|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
SYN: hyperaphia. [G. oxys, acute, + haphe, touch]
Hypnotics of the barbiturate group in which the atom attached at the carbon-2 position is oxygen; virtually all hypnotic barbituates are oxybarbituates.
An ultraviolet screen for use in skin ointments and lotions.
An analog and antimetabolite of biotin, in which the sulfur atom is replaced by oxygen.
oxybutynin chloride (ok-se-bu′ti-nin)
An intestinal antispasmodic.
A calorimeter measuring energy content of substances in terms of oxygen consumed.
Cellulose that has been oxidized by NO2 or other oxidizing agents to the point at which all or most of the glucose residues have been converted to glucuronic acid residues; used as an adsorbent in chromatography or other adsorption processes. SEE ALSO: oxidized cellulose.
oxycephalic, oxycephalous (ok-se-se-fal′ik, -sef′a-lus)
Relating to or characterized by oxycephaly. SYN: acrocephalic, acrocephalous.
A type of craniosynostosis in which there is premature closure of the lambdoid and coronal sutures, resulting in an abnormally high, peaked, or conical skull. SYN: acrocephalia, acrocephaly, hypsicephaly, hypsocephaly, oxycephalia, steeple skull, tower skull, turricephaly. [G. oxys, pointed, + kephale, head]
A compound of oxygen with a metallic chloride; e.g., a chlorate or perchlorate.
SYN: acidophilic. [G. oxys, sour, acid, + chroma, color]
Chromatin that stains with acid dyes, as in interphase nuclei. SYN: oxyphil chromatin.
A narcotic analgesic often combined with aspirin or acetaminophen.
Corticosteroids bearing an alcohol or ketonic group on carbon-11; e.g., cortisone, cortisol.
oxygen (O) (ok′se-jen)
1. A gaseous element, atomic no. 8, atomic wt. 15.9994 on the basis of 12C = 12.0000; an abundant and widely distributed chemical element, which combines with most of the other elements to form oxides and is essential to animal and plant life. 2. The molecular form of o., O2. 3. A medicinal gas that contains not less than 99.0%, by volume, of O2. [G. oxys, sharp, acid and genes, forming] heavy o. SYN: o.-18. hyperbaric o., high pressure o. o. at a pressure greater than 1 atm. SEE ALSO: hyperbaric oxygenation. singlet o. an excited or higher-energy form of o. characterized by the spin of a pair of electrons in opposite directions, whereas electron spin is unidirectional in normal molecular o. Because of its great reactivity, singlet o. is a probable intermediate in most photo-oxidation reactions. Although it exists for no more than 0.1 second, it may react with atmospheric pollutants to foster smog formation and may have harmful biologic effects. triplet o. the normal unexcited state of O2 in the atmosphere, in which the unpaired pair of electrons are so displaced that their magnetic fields are oriented in the same direction, resulting in paramagnetism; each of the heat-generated spectral lines of such o. can be split by a magnetic field into a triplet. Cf.:singlet o..
A cyclotron-produced, positron-emitting radioisotope of oxygen with a half-life of 122.2 seconds; used in studies of respiratory function and in positron emission tomography.
The common oxygen isotope, making up 99.76% of natural oxygen.
The rarest of the stable oxygen isotopes, making up 0.04% of natural oxygen.
A stable oxygen isotope making up 0.20% of natural oxygen; used in mass spectrometry and in NMR studies of tissue. SYN: heavy oxygen.
One of a group of enzymes (EC subclass 1.13) catalyzing direct incorporation of O2 into substrates; e.g., tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (tryptophan pyrrolase) catalyzing reaction between O2 and l-tryptophan to form N-l-formylkynurenine. Cf.:dioxygenase, monooxygenases. mixed function o. any monooxygenase that catalyzes AH + O2 + DH2 → AOH + H2O + D.
To accomplish oxygenation.
Addition of oxygen to any chemical or physical system. apneic o. SYN: diffusion respiration. hyperbaric o. an increased amount of oxygen in organs and tissues resulting from the administration of oxygen in a compression chamber at an ambient pressure greater than 1 atm.
Pertaining to or containing oxygen.
To oxidize with oxygen.
oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) (ok′se-he-mo-glo′bin)
Hemoglobin in combination with oxygen, the form of hemoglobin present in arterial blood, scarlet or bright red when dissolved in water. SYN: oxygenated hemoglobin.
A compound of oxygen with a metallic iodide, e.g., an iodate or periodate.
The activated derivative of luciferin formed in bioluminescence.
An anabolic steroid.
oxymetazoline hydrochloride (ok′se-me-taz′o-len)
A vasoconstrictor used topically to reduce swelling and congestion of the nasal mucosa.
An androgenic anabolic steroid.
oxymorphone hydrochloride (ok-se-mor′fon)
A semisynthetic narcotic analgesic closely related chemically to hydromorphone hydrochloride; its actions are similar to those of morphine, but more potent.
oxymyoglobin (MbO2) (ok′se-mi-o-glo′bin)
Myoglobin in its oxygenated form, analogous in structure to oxyhemoglobin.
Acid forming, e.g., the parietal cells of the gastric glands. [G. oxyno, to sharpen, make sour, acid]
An antianxiety agent; also available as the hydrochloride.
An orally effective analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used (usually in short courses) for rheumatoid arthritis and gout.
oxyphencyclimine hydrochloride (ok′se-fen-si′kli-men)
The hydrochloride of 1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-1-methylpyrimidin-2-ylmethyl-α-cyclohexyl-α-hydroxy-α-phenylacetate; an anticholinergic agent.
oxyphenisatin acetate (ok′se-fe-ni′sa-tin)
A cathartic with pharmacologic properties resembling those of phenolphthalein, except that it is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
oxyphenonium bromide (ok′se-fe-no′ne-um)
A quaternary ammonium compound with anticholinergic action.
oxyphil, oxyphile (ok′se-fil, -fil)
1. O. cell. 2. SYN: eosinophilic leukocyte. 3. SYN: oxyphilic. [G. oxys, sour, acid, + philos, fond]
Having an affinity for acid dyes; denoting certain cell or tissue elements. SYN: oxyphil (3) , oxyphile.
Shrillness or high pitch of the voice. [G. oxys, sharp, + phone, voice]
A modified gelatin used as a plasma extender in transfusions.
A purine containing oxygen; e.g., hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid.
Alloxanthine and inhibitor of xanthine oxidase; an active metabolite of allopurinol. The drug inhibits the formation of uric acid and is used in the treatment of gout.
Having a sharp-pointed nose. [G. oxys, sharp, + rhis (rhin-), nose]
Obsolete term for eructation of acid fluid. [G. oxys, acid, + erygmos, eructation]
Oxyspirura mansoni (ok′-se-spi-roo′ra man-so′ni)
A widely distributed spiruroid nematode parasite found under the nictitating membrane in the eye of turkeys, chickens, peafowl, quail, and grouse; larvae develop to the infective stage in cockroaches. SYN: Manson eye worm.
A type of connective tissue fiber histochemically distinct from collagen or elastic fibers described in the periodontal ligament and gingivae. [G. oxys, acid, + talas, suffering, resisting; coined term probably intended to mean “resistant to acid hydrolysis”]
Prefix indicating a phosphonic acid radical (–PO3H2) attached through an oxygen atom, hence a phosphoric ester. SEE ALSO: phospho-.
The phosphoric ester of serine; found as a constituent in many proteins ( e.g., phosphorylase a and phosvitin).
A reagent used in the identification and the detection of amino acid.
O-succinylhomoserine (thiol)-lyase (suk′si-nil-ho′mo-ser′en)
An enzyme catalyzing the reaction between cystathionine and succinate to form l-cysteine and O-succinyl-l-homoserine. SYN: cystathionine γ-synthase.
12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA, tPA) (tet′ra-dek′a-no-il-for′bol)
A double ester of phorbol found in croton oil; a cocarcinogen or tumor promoter.
An antibiotic produced by the actinomycete, Streptomyces rimosus, present in the soil; its actions and uses are similar to those of tetracycline; available as the dihydrate, hydrochloride, and calcium.
A molecule similar to that of thiamin but with a hydroxyl group replacing the amino group on the pyrimidine ring; a thiamin antagonist capable of inducing symptoms of thiamin deficiency on administration; increases thiamin excretion.
Rapid parturition. [G. okytokos, swift birth]
1. Hastening childbirth. 2. SYN: parturifacient (2) .
oxytocin (OXT) (ok-se-to′sin)
A nonapeptide neurohypophysial hormone, differing from human vasopressin in having leucine at position 8 and isoleucine at position 3, that causes myometrial contractions at term and promotes milk release during lactation; used for the induction or stimulation of labor, in the management of postpartum hemorrhage and atony, and to relieve painful breast engorgement. SYN: ocytocin. [G. okytokos, swift birth] arginine o. o. with arginine at position 8 (identical to arginine vasotocin). SEE ALSO: arginine vasopressin.
An agent that destroys pinworms. [oxyurid + L. caedo, to kill]
Common name for members of the family Oxyuridae. [see Oxyuris]
A family of parasitic nematodes (superfamily Oxyuroidea) found in the large intestine or cecum of vertebrates and the intestine of invertebrates, especially insects and millipedes; it includes the genera Aspiculurus, Enterobius, Oxyuris, Passalurus, Syphacia, and Thelandros.
A genus of nematodes commonly called seatworms or pinworms (although the pinworm of humans is the closely related form, Enterobius vermicularis). O. equi, the horse pinworm, is a common parasite of horses in all parts of the world, inhabiting the large intestine. [G. oxys, sharp, + oura, tail]
Suffix denoting an acyl radical; -yl replaces -ic in acid names.
Abbreviation for ounce.
SYN: atrophic rhinitis. [G. ozaina, a fetid polypus, fr. ozo, to smell]
Relating to ozena.
A mixture of paraffinic and cycloparaffinic hydrocarbons occurring in nature; it has a higher melting point than synthetic paraffin, and is used as a substitute for beeswax. SYN: ozocerite. purified o. SYN: ceresin.
ozonator (o′zo-na-ter, -tor)
An apparatus for generating ozone and diffusing it in the atmosphere of a room.
O3;a powerful oxidizing agent; air containing a perceptible amount of O3 formed by an electric discharge or by the slow combustion of phosphorus, and has an odor suggestive of Cl2 or SO2; also formed by the action of solar UV radiation on atmospheric O2. [G. ozo, to smell]
The unstable intermediate formed by the reaction of ozone with an unsaturated organic compound, especially with unsaturated fatty acids.
The splitting of a double bond in a hydrocarbon chain upon treatment with ozone, with the formation of two aldehydes (an ozonide is the unstable intermediate); has been used to determine the structure of unsaturated fatty acids. [ozone + G. lysis, dissolution]
A modified form of ozonoscope, in which by a series of test papers the amount of ozone in the atmosphere may be estimated.
Filter paper saturated with starch and potassium iodide or with litmus and potassium iodide; turns blue in the presence of ozone.
SYN: halitosis. [G. ozo, to smell, + stoma, mouth]
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