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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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neuroganglion (noor-o-gang′le-on)
SYN: ganglion (1) .

neurogastric (noor-o-gas′trik)
Relating to the innervation of the stomach.

neurogenesis (noor-o-jen′e-sis)
Formation of the nervous system. [neuro- + G. genesis, production]

neurogenic, neurogenetic (noor-o-jen′ik, -je-net′ik)
1. Originating in, starting from, or caused by, the nervous system or nerve impulses. SYN: neurogenous. 2. Relating to neurogenesis.

neurogenous (noo-roj′e-nus)
SYN: neurogenic (1) .

neuroglia (noo-rog′le-a)
Non-neuronal cellular elements of the central and peripheral nervous system; formerly believed to be merely supporting cells but now thought to have important metabolic functions, since they are invariably interposed between neurons and the blood vessels supplying the nervous system. In central nervous tissue they include oligodendroglia cells, astrocytes, ependymal cells, and microglia cells. The satellite cells of ganglia and the neurolemmal or Schwann cells around peripheral nerve fibers can be interpreted as the oligodendroglia cells of the peripheral nervous system. SYN: reticulum (2) [TA] , glia, Kölliker reticulum. [neuro- + G. glia, glue]

neurogliacyte (noo-rog′le-a-sit)
A neuroglia cell. See neuroglia. [neuro- + G. glia, glue, + kytos, cell]

neuroglial, neurogliar (noo-rog′le-al, -le-ar)
Relating to neuroglia.

neurogliomatosis (noo-rog′le-o-ma-to′sis)
SYN: gliomatosis.

neurogram (noor′o-gram)
The imprint on the brain substance theoretically remaining after every mental experience, i.e., the engram or physical register of the mental experience, stimulation of which retrieves and reproduces the original experience, thereby producing memory. [neuro- + G. gramma, something written]

neurography (noo-rog′ra-fe)
A method of depicting the state of a peripheral nerve, such as electrical recording or radiographic visualization by contrast media. [neuro- + G. grapho, to write]

neurohemal (noor-o-he′mal)
Descriptive of structures containing neurosecretory neurons, whose axons form no synapses with other neurons and whose axonal endings are modified to permit storage and release into the circulation of neurosecretory material. [neuro- + G. haima, blood + suffix -in, material]

neurohistology (noor′o-his-tol′o-je)
The microscopic anatomy of the nervous system. SYN: histoneurology.

neurohormone (noor-o-hor′mon)
A hormone formed by neurosecretory cells and liberated by nerve impulses ( e.g., norepinephrine).

neurohypophysial (noor′o-hi-po-fiz′e-al)
Relating to the neurohypophysis.

neurohypophysis (noor′o-hi-pof′i-sis) [TA]
It is composed of the infundibulum and the nervous lobe of the hypophysis. SEE ALSO: pituitary gland. SYN: lobus nervosus [TA] , lobus posterior hypophyseos&star, pars nervosa hypophyseos&star, nervous lobe, neural part of hypophysis, posterior lobe of hypophysis. [neuro- + hypophysis]

neuroid (noor′oyd)
Resembling a nerve; nervelike. [neuro- + G. eidos, resemblance]

neurokeratin (noor-o-kar′a-tin)
1. The proteinaceous network that remains of the myelin sheath of axons following fixation and the removal of the fatty material; the reticular appearance is probably a fixation artifact. 2. The insoluble protein matter of brain remaining after extraction with solvents following proteolytic digestion; it is unrelated to the keratins. SYN: neurochitin. [neuro- + G. keras, horn]

neurolemma (noor-o-lem′a)
SYN: neurilemma. [neuro- + G. lemma, husk]

neuroleptanalgesia (noor′o-lept-an-al-je′ze-a)
An intense analgesic and amnesic state produced by administration of narcotic analgesics and neuroleptic drugs; unconsciousness may or may not occur, and cardiorespiratory function may be altered.

neuroleptanesthesia (noor′o-lept-an-es-the′ze-ah)
A technique of general anesthesia based upon intravenous administration of neuroleptic drugs, together with inhalation of a weak anesthetic with or without neuromuscular relaxants.

neuroleptic (noor-o-lep′tik)
Any of a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat psychosis, particularly schizophrenia; includes the phenothiazine, thioxanthene, and butyrophenone derivates and the dihydroindolones. SYN: n. agent. SEE ALSO: antipsychotic agent. [neuro- + G. lepsis, taking hold]

neurolinguistics (nur′o-ling-gwis′tiks)
The branch of medical science concerned with the neuroanatomic basis of speech and its disorders.

neurologist (noo-rol′o-jist)
A specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the neuromuscular system: the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, the neuromuscular junction, and muscle.

neurology (noo-rol′o-je)
The branch of medical science concerned with the various nervous systems (central, peripheral, and autonomic), plus the neuromuscular junction and muscle, and their disorders. [neuro- + G. logos, study]

neurolymph (noor′o-limf)
Obsolete term for cerebrospinal fluid. [neuro- + L. lympha, clear water]

neurolymphomatosis (noor′o-lim-fo-ma-to′sis)
Lymphoblastic invasion of a nerve.

neurolysin (nu-rol′i-sin)
An antibody causing destruction of ganglion and cortical cells, obtained by the injection of brain substance. SYN: neurotoxin (1) .

neurolysis (noo-rol′i-sis)
1. Destruction of nerve tissue. 2. Freeing of a nerve from inflammatory adhesions. [neuro- + G. lysis, dissolution]

neurolytic (noor-o-lit′ik)
Relating to neurolysis.

neuroma (noo-ro′ma)
General term for any neoplasm derived from cells of the nervous system; on the basis of newer knowledge pertaining to cytologic and histologic characteristics, a variety of neoplasms, formerly placed in the general category of n., may now be classified in more specific categories, e.g., ganglioneuroma, neurilemoma, pseudoneuroma, and others. [neuro- + G. -oma, tumor] acoustic n. SYN: vestibular schwannoma. amputation n. SYN: traumatic n.. n. cutis neurofibroma of the skin. false n. SYN: traumatic n.. fibrillary n. SYN: plexiform neurofibroma. Morton n. SYN: Morton neuralgia. plexiform n. SYN: plexiform neurofibroma. n. telangiectodes a neurofibroma with a conspicuous number of blood vessels, some of which have unusually large lumens (in proportion to the thickness of the walls). traumatic n. the nonneoplastic proliferative mass of Schwann cells and neurites that may develop at the proximal end of a severed or injured nerve. SYN: amputation n., false n., pseudoneuroma.

neuromalacia (noor′o-ma-la′she-a)
Pathologic softening of nervous tissue. [neuro- + G. malakia, softness]

neuromatosis (noor′o-ma-to′sis)
The presence of multiple neuromas, as in neurofibromatosis.

neuromelanin (noor-o-mel′a-nin)
A modified form of melanin pigment normally found in certain neurons of the nervous system, especially in the substantia nigra and locus ceruleus.

neuromeningeal (noor-o-me-nin′je- al)
Related to involvement of nervous tissue and the meninges.

neuromere (noor′o-mer)
Elevations in the wall of the developing neural tube that divide the developing spinal cord (n.) into portions to which dorsal and ventral roots are attached, or that divide the developing rhombencephalon into portions associated primarily with motor portions of the cranial nerves of the medulla and pons. SYN: encephalomere, neural segment, neurotome (2) . [neuro- + G. meros, part]

neuromimetic (noor′o-mi-met′ik)
Relating to the action of a drug that mimics the response of an effector organ to nerve impulses.

neuromuscular (noor-o-mus′ku-lar)
Referring to the relationship between nerve and muscle, in particular to the motor innervation of skeletal muscles and its pathology ( e.g., n. disorders). SEE ALSO: myoneural.

neuromyasthenia (noor′o-mi-as-the′ne-a)
Obsolete term for muscular weakness, usually of emotional origin. [neuro- + G. mys, muscle, + a- priv. + sthenos, strength] epidemic n. an epidemic disease characterized by stiffness of the neck and back, headache, diarrhea, fever, and localized muscular weakness; restricted almost exclusively to adults, affecting women more than men; probably viral in origin. SYN: benign myalgic encephalomyelitis, epidemic myalgic encephalomyelitis, Iceland disease.

neuromyelitis (noor′o-mi-el-i′tis)
Neuritis combined with spinal cord inflammation. SYN: myeloneuritis. [neuro- + G. myelos, marrow, + -itis, inflammation] n. optica a demyelinating disorder consisting of a transverse myelopathy and optic neuritis. SYN: Devic disease.

neuromyopathy (noor′o-mi-op′a-the)
1. A disorder of muscle due to disorder of its nerve supply. 2. Simultaneous disorders of nerve and muscles. [neuro- + G. mys, muscle, + pathos, disease] carcinomatous n. n. associated with carcinoma, especially of the lung.

neuromyositis (noor′o-mi-o-si′tis)
Obsolete term for polymyositis. [neuro- + G. mys, muscle, + -itis, inflammation]

neuron (noor′on)
The morphologic and functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the nerve cell body, the dendrites, and the axon. SYN: nerve cell, neurocyte, neurone. [G. n., a nerve] autonomic motor n. motor n.. bipolar n. a n. that has two processes arising from opposite poles of the cell body. gamma motor neurons SYN: gamma loop. ganglionic motor n. motor n.. Golgi type I n. nerve cells whose long axons leave the gray matter of which they form a part. Golgi type II n. nerve cells with short axons that ramify in the gray matter. intercalary n. SYN: internuncial n.. internuncial n. a n. interposed between and connecting two other neurons. SYN: intercalary n.. lower motor n. clinical term used to indicate the final motor neurons that innervate the skeletal muscles; distinguished from upper motor neurons of the motor cortex that contribute to the corticospinal tract. SEE ALSO: motor n.. motor n. a nerve cell in the spinal cord, rhombencephalon, or mesencephalon characterized by having an axon that leaves the central nervous system to establish a functional connection with an effector (muscle or glandular) tissue; somatic motor neurons directly synapse with striated muscle fibers by motor endplates; visceral motor neurons or autonomic motor neurons (preganglionic m. neurons), by contrast, innervate smooth muscle fibers or glands only by the intermediary of a second, peripheral, n. (postganglionic m. n.) located in an autonomic, or visceral motor, ganglion. SEE ALSO: motor endplate, autonomic division of nervous system. SYN: anterior horn cell, motoneuron. multipolar n. a n. with several processes, usually an axon and three or more dendrites. NANC n. abbreviation for nonadrenergic, noncholinergic n.. nonadrenergic, noncholinergic n. (NANC n.) autonomic efferent n. whose transmission is not blocked by blocking adrenergic and cholinergic transmission. Nitric oxide may be the transmitter in some cases. polymorphic n. occurring in many shapes. SEE ALSO: multipolar cell. postganglionic motor n. motor n.. preganglionic motor n. motor n.. pseudounipolar n. SYN: unipolar n.. sensory n. a n. conveying information originating from sensory receptors or nerve endings; afferent n., may be general or special sensory. somatic motor n. motor n.. unipolar n. a n. whose cell body emits a single axonal process resulting from the fusion of two polar processes during development; at a variable distance from the cell body, the process divides into a peripheral axon branch extending outward as a peripheral afferent (sensory) nerve fiber and a central axon branch that enters into synaptic contact with neurons in the spinal cord or brainstem. With the single known exception of the neurons composing the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminus, unipolar neurons are the exclusive neural elements of the sensory ganglia. The lack of dendritic processes of these primary sensory neurons is only apparent: the dendritic pole of the unipolar n. is represented by the unmyelinated terminal ramifications of the peripheral axon branch. SYN: pseudounipolar cell, pseudounipolar n., unipolar cell. upper motor n. clinical term indicating those neurons of the motor cortex that contribute to the formation of the corticospinal and corticonuclear (corticobulbar) tracts, as distinguished from the lower motor neurons innervating the skeletal muscles. Although not motor neurons in the strict sense, these cortical neurons became colloquially classified as motor neurons because their stimulation produces movement and their destruction causes moderate to severe disorders of movement. SEE ALSO: motor n., motor cortex. visceral motor n. motor n..

neuronal (noor′o-nal, noo-ro′nal)
Pertaining to a neuron.

neurone (noor′on)
SYN: neuron.

neuronephric (noor-o-nef′rik)
Relating to the nerve supply of the kidney. [neuro- + G. nephros, kidney]

neuronevus (noor-o-ne′vus)
A variety of intradermal nevus in adults in which nests of atrophic nevus cells in the lower dermis are hyalinized and resemble nerve bundles.

neuronitis (noor-o-ni′tis)
Inflammatory disorder of the neuron. vestibular n. a paroxysmal attack of severe vertigo, not accompanied by deafness or tinnitus, which affects young to middle-aged adults, often following a nonspecific upper respiratory infection; due to unilateral vestibular dysfunction. SYN: endemic paralytic vertigo, epidemic vertigo, Gerlier disease, kubisagari, kubisagaru, paralyzing vertigo.

neuronopathy (noor-o-nop′a-the)
Disorder, often toxic, of the neuron (1). sensory n. n. confined to dorsal root and gasserian ganglia. X-linked recessive bulbospinal n. SYN: Kennedy disease.

neuronophage (noo-ron′o-faj)
A phagocyte that ingests neuronal elements. See microglia. [neuron + G. phago, to eat]

neuronophagia, neuronophagy (noor′on′o-fa′je-a, noor-o-nof′a-je)
Phagocytosis of nerve cells. [neuron + G. phago, to eat]

neuronyxis (noor-o-nik′sis)
Acupuncture of a nerve. [neuro- + G. nyxis, pricking]

neuro-oncology (noor′o-on-kol′o-je)
The branch of medicine concerned with the direct and indirect effects of neoplasms on the nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle. [neuro- + onco- + G. logos, study]

neuro-ophthalmology (noor′o-of-thal-mol′o-je)
The branch of medicine concerned with the neurological aspects of the visual apparatus.

neurootology (noor′o-o-tol′o-je)
The branch of medicine concerned with the nervous system related to the auditory and vestibular systems.

neuroparalysis (noor′o-pa-ral′i-sis)
Paralysis resulting from disease of the nerve supplying the affected part.

neuroparalytic (noor′o-pa-ra-lit′ik)
Denoting or characterized by neuroparalysis.

neuropath (noor′o-path)
One who suffers from or is predisposed to some disease of the nervous system.

neuropathia (noo-ro-path′e-a)
SYN: neuropathy. n. epidemica hemorrhagic fever with renal complications; due to Puumala virus.

neuropathic (noor-o-path′ik)
Relating in any way to neuropathy.

neuropathogenesis (noor′o-path-o-jen′e-sis)
The origin or causation of a disease of the nervous system. [neuro- + G. pathos, suffering, + genesis, origin]

neuropathology (noor′o-pa-thol′o-je)
1. Pathology of the nervous system. 2. That branch of pathology concerned with the nervous system.

neuropathy (noo-rop′a-the)
1. A classical term for any disorder affecting any segment of the nervous system. 2. In contemporary usage, a disease involving the cranial nerves or the peripheral or autonomic nervous system. SYN: neuritis (2) , neuropathia. [neuro- + G. pathos, suffering] acute motor axonal n. an acute, pure motor axon-degenerating type of polyradiculoneuropathy, a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome; seen principally in a seasonal pattern (spring or summer) among children in rural China following epidemics of diarrhea caused by Campylobacter jejuni. acute sensory motor axonal n. an acute axon-degenerating polyradiculoneuropathy that affects both motor and sensory fibers; a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome. asymmetric motor n. 1. n. in which the loss of function is more marked in the extremities of one side of the body; 2. one presentation of diabetic amyotrophy. auditory n. a disorder of hearing in children characterized by sensorineural hearing loss for pure tones, reduced word discrimination disproportionate to the pure-tone loss, normal outer hair cell function as determined by measurement of otoacoustic emissions, and absent or abnormal auditory brainstem response. brachial plexus n. SYN: neuralgic amyotrophy. compression n. a focal nerve lesion produced when sustained pressure is applied to a localized portion of the nerve, either from an external or internal source; the main source of injury is the pressure differential that exists between one portion of the nerve and another. dapsone n. a polyneuropathy that develops in patients taking dapsone (4,4-diaminodiphenylsulfone); unusual features include being a pure motor n. and beginning in the hands, sometimes asymmetrically. SYN: motor dapsone n.. diabetic n. a generic term for any diabetes mellitus–related disorder of the peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system, and some cranial nerves.This most common of the chronic complications of diabetes can affect either the peripheral or the autonomic nervous system, or both. Peripheral neuropathies can cause bilaterally symmetric hypesthesia, hyperesthesia, paresthesia, loss of temperature and vibratory sense, or causalgia. Involvement of the autonomic nervous system may be manifested by postural hypotension, gastroparesis, alternating diarrhea and constipation, and impotence. The pathogenesis of chronic diabetic n. is poorly understood. Symptoms tend to progress, and the response to treatment is unpredictable. In contrast, cranial nerve palsies due to microangiopathy in diabetes mellitus often resolve spontaneously. diphtheritic n. a rapidly developing polyneuropathy caused by a toxin elaborated by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. entrapment n. a focal nerve lesion produced by constriction or mechanical distortion of the nerve, within a fibrous or fibro-osseous tunnel, or by a fibrous band; with these lesions, stretching and angulation of the nerve may be as important a source of injury as compression; entrapment neuropathies tend to occur at particular sites in the body. familial amyloid n. [MIM*105120, various kinds] a disorder in which various peripheral nerves are infiltrated with amyloid and their functions disturbed, an abnormal prealbumin is also formed and is present in the blood; characteristically, it begins during midlife and is found largely in persons of Portuguese descent; autosomal dominant inheritance. Other rare clinical types occur. SYN: familial amyloidosis, hereditary amyloidosis. giant axonal n. a rare disorder beginning at or after the third year of life, and presenting clinically with kinky hair, progressive painless clumsiness, muscle weakness and atrophy, sensory loss, and areflexia. Pathologically, both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers contain axonal spheroids packed with neurofilaments; sporadic in nature. Graves optic n. visual dysfunction due to optic nerve compression in Graves orbitopathy. heavy metal n. peripheral nervous system disorders attributed to intoxication of one of the heavy metals: arsenic, gold, lead, mercury, platinum, and thallium. hereditary hypertrophic n. [MIM*145900] SYN: Dejerine-Sottas disease. hereditary sensory radicular n. [MIM*162400] polyneuropathy characterized by the occurrence of severe, relapsing foot ulcerations of neuropathic origin, destruction of terminal digits of feet and hands, and a loss of sensation; autosomal dominant inheritance is associated with onset in the second decade or later. hypertrophic interstitial n. sensorimotor polyneuropathy characterized pathologically by collections of Schwann cell processes arranged concentrically around one or more nerve fibers. No genetic factors are known in its etiology.For hereditary types, see hereditary hypertrophic n.. ischemic n. n. resulting from acute or chronic ischemia of the involved nerves. ischemic optic n. optic nerve n. secondary to hypoperfusion of the low pressure posterior ciliary arteries supplying the optic nerve head (nonarteritic) or to temporal arteritis (arteritic). isoniazid n. axon loss; type of polyneuropathy seen in some patients treated with isoniazid. lead n. a polyneuropathy reportedly seen in chronic lead intoxication; reputedly characterized by wrist-drop, but no convincing modern reports of this are available. leprous n. a slowly developing granulomatous n., commonly seen in leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae. motor dapsone n. SYN: dapsone n.. onion bulb n. designation for any of several demyelinating polyneuropathies in which the nerves are enlarged because of onion bulb formation—whorls of overlapping Schwann cell processes encircling bare medullated axons; e.g., progressive hypertrophic polyneuropathy. See hypertrophic interstitial n.. symmetric distal n. SYN: polyneuropathy. vitamin B12 n. SYN: subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.

neuropeptide (noor-o-pep′tid)
Any of a variety of peptides found in neural tissue; e.g., endorphins, enkephalins. n. Y a 36–amino acid peptide neurotransmitter found in the brain and autonomic nervous system. It augments the vasoconstrictor effects of noradrenergic neurons.




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