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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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neuropharmacology (noor′o-far′ma-kol′o-je)
The study of drugs that affect neuronal tissue.

neurophilic (noor-o-fil′ik)
SYN: neurotropic. [neuro- + G. philos, fond]

neurophonia (noor-o-fo′ne-a)
A spasm or tic of the muscles of phonation causing involuntary sounds or cries. [neuro- + G. phone, voice]

neurophysins (noor-o-fiz′inz)
A family of proteins synthesized in the hypothalamus as part of the large precursor protein that includes vasopressin and oxytocin in the neurosecretory granules; n. function as carriers in the transport and storage of neurohypophysial hormones.

neurophysiology (noor′o-fiz-e-ol′o-je)
Physiology of the nervous system.

neuropil, neuropile (noor′o-pil, -pil)
The complex, feltlike net of axonal, dendritic, and glial arborizations that forms the bulk of the central nervous system's gray matter, and in which the nerve cell bodies lie embedded. [neuro- + G. pilos, felt]

neuroplasm (noor′o-plazm)
The protoplasm of a nerve cell.

neuroplasty (noor′o-plas-te)
Surgery of the nerves. [neuro- + G. plastos, formed]

neuroplegic (noor-o-ple′jik)
Pertaining to paralysis due to nervous system disease. [neuro- + G. plege, a stroke]

neuroplexus (noo′ro-plek′sus)
A plexus or network of nerve cells or fibers.

neuropodia (noor-o-po′de-a)
SYN: axon terminals, under terminal. [pl. of neuropodium or neuropodion, fr. neuro- + G. podion, little foot]

neuropore (noor′o-por)
An opening in the embryo leading from the central canal of the neural tube to the exterior of the tube. [neuro- + G. poros, pore] anterior n. SYN: rostral n.. caudal n. the temporary opening at the extreme caudal end of the neural tube in early embryos; closes at approximately the 25th somite stage in humans. SYN: posterior n.. cranial n. SYN: rostral n.. posterior n. SYN: caudal n.. rostral n. the temporary opening at the extreme rostral (cephalic) end of the early embryonic forebrain; closes at approximately the 20th somite stage in humans. SYN: anterior n., cranial n..

neuropraxia
Commonly used misspelling of neurapraxia.

neuropsychiatry (noor′o-si-ki′a-tre)
The specialty dealing with both organic and psychic disorders of the nervous system; earlier term for psychiatry.

neuropsychologic, neuropsychological (noor′o-si-ko-loj′ik, -loj′i-kal)
Pertaining to neuropsychology.

neuropsychology (noor′o-si-kol′o-je)
A specialty of psychology concerned with the study of the relationships between the brain and behavior, including the use of psychological tests and assessment techniques to diagnose specific cognitive and behavioral deficits and to prescribe rehabilitation strategies for their remediation.

neuropsychopathic (noor′o-si-ko-path′ik)
Relating to neuropsychopathy.

neuropsychopathy (noor′o-si-kop′a-the)
An emotional illness of neurologic origin.

neuropsychopharmacology (noor′o-si′ko-far-ma-kol′o-je)
SYN: psychopharmacology.

neuroradiology (noor′ro-ra-de-ol′o-je)
The clinical subspecialty concerned with the diagnostic radiology of diseases of the central nervous system, head, and neck.

neuroregulator (noor′o-reg′u-la-tor)
A chemical factor that extends a modulatory effect on a neuron.

neurorelapse (noor′o-re-laps′)
Obsolete term for the recurrence of neurological symptoms upon initiation of therapy, especially with antisyphilitic drugs.

neuroretinitis (noor′o-ret-i-ni′tis)
An inflammation affecting the optic nerve head and the posterior pole of the retina, with cells in the nearby vitreous, usually producing a macular star. SYN: papilloretinitis. diffuse unilateral subacute n. (DUSN) inflammation of the neurosensory retina caused by infiltration by a roundworm such as Baylisascaris or Ancylostoma species. Leber idiopathic stellate n. SYN: stellate n.. stellate n. a unilateral n. with perifoveal exudates in Henle nerve fiber layer producing a macular star and spontaneous regression in a few months. SYN: Leber idiopathic stellate n..

neurorrhaphy (noor-or′a-fe)
Joining together, usually by suture, of the two parts of a divided nerve. SYN: nerve suture, neurosuture. [neuro- + G. rhaphe, suture]

neurosarcocleisis (noor′o-sar-ko-kli′sis)
An operation for the relief of neuralgia, consisting of resection of one of the walls of an osseous canal traversed by the nerve and transposition of the nerve into the soft tissues. [neuro- + G. sarx, flesh, + kleisis, closure]

neurosarcoidosis (noor′o-sar-koy-do′sis)
A granulomatous disease of unknown etiology involving the central nervous system, usually with concomitant systemic involvement.

neurosarcoma (noo′ro-sar-ko′ma)
A sarcoma with neuromatous elements; includes neurofibrosarcoma, neurogenic sarcoma, and malignant schwannoma.

neuroschwannoma (noor′o-shwah-no′ma)
SYN: schwannoma.

neurosciences (noor-o-si′en-sez)
The scientific disciplines concerned with the development, structure, function, chemistry, pharmacology, clinical assessments, and pathology of the nervous system.

neurosecretion (noor′o-se-kre′shun)
The release of a secretory substance from the axon terminals of certain nerve cells in the brain into the circulating blood. The secretory product may be a true hormone, e.g., the antidiuretic hormone released from the axon terminals of the neurons composing the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus; in the case of the so-called releasing-factor neurons of the hypothalamus the cell product is not a systemic hormone in its own right but elicits the release of trophic hormones by the anterior lobe of the hypophysis, substances that in turn stimulate peripheral endocrine glands to release their systemically active hormones.

neurosecretory (noor′o-se′kre-tor-e, -se-kre′tor-e)
Relating to neurosecretion.

neurosis, pl .neuroses (noo-ro′sis, -sez)
1. A psychological or behavioral disorder in which anxiety is the primary characteristic; defense mechanisms or any of the phobias are the adjustive techniques that an individual learns in order to cope with this underlying anxiety. In contrast to the psychoses, persons with a n. do not exhibit gross distortion of reality or disorganization of personality. 2. A functional nervous disease, or one for which there is no evident lesion. 3. A peculiar state of tension or irritability of the nervous system; any form of nervousness. SYN: neurotic disorder. [neuro- + G. -osis, condition] accident n. SYN: traumatic n.. anxiety n. chronic abnormal distress and worry to the point of panic followed by a tendency to avoid or run from the feared situation, associated with overaction of the sympathetic nervous system. cardiac n. anxiety concerning the state of the heart, as a result of palpitation, chest pain, or other symptoms not due to heart disease; a form of hypochondriasis. SYN: cardioneurosis. character n. a subclass of personality disorders. combat n. battle fatigue, posttraumatic stress disorder. compensation n. the development of symptoms of n. believed to be motivated by the desire for, and hope of, monetary or interpersonal gain. compulsive n. SYN: obsessive-compulsive n.. conversion n. SYN: conversion hysteria. conversion hysteria n. SYN: conversion hysteria. depressive n. See depression, dysthymia. experimental n. a behavior disorder produced experimentally, as when an organism is required to make a discrimination of extreme difficulty and “breaks down” in the process. hypochondriacal n. SYN: hypochondriasis. hysterical n. a bona fide disorder characterized by an alteration or loss of physical functioning, such as blurred vision, numbness or paralysis of limbs, coordination difficulties, etc., that suggests a physical disorder, but that instead is apparently an expression of a psychological conflict or need. Also called conversion disorder. SEE ALSO: hysteria. noogenic n. in existential psychiatry, the neurotic symptomatology resulting from existential frustration. obsessional n. SYN: obsessive-compulsive n.. obsessive-compulsive n. a disorder characterized by the persistent and repetitive intrusion of unwanted thoughts, urges, or actions that the individual is unable to prevent; the compulsive thoughts may consist of single words, ideas, or ruminations often perceived by the sufferer as nonsensical; the repetitive urges or actions vary from simple movements to complex rituals; anxiety or distress is the underlying emotion or drive state, and the ritualistic behavior is a learned method of reducing the anxiety. SEE ALSO: obsessive-compulsive disorder. SYN: compulsive n., obsessional n.. oedipal n. continuation of the Oedipus complex into adulthood. pension n. a type of compensation n., motivated by the desire for premature retirement on pension. posttraumatic n. SYN: traumatic n.. torsion n. SYN: dysbasia lordotica progressiva. transference n. in psychoanalysis, the phenomenon of the patient's developing a strong emotional relationship with the analyst, symbolizing an emotional relationship with a family figure; analysis of this n. constitutes an important part of psychoanalytic treatment. traumatic n. any functional nervous disorder following an accident or injury. See posttraumatic stress disorder. SYN: accident n., posttraumatic n..

neurosplanchnic (noor-o-splangk′nik)
SYN: neurovisceral. [neuro- + G. splanchnon, a viscus]

neurospongium (noor-o-spon′je-um, noor-o-spun′je-um)
1. Obsolete term for the plexus of neurofibrils within nerve cells. 2. Obsolete designation for the reticular layer of the retina. [neuro- + G. spongion, small sponge]

Neurospora (noo-ros′por-a)
A genus of fungi (class Ascomycetes) grown in cultures and used in research in genetics and cellular biochemistry. SYN: pink bread mold. [neuro- + G. spora, seed]

neurosteroid (nur-o-ster′oyd)
Steroid produced within the brain.

neurostimulator (noor-o-stim′u-la-ter)
A device for electrical excitation of the central or peripheral nervous system.

neurosurgeon (noor-o-ser′jun)
A surgeon specializing in operations on the brain, spinal cord, spinal column, and peripheral nerves.

neurosurgery (noor-o-ser′jer-e)
Surgery of the nervous system. functional n. destruction or chronic excitation of a part of the brain to treat disordered behavior or function.

neurosuture (noor-o-soo′choor)
SYN: neurorrhaphy.

neurosyphilis (noor-o-sif′i-lis)
Infection of the central nervous system by Treponema pallidum, or syphilis; there are several subdivisions, including asymptomatic n., meningeal n., meningovascular n., paretic n., and tabetic n.. asymptomatic n. clinically inapparent (except for possible abnormal pupils) syphilitic meningeal infection, diagnosed by examination of the cerebrospinal fluid; if untreated, often develops into some form of symptomatic n.. meningeal n. syphilitic meningeal infection producing an afebrile clinical meningitis, with headache, stiff neck, obtusion, etc., and abnormal CSF findings. Most often develops within 2 years of initial infection. meningovascular n. syphilitic meningeal infection accompanied by changes (inflammation, fibrous thickening) in the walls of the subarachnoid arteries, manifested as a stroke, with sudden onset of symptoms such as hemiplegia, aphasia, visual disturbances, etc., and abnormal CSF findings. paretic n. syphilitic infection manifested as dementia (often with delusional features), dysarthria, seizures, myoclonic jerks, action tremor, impaired walking and standing, pupillary abnormalities, and abnormal CSF findings. SYN: chronic progressive syphilitic meningoencephalitis, general paresis. tabetic n. type of n. in which the posterior roots of the spinal cord, especially in the lumbosacral area, are the principal sites of infection, resulting in ataxia, hypotonia, impotence, constipation, hypotonic bladder, areflexia, and Romberg sign; other findings include lancinating pains (most often in the legs), visceral crises, Argyll Robertson pupils, optic atrophy, and Charcot joints; in most patients, the CSF is abnormal. SYN: myelosyphilis, posterior sclerosis, posterior spinal sclerosis.

neurotaxis (noor′o-tak′sis)
Neuronal elongation in the direction of a target. [neuro- + taxis, arrangement]

neurotendinous (noor-o-ten′di-nus)
Relating to both nerves and tendons.

neurotensin (noo-ro-ten′sin)
A 13–amino acid peptide neurotransmitter found in synapsomes in the hypothalamus, amygdala, basal ganglia, and dorsal gray matter of the spinal cord; it plays a role in pain perception, but its analgesic effects are not blocked by opioid antagonists; it also affects pituitary hormone release and gastrointestinal function.

neurotension (noor-o-ten′shun)
SYN: neurectasis.

neurothekeoma (noor-o-the-ke-o′ma)
A benign myxoma of cutaneous nerve sheath origin. [neuro- + G. theke, box, sheath, + -oma, tumor]

neurothele (noor′o-thel)
SYN: nerve papilla. [neuro- + G. thele, nipple]

neurotherapeutics, neurotherapy (noor′o-thar′a-pu′tiks, -thar′a-pe)
An older term for the treatment of psychological, psychiatric, and nervous disorders.

neurotic (noo-rot′ik)
Relating to or suffering from a neurosis. See neurosis.

neuroticism (noo-rot′i-sizm)
The condition or psychological trait of being neurotic.

neurotization (noor′o-ti-za′shun)
The acquisition of nervous substance; the regeneration of a nerve.

neurotize (noor′o-tiz)
To provide with nerve substance.

neurotmesis
A type of axon loss lesion resulting from focal peripheral nerve injury in which, at the lesion site, the nerve stroma is damaged to varying degrees, as well as the axon and myelin, which degenerate from that point distally; with the most severe n. lesions, the gross continuity of the nerve is disrupted. See axonotmesis, neurapraxia.

neurotome (noor′o-tom)
1. A very slender knife or needle, used for teasing apart nerve fibers in microdissection. 2. SYN: neuromere. [neuro- + G. tome, a cutting]

neurotomy (noo-rot′o-me)
Operative division of a nerve. [neuro- + G. tome, a cutting] retrogasserian n. SYN: trigeminal rhizotomy.

neurotonic (noor-o-ton′ik)
1. Relating to neurotony. 2. Strengthening or stimulating impaired nervous action. 3. An agent that improves the tone or force of the nervous system.

neurotoxic (noor-o-tok′sik)
Poisonous to nervous substance.

neurotoxin (noor-o-tok′sin)
1. SYN: neurolysin. 2. Any toxin that acts specifically on nervous tissue.

neurotransmission (noor′o-trans-mish′un)
SYN: neurohumoral transmission.

neurotransmitter (noor′o-trans-mit′er)
Any specific chemical agent (including acetylcholine, five amines, four amino acids, two purines, and more than 28 peptides) released by a presynaptic cell, upon excitation, that crosses the synapse to stimulate or inhibit the postsynaptic cell. More than one may be released at any given synapse. The neurotransmitters released by presynaptic cells may modulate transmitter release from presynaptic cells. Nitric oxide may be a retrograde n., released from postsynaptic cells, to act on presynaptic cells. [neuro- + L. transmitto, to send across] adrenergic n. a n. formed in sympathetic postganglionic synapses ( E.G., norepinephrine). cholinergic n. a n. formed in pre- and postganglionic synapses of the parasympathetic nervous system ( E.G., acetylcholine).

neurotrauma (noor-o-traw′ma)
1. Trauma of the nervous system. 2. Trauma or wounding of a nerve. SYN: neurotrosis. [neuro- + G. trauma, injury]

neurotripsy (noor-o-trip′se)
Operative crushing of a nerve. [neuro- + G. tripsis, a rubbing]

neurotrophic (noor-o-trof′ik)
Relating to neurotrophy.

neurotrophy (noo-rot′ro-fe)
Nutrition and metabolism of tissues under nervous influence. [neuro- + G. trophe, nourishment]

neurotropic (noor-o-trop′ik)
Having an affinity for the nervous system. SYN: neurophilic.

neurotropy, neurotropism (noo-rot′ro-pe, -pizm)
1. Affinity of basic dyes for nervous tissue. 2. The attraction of certain pathogenic microorganisms, poisons, and nutritive substances toward the nerve centers. [neuro- + G. trope, a turning]

neurotrosis (noor-o-tro′sis)
SYN: neurotrauma (2) . [neuro- + G. trosis, a wounding]




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