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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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palatoplegia (pal′a-to-ple′je-a)
Paralysis of the muscles of the soft palate. [palato- + G. plege, stroke]

palatorrhaphy (pal-a-tor′a-fe)
Suture of a cleft palate. SYN: staphylorrhaphy, uraniscorrhaphy, uranorrhaphy, velosynthesis. [palato- + G. rhaphe, suture]

palatoschisis (pal-a-tos′ki-sis)
SYN: cleft palate. [palato- + G. schisis, fissure]

palatum, pl .palati (pa-la′tum) [TA]
SYN: palate. [L.] p. durum [TA] SYN: hard palate (1) . p. fissum SYN: cleft palate. p. molle [TA] SYN: soft palate. p. osseum [TA] SYN: bony palate.

paleencephalon (pa′le-en-sef′a-lon)
L. Edinger term for the metameric nervous system. Excludes cerebral cortex. [paleo- + G. enkephalos, brain]

paleo-, pale-
Old, primitive, primary, early. [G. palaios, old, ancient]

paleocerebellum (pa′le-o-ser′e-bel′um) [TA]
Phylogenetic term referring to the portion of the cerebellum including most of the vermis and the adjacent zones of the cerebellar hemispheres rostral to the primary fissure; p. is equated with the anterior lobe and corresponds to the zone of distribution of the spinocerebellar tracts and is sometimes called spinocerebellum; in phylogenetic age, it is thought to be intermediate between the archicerebellum [TA] and the neocerebellum [TA]. SYN: spinocerebellum [TA] . [paleo- + L. cerebellum]

paleocortex (pa′le-o-kor′teks) [TA]
The phylogenetically oldest part of the cortical mantle of the cerebral hemisphere, represented by the olfactory cortex.

paleokinetic (pa′le-o-ki-net′ik)
Denoting the primitive motor mechanisms underlying muscular reflexes and automatic, stereotyped movements. [paleo- + G. kinetikos, relating to movement]

paleopathology (pa′le-o-pa-thol′o-je)
The science of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts. [paleo- + pathology]

paleostriatal (pa′le-o-stri-a′tal)
Relating to the paleostriatum.

paleostriatum (pa′le-o-stri-a′tum)
Term denoting the globus pallidus and expressing the hypothesis that this component of the striate body developed earlier in evolution than the “neostriatum” or striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) and that it is a diencephalic derivative. SEE ALSO: globus pallidus. [paleo- + L. striatum]

paleothalamus (pa′le-o-thal′a-mus)
The intralaminar nuclei, believed to have been the earliest components of the thalamus to evolve; they lack reciprocal connections with the isocortex.

Palfyn, Palfin
Jean, Belgian surgeon and anatomist, 1650–1730. See P. sinus.

palikinesia, palicinesia (pal-i-ki-ne′ze-a, -si-ne′ze-a)
Involuntary repetition of movements. [G. palin, again, + kinesis, movement]

palinal (pal′i-nal)
Moving backward. [G. palin, backward]

palindrome (pal′in-drom)
In molecular biology, a self-complementary nucleic acid sequence; a sequence identical to its complementary strand, if both are “read” in the same 5′ to 3′ direction, or inverted repeating sequences running in opposite directions ( e.g., 5′-AGT–TGA-3′) on either side of an axis of symmetry; palindromes occur at sites of important reactions ( e.g., binding sites, sites cleaved by restriction enzymes); imperfect palindromes exist, as do interrupted palindromes that allow the formation of loops. [G. palindromos, a running back]

palindromia (pal-in-dro′me-a)
A relapse or recurrence of a disease. [G. palindromos, a running back, + -ia, condition]

palindromic (pal-in-drom′ik)
Recurring.

palisade (pal′i-sad)
In pathology, a row of elongated nuclei parallel to each other. [Fr. palissade, fr. L. palus, a pale, stake]

palladium (Pd) (pa-la′de-um)
A metallic element resembling platinum, atomic no. 46, atomic wt. 106.42. [fr. the asteroid, Pallas; G. Pallas, goddess of wisdom]

pallanesthesia (pal′an-es-the′ze-a)
Absence of pallesthesia. SYN: apallesthesia. [G. pallo, to quiver, + anaisthesia, insensibility]

pallesthesia (pal′es-the′ze-a)
The appreciation of vibration, a form of pressure sense; most acute when a vibrating tuning fork is applied over a bony prominence. SYN: bone sensibility, pallesthetic sensibility, vibratory sensibility. [G. pallo, to quiver, + aisthesis, sensation]

pallesthetic (pal-es-thet′ik)
Pertaining to pallesthesia.

pallial (pal′e-al)
Relating to the pallium.

palliate (pal′e-at)
To reduce the severity of; to relieve slightly. SYN: mitigate. [L. palliatus (adj.), dressed in a pallium, cloaked]

palliative (pal′e-a-tiv)
Reducing the severity of; denoting the alleviation of symptoms without curing the underlying disease.

pallidal (pal′i-dal)
Relating to the pallidum.

pallidectomy (pal′i-dek′to-me)
Excision or destruction of the globus pallidus, usually by stereotaxy; a prefix may indicate the method used, e.g., chemopallidectomy (destruction by a chemical agent), cryopallidectomy (destruction by cold). [pallidum + G. ektome, excision]

pallidoamygdalotomy (pal′i-do-a-mig′da-lot′o-me)
Production of lesions in the globus pallidus and amygdaloid nuclei. [pallidum + amygdala (1) + G. tome, a cutting]

pallidoansotomy (pal′i-do-an-sot′o-me)
Production of lesions in the globus pallidus and ansa lenticularis.

pallidotomy (pal-i-dot′o-me)
A destructive operation on the globus pallidus, done to relieve involuntary movements or muscular rigidity. [pallidum + G. tome, incision]

pallidum (pal′i-dum) [TA]
SYN: globus pallidus. [L. pallidus, pale] dorsal p. [TA] those parts of the globus pallidus located generally dorsal to the plane of the anterior commissure; along with the dorsal striatum, functions in motor activities with cognitive origins; also form part of the dorsal basal ganglia. SYN: p. dorsale [TA] . p. dorsale [TA] SYN: dorsal p.. ventral p. [TA] those parts of the globus pallidus located ventral to the anterior commissure; includes portions of the substantia innominata; along with the ventral striatum believed to function in motor activities with strong motivational or emotional contructs. SYN: p. ventrale [TA] . p. ventrale [TA] SYN: ventral p..

pallium (pal′e-um) [TA]
SYN: cerebral cortex. [L. cloak]

pallor (pal′or)
Paleness, as of the skin. [L.] cachectic p. SYN: achromasia (1) .

palm (pahm, pawlm) [TA]
The flat of the hand; the flexor or anterior surface of the hand, exclusive of the thumb and fingers; the opposite of the dorsum of the hand. SYN: palma [TA] . [L. palma] liver p. exaggerated erythema of the thenar and hypothenar eminences.

palma, pl .palmae (pawl′ma, pawl′me) [TA]
SYN: palm, palm. [L.] p. manus palm of the hand. See palm.

palmar (pawl′mar) [TA]
Referring to the palm of the hand; volar. SYN: palmaris [TA] . [L. palmaris, fr. palma]

palmaris (pawl-mar′is) [TA]
SYN: palmar, palmar. [L.]

palmellin (pal′mel-in)
A red coloring matter formed by an alga, Palmella cruenta.

Palmer
Walter L., U.S. physician, *1896. See P. acid test for peptic ulcer.

palmic (pal′mik)
Beating; throbbing; relating to a palmus.

palmitaldehyde (pal-mi-tal′de-hid)
Hexadecanal;the 16-carbon aldehyde analog of palmitic acid; a constituent of plasmalogens.

palmitate (pal′mi-tat)
A salt of palmitic acid.

palmitic acid (pal-mit′ik)
A common saturated fatty acid occurring in palm oil and olive oil as well as many other fats and waxes; the end product of mammalian fatty acid synthase. SYN: hexadecanoic acid.

palmitin (pal′mi-tin)
The triglyceride of palmitic acid occurring in palm oil. SYN: tripalmitin.

palmitoleic acid (pal′mi-to-le′ik)
9-Hexadecenoic acid;a monounsaturated 16-carbon acid; one of the common constituents of the triacylglycerols of human adipose tissue. SYN: zoomaric acid.

palmityl alcohol (pal′mi-til)
SYN: cetyl alcohol.

palmodic (pal-mod′ik)
Relating to palmus (1).

palmoscopy (pal-mos′ko-pe)
Examination of the cardiac pulsation. [G. palmos, pulsation, + skopeo, to examine]

palmus, pl .palmi (pal′mus, -mi)
1. SYN: facial tic. 2. Rhythmic fibrillary contractions in a muscle. SEE ALSO: jumping disease. 3. The heart beat. [G. palmos, pulsation, quivering]

palpable (pal′pa-bl)
1. Perceptible to touch; capable of being palpated. 2. Evident; plain. [see palpation]

palpate (pal′pat)
To examine by feeling and pressing with the palms of the hands and the fingers.

palpation (pal-pa′shun)
1. Examination with the hands, feeling for organs, masses, or infiltration of a part of the body, feeling the heart or pulse beat, vibrations in the chest, etc. 2. Touching, feeling, or perceiving by the sense of touch. [L. palpatio, fr. palpo, pp. -atus, to touch, stroke] bimanual p. use of both hands to feel organs or masses, especially in the abdomen or pelvis. light-touch p. a method of determining the outlines of organs or masses by lightly palpating the surface with the tip of a finger.

palpatopercussion (pal′pa-to-per-kush′un)
Examination by means of combined palpation and percussion.

palpebra, pl .palpebrae (pal-pe′bra, pe′bre) [TA]
SYN: eyelid. [L.] p. III SYN: plica semilunaris of conjunctiva (2) . p. inferior [TA] SYN: inferior eyelid. p. superior [TA] SYN: superior eyelid. p. tertia SYN: plica semilunaris of conjunctiva (2) .

palpebral (pal′pe-bral)
Relating to an eyelid or the eyelids.

palpebralis (pal′pe-bra′lis)
SYN: levator palpebrae superioris (muscle). [L.]

palpebrate (pal′pe-brat)
1. Having eyelids. 2. To wink. [L. palpebra, eyelid]

palpebration (pal-pe-bra′shun)
Winking. [L. palpebratio]

palpitatio cordis (pal-pi-ta′she-o kor′dis)
Palpitation of the heart.

palpitation (pal-pi-ta′shun)
Forcible or irregular pulsation of the heart, perceptible to the patient, usually with an increase in frequency or force, with or without irregularity in rhythm. SYN: trepidatio cordis. [L. palpito, to throb]

PALS
Abbreviation for periarterial lymphatic sheath.

palsy (pawl′ze)
Paralysis or paresis. [a corruption of O. Fr. fr. L. and G. paralysis] Bell p. paresis or paralysis, usually unilateral, of the facial muscles, caused by dysfunction of the 7th cranial nerve; probably due to a viral infection; usually demyelinating in type. SYN: peripheral facial paralysis. birth p. motor and sensory deficits that result from nerve fiber injury associated with delivery; the brachial plexus is the region most commonly affected. Examples include Erb p. and Klumpke p.. brachial birth p. SYN: obstetric p.. bulbar p. SYN: progressive bulbar paralysis. cerebral p. a generic term for various types of nonprogressive motor dysfunction present at birth or beginning in early childhood. Causes are both hereditary and acquired; depending upon cause, classified as intrauterine, natal, and early postnatal; motor disturbances include diplegia, hemiplegia, quadriplegia, choreoathetosis, and ataxia. crutch p. SYN: crutch paralysis. Dejerine-Klumpke p. SYN: Klumpke p.. diver's p. SYN: decompression sickness. double elevator p. limited elevation of an eye in abduction and adduction, implying paresis of the superior rectus and inferior oblique muscles, although many cases are due to restriction of the inferior rectus muscle. Erb p. a type of obstetric p. in which there is paralysis of the muscles of the upper arm and shoulder girdle (deltoid, biceps, brachialis, and brachioradialis muscles) caused by a lesion of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus or of the roots of the fifth and sixth cervical roots. SYN: Duchenne-Erb paralysis, Erb paralysis. extrapyramidal cerebral p. SYN: athetosis. facial p. SYN: facial paralysis. Klumpke p. a type of obstetric p. in which there is paralysis of the muscles of the distal forearm and hand (all ulnar innervated muscles, plus more distal radial and median-innervated muscles), caused by a lesion of the lower trunk of the brachial plexus, or of the C8 and T1 cervical roots. SYN: Dejerine-Klumpke p., Dejerine-Klumpke syndrome, Klumpke paralysis. lead p. a peculiar type of reputedly toxic neuropathy, resulting from lead intoxication, consisting of bilateral weakness of wrist and finger extensor muscles that is presumably due to bilateral radial neuropathies. Although often mentioned, apparently no verified cases have been described in the modern medical literature. SYN: lead paralysis. obstetric p. a brachial plexus lesion sustained by the infant during the birthing process; three types are recognized: 1) upper plexus type, affecting the shoulder and upper arm (Erb p., q.v., by far the most common form); 2) total plexus type, involving the whole arm; 3) lower plexus type, involving the forearm and hand (Klumpke p., q.v.). SYN: brachial birth p., obstetric paralysis. posticus p. paralysis of the cricoarytenoideus posticus muscle, resulting in the vocal cord being held in or near the midline. pressure p. SYN: pressure paralysis. progressive bulbar p. one of the subgroups of motor neuron disease; a progressive degenerative disorder of the motor neurons of primarily the brainstem, manifested as weakness (and wasting) of the various bulbar muscles, resulting in dysarthria and dysphagia—fluid regurgitation is an outstanding symptom and can cause aspiration; tongue weakness and wasting are usually evident, and often the fasciculation potentials are present in the tongue and facial muscles. SYN: glossopalatolabial paralysis, glossopharyngeolabial paralysis. progressive supranuclear p. a progressive neurologic disorder in the sixth decade characterized by a supranuclear paralysis of vertical gaze, retraction of eyelids, exophoria under cover, dysarthria, and dementia. SYN: Steele-Richardson-Olszewski disease, Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome. scrivener's p. SYN: writer's cramp. shaking p., trembling p. SYN: parkinsonism (1) .

paludal (pal′oo-dal)
Obsolete term for malarial. [L. palus, marsh]

PAM
Acronym for potential acuity meter.

2-PAM
Abbreviation for 2-pralidoxime.

pamaquine (pam′a-kwen)
An antimalarial agent, active against avian malaria and against the gametocytes of all malarial forms in humans; it is more toxic than chloroquine or primaquine and has been replaced by primaquine.




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