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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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pachymeninx (pak′i-me′ningks) [TA]
SYN: dura mater. [pachy- + G. meninx, membrane]

pachymeter (pa-kim′e-ter)
An instrument for measuring the thickness of any object, especially of thin objects such as a plate of bone or a membrane. SYN: pachometer. [pachy- + G. metron, measure] optical p. a lens and/or mirror used to measure corneal thickness.

pachynema (pak-e-ne′ma)
SYN: pachytene. [pachy- + G. nema, thread]

pachynsis (pa-kin′sis)
Obsolete term for any pathologic thickening. [G. a thickening]

pachyntic (pa-kin′tic)
Relating to pachynsis.

pachyonychia (pak′e-o-nik′e-a)
Abnormal thickness of the fingernails or toenails. [pachy- + G. onyx, nail] p. congenita [MIM*167200] a syndrome of ectodermal dysplasia of abnormal thickness and elevation of nail plates with palmar and plantar hyperkeratosis; the tongue is whitish and glazed owing to papillary atrophy; autosomal dominant inheritance caused by mutation in the keratin 16 gene (KRT16) on chromosome 17q or the keratin 6A gene (KRT6A) on 12q. SYN: Jadassohn-Lewandowski syndrome.

pachyotia (pak-i-o′she-a)
Thickness and coarseness of the auricles of the ears. [pachy- + G. ous, ear]

pachyperiostitis (pak′i-per′e-os-ti′tis)
Proliferative thickening of the periosteum caused by inflammation. [pachy- + periostitis]

pachyperitonitis (pak′i-per′i-to-ni′tis)
Obsolete term for inflammation of the peritoneum with thickening of the membrane. SYN: productive peritonitis. [pachy- + peritonitis]

pachypleuritis (pak′e-ploo-ri′tis)
Obsolete term for inflammation of the pleura with thickening of the membrane. SYN: productive pleurisy. [pachy- + pleura + G. -itis, inflammation]

pachypodous (pa-kip′o-dus)
Having large thick feet. [pachy- + G. pous, foot]

pachysomia (pak-i-so′me-a)
Pathologic thickening of the soft parts of the body, notably in acromegaly. [pachy- + G. soma, body]

pachytene (pak′i-ten)
The stage of prophase in meiosis in which pairing of homologous chromosomes is complete and the paired homologues may twine about each other as they continue to shorten; longitudinal cleavage occurs in each chromosome to form two sister chromatids so that each homologous chromosome pair becomes a set of four intertwined chromatids. SYN: pachynema. [pachy- + G. tainia, band, tape]

pachyvaginalitis (pak′i-vaj′i-nal-i′tis)
Obsolete term for chronic inflammation with thickening of the tunica vaginalis testis. [pachy- + Mod. L. (tunica) vaginalis, + G. -itis, inflammation]

pachyvaginitis (pak′i-vaj′i-ni′tis)
Obsolete term for chronic vaginitis with thickening and induration of the vaginal walls. [pachy- + vagina + G. -itis, inflammation] p. cystica SYN: vaginitis emphysematosa.

Pacini
Filippo, Italian anatomist, 1812–1883. See pacinian corpuscles, under corpuscle, Vater-P. corpuscles, under corpuscle.

pacinian (pa-sin′e-an, pa-chin′)
Attributed to or described by Pacini.

pacinitis (pa-sin-i′tis, pa-chin-)
Inflammation of the pacinian corpuscles.

pack (pak)
1. To fill, stuff, or tampon. 2. To enwrap or envelop the body in a sheet, blanket, or other covering. 3. To apply a dressing or covering to a surgical site. 4. The items used for wound dressing. [M.E. pak, fr. Germanic] cold p. a p. of cloth or other material soaked in cold water or encasing ice. dry p. a p. enveloping one in dry, warmed blankets to induce profuse perspiration. hot p. a p. of cloth or other material soaked in hot water or producing moist heat by another means. wet p. the usual form of p. using hot or cold moisture.

packer (pak′er)
1. An instrument for tamponing. 2. SYN: plugger.

packing (pak′ing)
1. Filling a natural cavity, a wound, or a mold with some material. 2. The material so used. 3. The application of a pack. denture p. filling and compressing a denture base material into a mold in a flask.

paclitaxel (pac-le-taks′el)
Antitumor agent that promotes microtubule assembly by preventing depolymerization; currently used in salvage therapy for metastatic carcinoma of ovary.

PACS
Acronym for picture archive and communication system, a computer network for digitized radiologic images and reports.

pad
1. Soft material forming a cushion, used in applying or relieving pressure on a part, or in filling a depression so that dressings can fit snugly. 2. A more or less encapsulated body of fat or some other tissue serving to fill a space or act as a cushion in the body. ( i.e., heel p.). abdominal p. SYN: laparotomy p.. dinner p. a p. of moderate thickness placed over the pit of the stomach before the application of a plaster jacket; after the plaster has set the p. is removed, leaving space for varying degrees of abdominal distention. fat p. fat-p.. fat p. of ischioanal fossa heel p. an encapsulated body of fat beneath the plantar surface of the calcaneus, which cushions during weight bearing and walking. knuckle pads 1. an autosomal dominant trait, in which thick pads of skin appear over the proximal phalangeal joints; occasionally associated with leukonychia and deafness or Dupuytren contracture; 2. a callus reaction resulting from occupational or self-inflicted trauma. laparotomy p. a p. made from several layers of gauze folded into a rectangular shape; used as a sponge, for packing off the viscera in abdominal operations, and in other ways. SYN: abdominal p.. Passavant p. SYN: Passavant ridge. periarterial p. SYN: juxtaglomerular body. pharyngoesophageal pads SYN: pharyngoesophageal cushions, under cushion. retromolar p. a cushioned mass of tissue, frequently pear-shaped, located on the alveolar process of the mandible behind the area of the last natural molar tooth; of particular concern in fitting full dentures. SYN: pear-shaped area. sucking p., suctorial p. SYN: buccal fat-p.. threshold pads of anal canal SYN: anal cushions, under cushion.

Padykula-Herman stain for myosin ATPase
See under stain.

Paecilomyces (pe-sil-o-mi′sez)
A genus of saprophytic imperfect fungi whose conidia-bearing hyphae superficially resemble the penicillus of Penicillium; isolated as contaminants, occasional pathogen. P. lilacinus a mold; a rare cause of paecilomycosis; has been implicated in human eye infections due to contaminated implanted intraocular lenses. SYN: Penicillium lilacinum.

paeciloycosis (pe-sil′o-e-co′sis)
A systemic (mainly pulmonary) mycosis of humans and various lower animals caused by fungi of the genus Paecilomyces.

paed-
See ped-.

PAF
Abbreviation for platelet-activating factor.

PAGE
Abbreviation for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Pagenstecher
Alexander, German ophthalmologist, 1828–1879. See P. circle.

Paget
Sir James, English surgeon, 1814–1899. See P. cells, under cell, P. disease, extramammary P. disease, P.-von Schrötter syndrome.

Paget-Eccleston stain
See under stain.

pagetic (pa-jet′ik)
Relating to or suffering from Paget disease.

pagetoid (paj′e-toyd)
Resembling or characteristic of Paget disease.

pagophagia (pa-go-fa′je-a)
Compulsive and repeated ingestion of ice; sometimes associated with iron-deficiency anemia. [G. pagos, frost, + phago, to eat]

-pagus
Conjoined twins, the first element of the word denoting the parts fused. SEE ALSO: -didymus, -dymus. [G. pagos, something fixed, fr. pegnymi, to fasten together]

PAH
Abbreviation for p-aminohippuric acid.

pain (pan)
1. An unpleasant sensation associated with actual or potential tissue damage and mediated by specific nerve fibers to the brain where its conscious appreciation may be modified by various factors. 2. Term used to denote a painful uterine contraction occurring in childbirth. [L. poena, a fine, a penalty] after-pains afterpains. bearing-down p. a uterine contraction accompanied by straining and tenesmus; usually appearing in the second stage of labor. expulsive pains effective labor pains, associated with contraction of the uterine muscle. false pains ineffective uterine contractions, preceding and sometimes resembling true labor, but distinguishable from it by the lack of progressive effacement and dilation of the cervix. girdle p. a painful sensation encircling the body like a belt, occurring in tabes dorsalis or other spinal cord disease. growing pains aching pains, frequently felt at night, in the limbs of children; cause is unclear, but the condition is benign. hunger p. cramp in the epigastrium associated with hunger. intermenstrual p. 1. pelvic discomfort occurring approximately at the time of ovulation, usually at the midpoint of the menstrual cycle; SYN: midpain. 2. SYN: mittelschmerz. intractable p. p. resistant or refractory to ordinary analgesic agents. labor pains rhythmic uterine contractions that under normal conditions increase in intensity, frequency, and duration, culminating in vaginal delivery of the infant. SYN: parodynia. middle p. SYN: mittelschmerz. night p. SYN: nyctalgia. organic p. p. caused by an organic lesion. periodic bone p. SYN: periodic arthralgia. phantom limb p. the sensation that an amputated limb is still present, often associated with painful paresthesia. SYN: phantom limb, pseudesthesia (3) , pseudoesthesia (3) , stump hallucination. postprandial p. p. occurring after eating, typical of malignancy in esophagus or stomach. psychogenic p. somatoform p.; p. that is associated or correlated with a psychologic, emotional, or behavioral stimulus. SYN: psychalgia (2) , somatoform p.. referred p. p. from deep structures perceived as arising from a surface area remote from its actual origin; the area where the p. is appreciated is innervated by the same spinal segment(s) as the deep structure. SYN: telalgia. respirophasic p. p., often mistakenly termed pleuritic, that occurs or worsens synchronously with the respiratory cycle. [L. re-spiro, to breathe, + G. phasis, recurring appearance, as of a star, fr. phaino, to appear, + -ic] rest p. p. occurring, usually in the extremities, during rest in the sitting or lying position. somatoform p. SYN: psychogenic p..

paint (pant)
A solution or suspension of one or more medicaments applied to the skin with a brush or large applicator; usually used in the treatment of widespread eruptions. carbol-fuchsin p. a p. containing boric acid, phenol, resorcinol, fuchsin, acetone, and alcohol in water; used in the treatment of superficial mycotic infections. SYN: Castellani p.. Castellani p. SYN: carbol-fuchsin p..

pair (par)
Two objects considered together because of similarity, for a common purpose, or because of some attracting force between them. base p. (b.p.) the complex of two heterocyclic nucleic acid bases, one a pyrimidine and the other a purine, brought about by hydrogen bonding between the purine and the pyrimidine; base pairing is the essential element in the structure of DNA proposed by J. Watson and F. Crick in 1953; usually guanine is paired with cytosine (G&chmpnt;C), and adenine with thymine (A&chmpnt;T) or uracil (A&chmpnt;U). SYN: nucleoside p., nucleotide p.. buffer p. an acid and its conjugate base (anion). chromosome p. two chromosomes of the full diploid karyotype that are similar in form and function but that usually differ in content, one normally being inherited from each parent and one being transmitted to each progeny; in the heteromorphic sex (in humans, the male), one p., the sex chromosomes, differ markedly in appearance, content, and function. conjugate acid-base p. in prototonic solvents ( e.g., H2O, NH3, acetic acid), two molecular species differing only in the presence or absence of a hydrogen ion ( e.g., carbonic acid/bicarbonate ion or ammonium ion/ammonia); the basis of buffer action. line pairs a unit of resolution of radiographic screens and films or photographic films; greatest number of line pairs per cm that can be resolved. nucleoside p., nucleotide p. SYN: base p.. p. production creation of a positron and electron, each of mass 0.511 MeV, when an incident photon of energy greater than 1.02 MeV is absorbed by matter; occurs in high-energy radiotherapy.

pajaroello (pah-har-wa′o)
SYN: Ornithodoros coriaceus. [Am. Sp. pajahuello, fr. Sp. paja, straw, + huello, undersurface of hoof]

Palade
George E., Romanian-U.S. cell biologist and Nobel laureate, *1912. See P. granule, Weibel-P. bodies, under body.

palatal (pal′a-tal)
Relating to the palate or the palate bone. SYN: palatine.

palate (pal′at) [TA]
The bony and muscular partition between the oral and nasal cavities. SYN: palatum [TA] , roof of mouth, uraniscus. [L. palatum, p.] bony p. [TA] a concave elliptical bony plate, constituting the roof of the oral cavity, formed of the palatine process of the maxilla and the horizontal plate of the palatine bone on either side. SYN: palatum osseum [TA] . Byzantine arch p. incomplete fusion of the palatal process with the nasal spine. cleft p. a congenital fissure in the median line of the p., often associated with cleft lip. Often occurs as a feature of a syndrome or generalized condition, e.g., diastrophic dwarfism or spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita; its general genetic behavior resembles that of cleft lip. SYN: palatoschisis, palatum fissum. falling p. SYN: uvuloptosis. Gothic p. an abnormally highly arched p.. hard p. [TA] 1. the anterior part of the p., consisting of the bony p. covered above by the mucous membrane of the floor of the nasal cavity and below by the mucoperiosteum of the roof of the mouth, which contains the palatine vessels, nerves, and mucous glands; SYN: palatum durum [TA] . 2. in cephalometrics, a line connecting the anterior and posterior nasal spines to represent the position of the bony p.. pendulous p. SYN: uvula of soft p.. primary p. in the early embryo, the shelf, formed from the medial nasal processes, that anteriorly separates the oral cavity below from the primitive nasal cavities above. SYN: primitive p.. primitive p. SYN: primary p.. secondary p. the portion of the embryonic p., posterior to the primary p. that forms from the palatal processes of the embryonic maxilla and develops into the hard and soft palates. soft p. [TA] the posterior muscular portion of the p., forming an incomplete septum between the mouth and the oropharynx, and between the oropharynx and the nasopharynx. SYN: palatum molle [TA] , velum palatinum&star, velum pendulum palati.

palatiform (pa-lat′i-form)
Palate-shaped; resembling the palate.

palatinase (pa-lat′i-nas)
A maltase in the intestinal mucosa that hydrolyzes palatinose; probably oligo-1,6-glucosidase.

palatine (pal′a-tin)
SYN: palatal.

palatinose (pa-lat′i-nos)
A disaccharide consisting of d-glucose and d-fructose in α-1,6 linkage (sucrose is α-1,2).

palatitis (pal-a-ti′tis)
Inflammation of the palate. SYN: uranisconitis.

palato-
Palate. [L. palatum, palate]

palatoglossal (pal′a-to-glos′al)
Relating to the palate and the tongue or to the palatoglossus muscle.

palatoglossus (pal-a-to-glos′us)
SYN: p. (muscle).

palatognathous (pal′a-tog′na-thus)
Having a cleft palate. [palato- + G. gnathos, jaw]

palatogram (pal′a-to-gram)
A registration of tongue action against the palate made by placing soft wax or powder on a baseplate.

palatograph (pal′a-to-graf)
An instrument used in recording the movements of the soft palate in speaking and during respiration. SYN: palate myograph, palatomyograph. [palato- + G. grapho, to record]

palatomaxillary (pal′a-to-mak′si-lar-e)
Relating to the palate and the maxilla.

palatomyograph (pal′a-to-mi′o-graf)
SYN: palatograph. [G. palato- + mys, muscle, + grapho, to record]

palatonasal (pal-a-to-na′sal)
Relating to the palate and the nasal cavity.

palatopharyngeal (pal′a-to-fa-rin′je-al)
Relating to palate and pharynx.

palatopharyngeus (pal′a-to-far-in-je′us)
SYN: p. (muscle). [L.]

palatopharyngoplasty (pal′a-to-fa-rin′go-plas-te)
Surgical resection of unnecessary palatal and oropharyngeal tissue in selected cases of snoring, with or without sleep apnea. SYN: uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. [palato- + pharynx, + plastos, formed]

palatopharyngorrhaphy (pal′a-to-far′in-gor′a-fe)
SYN: staphylopharyngorrhaphy. [palato- + pharynx + G. rhaphe, suture]

palatoplasty (pal′a-to-plas-te)
Surgery of the palate to restore form and function. SYN: staphyloplasty, uraniscoplasty, uranoplasty, uvulopalatoplasty. [palato- + G. plasso, to form]




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