multiple endocrine n. (MEN) a group of disorders characterized by functioning tumors in more than one endocrine gland. SYN: familial multiple endocrine adenomatosis, multiple endocrine adenomatosis. multiple endocrine n. 1 [MIM*131100] syndrome characterized by tumors of the pituitary gland, pancreatic islet cells, and parathyroid glands and may be associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; autosomal dominant inheritance, caused by mutation in the MEN1 gene on chromosome 11q. multiple endocrine n. 2 [MIM*171400] syndrome associated with pheochromocytoma, parathyroid adenoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma; autosomal dominant inheritance, caused by mutation in the RET oncogene on chromosome 10q. multiple endocrine n. 3 [MIM*162300] syndrome characterized by tumors found in MEN2, tall, thin habitus, prominent lips, and neuromas of the tongue and eyelids; autosomal dominant inheritance, caused by mutation in the RET oncogene on 10q. SYN: multiple endocrine n. 2B. multiple endocrine n. 2B SYN: multiple endocrine n. 3. multiple endocrine n., type 1 SYN: multiple endocrine n. syndrome, type 1. multiple endocrine n., type 2A (MEN2A) SYN: multiple endocrine n. syndrome, type 2A. prostatic intraepithelial n. (PIN) dysplastic changes involving glands and ducts of the prostate that may be a precursor of adenocarcinoma; low grade (PIN 1), mild dysplasia with cell crowding, variation in nuclear size and shape, and irregular cell spacing; high grade (PIN 2 and 3), moderate to severe dysplasia with cell crowding, nucleomegaly and nucleolomegaly, and irregular cell spacing. vaginal intraepithelial n. preinvasive squamous cell carcinoma (carcinoma in situ) limited to vaginal epithelium; like vulvar or cervical intraepithelial n., graded histologically on a scale from 1 to 3 or subdivided into low-grade and high-grade intraepithelial malignancy; usually related to human papilloma virus infection; may progress to invasive carcinoma. vulvar intraepithelial n. preinvasive squamous cell carcinoma (carcinoma in situ) limited to vulvar epithelium; like vaginal or cervical intraepithelial n., graded histologically on a scale from 1 to 3 or subdivided into low-grade and high-grade intraepithelial malignancy; usually related to human papilloma virus infection; may progress to invasive carcinoma.

neoplasm (ne′o-plazm)
An abnormal tissue that grows by cellular proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease. Neoplasms show partial or complete lack of structural organization and functional coordination with the normal tissue, and usually form a distinct mass of tissue that may be either benign (benign tumor) or malignant (cancer). SYN: new growth, tumor (2) . [neo- + G. plasma, thing formed] histoid n. old term for a n. characterized by a cytohistologic pattern that closely resembles the tissue from which the neoplastic cells are derived.

neoplastic (ne-o-plas′tik)
Pertaining to or characterized by neoplasia, or containing a neoplasm.

neopterin (ne-op′trin)
A pteridine present in body fluids; elevated levels result from immune system activation, malignant disease, allograft rejection, and viral infections (especially as in AIDS). [neo- + G. pteron, wing, + -in]

neopyrithiamin (ne′o-pir-i-thi′a-min)
SYN: pyrithiamin.

neoretinal b (ne-o-ret′in-al)
SYN: 11-cis-retinal.

neoretinene B (ne-o-ret′i-nen)
SYN: 11-cis-retinol.

Neospora canium (ne-o-spor-a kan′-e-um)
A protozoan parasite of dogs in the phylum Apicomplexa, an intracellular cyst-forming pathogen of neural and other tissues. Its epidemiology and life history are unknown.

neostigmine (ne-o-stig′min)
A synthetic compound, similar in action to physostigmine (eserine); a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor, used as the bromide or methylsulfate salts in the treatment of myasthenia gravis, postoperative distention, urinary retention, and antagonist of stabilizing neuromuscular blocking drugs.

neostomy (ne-os′to-me)
Surgical construction of a new or artificial opening. [neo- + G. stoma, mouth]

neostriatum (ne-o-stri-a′tum)

neoteny (ne-ot′e-ne)
Prolongation of the larval state, as in the Mexican tiger salamander or axolotl, or in certain termite castes held in the larval stage as future replacements of the queen. Cf.:pedogenesis. [neo- + G. teino, to stretch]

Neotestudina rosati (ne′o-tes-too-di′na ro-sa′ti)
A species of fungus that causes white grain mycetoma in Somalia and elsewhere in Africa.

neothalamus (ne-o-thal′a-mus)
The portion of the thalamus projecting to the neocortex.

neotyrosine (ne-o-ti′ro-sen)
Dimethyltyrosine;a tyrosine antimetabolite.

neovascularization (ne′o-vas′ku-lar-i-za′shun)
Proliferation of blood vessels in tissue not normally containing them, or proliferation of blood vessels of a different kind than usual in tissue. choroidal n. ingrowth of new vessels from the choriocapillaris into the subretinal pigment epithelium and the retina; space associated with damage to the outer retina. classic choroidal n. well-demarcated areas of hyperfluorescence observed in the early phases of a retinal angiogram. occult choroidal n. area of leakage of undetermined source seen in the late phases of a retinal angiogram. Type 1 choroidal n. ingrowth of new vessels from the choriocapillaris into the subretinal pigment epithelial space; associated with damage to the outer retina. Type 2 choroidal n. ingrowth of new vessels from the choriocapillaris into the subretinal space; associated with damage to the outer retina.

neper (Np)
A unit for comparing the magnitude of two powers, usually in electricity or acoustics; it is one half of the natural logarithm of the ratio of the two powers. SYN: napier. [fr. neperus, latinized form of (John) Napier]

nephelometer (nef-e-lom′e-ter)
An instrument used in nephelometry. [G. nephele, cloud, + metron, measure]

nephelometry (nef-e-lom′e-tre)
A technique for estimation of the number and size of particles in a suspension by measurement of light scattered from a beam of light passed through the solution.

See nephro-.

nephralgia (ne-fral′je-a)
Rarely used term for pain in the kidney. [nephr- + G. algos, pain]

nephralgic (ne-fral′jik)
Relating to nephralgia.

nephrectomy (ne-frek′to-me)
Removal of a kidney. [nephr- + G. ektome, excision] abdominal n. transperitoneal removal of the kidney by an incision through the anterior abdominal wall. laparoscopic n. removal of a kidney by percutaneous endoscopic technique. lumbar n. extraperitoneal n. through a flank, loin, or posterior lumbar incision. morcellated n. removal of a kidney in pieces. posterior n. retroperitoneal removal of a kidney through an incision in the posterior lumbar muscles, usually with the patient in a prone position. SYN: lumbotomy incision.

nephredema (nef-re-de′ma)
Edema caused by renal disease; rarely, edema of the kidney. [nephr- + G. oidema, swelling]

nephrelcosis (nef-rel-ko′sis)
Ulceration of the mucous membrane of the pelvis or calices of the kidney. [nephr- + G. helkosis, ulceration]

nephric (nef′rik)
Relating to the kidney. SYN: renal.

nephridium, pl .nephridia (ne-frid′e-um, -a)
One of the paired, segmentally arranged excretory tubules of invertebrates such as the annelids. [G. nephros, kidney, + Mod. L. -idium, dim. suffix, fr. G. -idion]

nephritic (ne-frit′ik)
Relating to or suffering from nephritis.

nephritis, pl .nephritides (ne-fri′tis, -frit′i-dez)
Inflammation of the kidneys. [nephr- + G. -itis, inflammation] acute n. SYN: acute glomerulonephritis. acute interstitial n. interstitial n. with variable tubular damage and infiltration by numerous neutrophils, due to bacterial infection, urinary tract obstruction, or other causes (including drugs), which may be hypersensitivity reactions; accompanied by renal failure, fever, blood or tissue eosinophilia, and rash. analgesic n. chronic interstitial n. with renal papillary necrosis, occurring in patients with a long history of excessive consumption of analgesics, especially those containing phenacetin. SYN: analgesic nephropathy. anti–basement membrane n. glomerulonephritis produced by autologous or heterologous antibodies to the glomerular capillary basement membranes, the latter known as anti–kidney serum n.. anti–kidney serum n. experimental glomerulonephritis produced by injection of antiserum to kidney. chronic n. SYN: chronic glomerulonephritis. focal n. SYN: focal glomerulonephritis. glomerular n. SYN: glomerulonephritis. n. gravidarum n. developing in pregnancy. hemorrhagic n. acute glomerulonephritis accompanied by hematuria. hereditary n. [MIM*161900] familial renal disease occurring in adulthood characterized by proteinuria, hematuria, and hypertension progressing to chronic renal failure. There is no ocular defect or deafness; autosomal dominant inheritance. SEE ALSO: Alport syndrome. immune complex n. an immune complex disease resulting from glomerular deposits, as in systemic lupus erythematosus. interstitial n. a form of n. in which the interstitial connective tissue is chiefly affected. lupus n. glomerulonephritis occurring in some patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, characterized by hematuria and a progressive course culminating in renal failure, often without hypertension; sometimes also applied to the nephrotic syndrome in patients with systemic lupus. Renal biopsies in patients with a progressive course show diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis; in milder cases, there are focal proliferative glomerular lesions or mesangial n.. mesangial n. glomerulonephritis with an increase in glomerular mesangial cells or matrix, or mesangial deposits. salt-losing n. a rare disorder resulting from renal tubular damage of a variety of etiologies; mimics adrenocortical insufficiency in that abnormal renal loss of sodium chloride occurs, accompanied by hyponatremia, azotemia, acidosis, dehydration, and vascular collapse. SYN: salt-losing syndrome, Thorn syndrome. scarlatinal n. acute glomerulonephritis occurring as a complication of scarlet fever. serum n. glomerulonephritis occurring in serum sickness or in animals injected with foreign serum protein. subacute n. SYN: subacute glomerulonephritis. suppurative n. focal glomerulonephritis with abscess formation in the kidney. syphilitic n. a rare complication of congenital and secondary syphilis, with the nephrotic syndrome, resulting from glomerular immune-complex deposits. transfusion n. renal failure and tubular damage resulting from the transfusion of incompatible blood; the hemoglobin of the hemolyzed red cells is deposited as casts in the renal tubules. tuberculous n. n., mainly interstitial, due to the tubercle bacillus. tubulointerstitial n. n. affecting renal tubules and interstitial tissue, with infiltration by plasma cells and mononuclear cells; seen in lupus n., allograft rejection, and methicillin sensitization. uranium n. an experimental n. produced by the administration of uranium nitrate.

nephritogenic (nef′ri-to-jen′ik)
Causing nephritis; said of conditions or agents. [nephritis + G. genesis, production]

nephro-, nephr-
The kidney. SEE ALSO: reno-. [G. nephros, kidney]

nephroblastema (nef′ro-blas-te′ma)
SYN: nephric blastema. [nephro- + G. blastema, a sprout]

nephroblastoma (nef′ro-blas-to′ma)
SYN: Wilms tumor.

nephrocalcinosis (nef′ro-kal-si-no′sis)
A form of renal lithiasis characterized by diffusely scattered foci of calcification in the renal parenchyma; deposits of calcium phosphate, calcium oxalate monohydrate, and similar compounds are usually demonstrable radiologically. [nephro- + calcinosis]

nephrocapsectomy (nef′ro-kap-sek′to-me)
Obsolete operation for decortication, or decapsulation, of the kidney. [nephro- + L. capsula, a small box, + G. ektome, excision]

nephrocardiac (nef′ro-kar′de-ak)
SYN: cardiorenal. [nephro- + G. kardia, heart]

nephrocele (nef′ro-sel)
1. Hernial displacement of a kidney. [nephro- + G. kele, hernia] 2. Cavity of the nephrotome. SYN: nephrotomic cavity. [nephro- + G. koiloma, a hollow (celom)]

nephrocystosis (nef′ro-sis-to′sis)
Formation of renal cysts. [nephro- + G. kystis, cyst, + -osis, condition]

nephrogenetic, nephrogenic (nef′ro-je-net′ik, -jen′ik)
Developing into kidney tissue. [nephro- + G. genesis, origin]


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