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Medical Dictionary


panic (pan′ik)
Extreme and unreasoning anxiety and fear, often accompanied by disturbed breathing, increased heart activity, vasomotor changes, sweating, and a feeling of dread. See anxiety. [fr. G. myth. char., Pan] homosexual p. an acute, severe attack of anxiety based on unconscious conflicts regarding homosexuality.

panidrosis (pan-i-dro′sis)
Sweating of the entire surface of the body. SYN: panhidrosis. [pan- + G. hidros, sweat]

panimmunity (pan-i-mu′ni-te)
A general immunity to many infectious diseases.

panmixis (pan-mik′sis)
SYN: random mating. [pan- + G. mixis, intercourse]

panmyelophthisis (pan′mi-e-lof′thi-sis)
SYN: myelophthisis (2) .

panmyelosis (pan′mi-e-lo′sis)
Myeloid metaplasia with abnormal immature blood cells in the spleen and liver, associated with myelofibrosis. [pan- + G. myelos, marrow, + -osis, condition]

H.J., Danish radiologist, 1871–1930. See P. disease.

panni (pan′i)
Plural of pannus.

panniculectomy (pa-nik-u-lek′to-me)
Surgical excision of redundant paniculus adiposus, usually of the abdomen. [panniculus + G. ektome, a cutting out]

panniculitis (pa-nik′u-li′tis)
Inflammation of subcutaneous adipose tissue. [panniculus + G. -itis, inflammation] α1-antitrypsin deficiency p. multiple painful subcutaneous nodules occurring in patients with severe antitrypsin deficiency; biopsies show lobular p. with neutrophils and foamy histiocytes. Some patients formerly diagnosed with Weber-Christian disease show this deficiency. cytophagic histiocytic p. obsolete term for chronic lobular p. with infiltration by histiocytes that have phagocytized red blood cells, leukocytes, and platelets; a hemorrhagic diathesis or T cell lymphoma may result. lupus erythematosus p. p. characterized by erythematous or flesh-colored nodules associated with lupus erythematosus, especially of the discoid variety, on the face, upper extremities, and trunk, and with nodular infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the fat lobules. poststeroid p. subcutaneous nodules developing in children within a month after withdrawal of corticosteroids given to treat the nephrotic syndrome or rheumatic fever; microscopically identical to subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn, the condition resolves spontaneously or with steroid readministration. relapsing febrile nodular nonsuppurative p. recurrent subcutaneous nodules accompanied by fever and followed by depression of the skin on involution. The nodules show a neutrophilic lobular p. with necrosis, lipid phagocytosis, and subsequent fibrosis. A majority of cases can be classified as factitious, or secondary to α1-antitrypsin deficiency, lupus profundus, pancreatic (enzymatic) fat necrosis, or cytophagic histiocytic p.. Cases of undetermined cause have been called Weber-Christian disease or syndrome. SYN: Christian disease (2) , Weber-Christian disease. subacute migratory p. nonscarring plaques of changing configuration on the lateral aspect of one or both legs, of many months duration. Biopsy shows septal p. with fibrosis and giant cells. SYN: erythema nodosum migrans.

panniculus, pl .panniculi (pa-nik′u-lus, -li)
SYN: layer. [L. dim. of pannus, cloth] p. adiposus [TA] SYN: fatty layer of subcutaneous tissue. p. adiposus telae subcutaneae abdominis [TA] SYN: fatty layer of subcutaneous tissue of abdomen. p. carnosus the skeletal muscle layer in the superficial fascia represented in humans by the platysma muscle; it is much more extensive in lower mammals.

panning (pan′ing)
Use of plastic plates or surfaces coated with either antigen or antibody to separate or concentrate specific cells with appropriate receptors.

pannus, pl .panni (pan′us, pan′i)
A membrane of granulation tissue covering a normal surface: 1. The inflammatory synovial tissue found in rheumatoid joints that covers the articular cartilages that progressively destroys the underlying articular cartilages; also found in other chronic granulomatous disease, including tuberculosis. 2. The cornea in trachoma. SEE ALSO: corneal p.. [L. cloth] corneal p. fibrovascular connective tissue that proliferates in the anterior layers of the peripheral cornea in inflammatory corneal disease, particularly trachoma in which the p. involves the superior cornea. Three forms occur: p. crassus (thick), in which there are many blood vessels and the opacity is very dense; p. siccus (dry), p. with dry, glossy surface; and p. tenuis (thin), in which there are few blood vessels and the opacity is slight. phlyctenular p. p. occurring in phlyctenular conjunctivitis. trachomatous p. p. of the superior cornea associated with trachoma.

panophthalmitis (pan′of-thal-mi′-tis)
Purulent inflammation of all layers of the eye. [pan- + G. ophthalmos, eye]

panoptic (pan-op′tik)
All-revealing, denoting the effect of multiple or differential staining. [pan- + G. optikos, relating to vision]

Inflammation of an entire bone.

panotitis (pan′o-ti′tis)
General inflammation of all parts of the ear; specifically, a disease that begins as an otitis interna, the inflammation subsequently extending to the middle ear and neighboring structures. [pan- + G. ous, ear, + -itis, inflammation]

panphobia (pan-fo′be-a)
Fear of everything. [pan- + G. phobos, fear]

Adolf, German anatomist, 1841–1887. See P. fissure.

pansclerosis (pan-skle-ro′sis)
Universal sclerosis of an organ or part.

pansinuitis (pan-sin-u-i′tis)
SYN: pansinusitis.

pansinusitis (pan-si-nu-si′tis)
Inflammation of all the accessory sinuses of the nose on one or both sides. SYN: pansinuitis.

panspermia, panspermatism (pan-sper′me-a, -sper′ma-tizm)
The hypothetical doctrine of the omnipresence of minute forms and spores of animal and vegetable life, thus accounting for apparent spontaneous generation. [pan- + G. sperma, seed]

pansporoblast (pan-spo′ro-blast)
The reproductive sporoblast that gives rise to more than one spore in the order Myxosporida (class Myxosporea, phylum Myxozoa). [pan- + G. sporos, seed, + blastos, germ]

pansporoblastic (pan′spo-ro-blas′tik)
Referring to a pansporoblast.

pansystolic (pan′sis-tol′ik)
Lasting throughout systole, extending from first to second heart sound. SYN: holosystolic.

To breathe rapidly and shallowly. [Fr. panteler, to gasp]

pant-, panto-
Entire. SEE ALSO: pan-. [G. pas, all]

pantalgia (pan-tal′je-a)
Pain involving the entire body. [pant- + G. algos, pain]

pantamorphia (pan-ta-mor′fe-a)
Shapelessness; general or overall malformation. [pant- + G. a- priv. + morphe, shape]

pantamorphic (pan-ta-mor′fik)
Relating to or characterized by pantamorphia.

pantanencephaly, pantanencephalia (pan′tan-en-sef′a-le, -se-fa′le-a)
Congenital absence of the brain. [pant- + G. an- priv. + enkephalos, brain]

pantaphobia (pan-ta-fo′be-a)
Absolute fearlessness. [pant- + G. a- priv. + phobos, fear]

pantatrophia, pantatrophy (pan-ta-tro′fe-a, pan-tat′ro-fe)
SYN: panatrophy. [pant- + atrophy]

pantetheine (pan-te-the′in)
The condensation product of pantothenic acid and aminoethanethiol; N-pantothenyl-2-aminoethanethiol; an intermediate in biosynthesis of coenzyme A via 4′-phosphopantetheine (a phosphoryl on the terminal –CH2O group) and ATP. SYN: Lactobacillus bulgaricus factor. p. kinase an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of p. by ATP to p. 4′-phosphate; a step in coenzyme A biosynthesis. p. 4′-phosphate SYN: 4′-phosphopantetheine.

pantethine (pan′te-thin)
The disulfide formed from two pantetheines.

panthenol (pan′the-nol)
SYN: dexpanthenol.

See pant-.

pantoate (pan′to-at)
A salt or ester of pantoic acid.

pantograph (pan′to-graf)
1. An instrument for reproducing drawings by a system of levers whereby a recording pencil is made to follow the movements of a stylet passing along the lines of the original. 2. In dentistry, an instrument used to record mandibular border movements that may be transferred to make equivalent settings on an articulator. [panto- + G. grapho, to record]

pantoic acid (pan-to′ik)
A coenzyme A precursor, the β-alanine amide of which is pantothenic acid.

pantomogram (pan′to-mo-gram)
A panoramic radiographic record of the maxillary and mandibular dental arches and their associated structures, obtained by a pantomograph. [pan- + tomogram]

pantomograph (pan′to-mo-graf)
A panoramic radiographic instrument that permits visualization of the entire dentition, alveolar bone, and contiguous structures on a single extraoral film.

pantomography (pan-to-mog′ra-fe)
A method of radiography by which a radiograph (pantomogram) of the maxillary and mandibular dental arches and their contiguous structures may be obtained on a single film.

pantomorphia (pan-to-mor′fe-a)
1. The condition of an organism, such as an ameba, that is capable of assuming all shapes. 2. Perfect shapeliness or symmetry. [panto- + G. morphe, shape]

pantomorphic (pan-to-mor′fik)
Capable of assuming all shapes.

pantonine (pan′to-nen)
An amino acid identified in Escherichia coli that may be an intermediate in the biosynthesis of pantothenic acid by that organism, containing NH2 in place of the α-OH group of pantothenic acid.

pantoscopic (pan-to-skop′ik)
Designed for observing objects at all distances; denoting bifocal lenses. [panto- + G. skopeo, to view]

pantothenate (pan-to-then′at)
A salt or ester of pantothenic acid. p. synthetase an enzyme that converts pantoate and β-alanine to p. with cleavage of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate; a key step in coenzyme A biosynthesis. SYN: pantoate-activating enzyme.

pantothenic acid (pan-to-then′ik)
The β-alanine amide of pantoic acid. A growth substance widely distributed in plant and animal tissues, and essential for growth of a number of organisms; deficiency in diet causes a dermatitis in chicks and rats and achromotrichia in the latter; a precursor to coenzyme A. SYN: antidermatitis factor.

pantothenyl (pan-to-then′il)
The acyl radical of pantothenic acid. p. alcohol SYN: dexpanthenol.

pantoyl (pan′to-il)
The acyl radical of pantoic acid.

pantoyltaurine (pan′to-il-taw′rin, -ren)
Pantothenic acid in which the carboxyl group is replaced by a sulfonic acid group; analogous to pantothenic acid in structure, except that taurine replaces β-alanine in the molecule. SYN: thiopanic acid.

Peter L., Danish physiologist, 1820–1885. See P. area.

panzerherz (pahn′zer-hartz)
SYN: armored heart. [Ger. P.]

Acronym for peroxidase antiperoxidase complex. Abbreviation for 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphate. See P. technique.

A food of soft consistency, like that of breadcrumbs soaked in milk or water.

papain, papainase (pa-pa′in, -as)
A cysteine endopeptidase, or a crude extract containing it, obtained from papaya latex. It has esterase, thiolase, transamidase, and transesterase activities, and is used as a protein digestant, meat tenderizer, and to prevent adhesions. It had been used to liquify contents of herniated intervertebral discs so that these contents could be removed by aspiration. SYN: papayotin.

George N., Greek-U.S. physician, anatomist, and cytologist, 1883–1962. See Pap smear, Pap test, P. examination, P. smear, P. smear test, P. stain.

Papaver (pa-pa′ver, pa-pav′er)
A genus of plants, one species of which, P. somniferum (family Papaveraceae), furnishes opium. SYN: poppy. [L. poppy]

papaveretum (pa-pav-er-e′tum)
A preparation of water soluble opium alkaloids, including 50% anhydrous morphine. [L. papaver, poppy]

papaverine (pa-pav′er-en)
A benzylisoquinoline alkaloid of opium that is not a narcotic but has mild analgesic action and is a powerful spasmolytic; does not evoke tolerance and has no addiction liability; used to treat male impotence by local injection. Also available as p. hydrochloride. [L. papaver, poppy]

papaw (pa-paw′)
See papaya.

papaya (pa-pi′yah, pa-pa′yah)
The fruit of the papaw (pawpaw), Carica p. (family Caricaceae), a tree of tropical America; it possesses a proteolytic action and is the source of papain. SYN: carica. [Sp.]

papayotin (pap-a′yo-tin)
SYN: papain.

paper (pa′per)
1. A substance manufactured in thin sheets from wood, rags, or other materials. 2. A square of p. folded over so as to form an envelope containing a dose of any medicinal powder. 3. A piece of blotting p. or filter p. impregnated with a medicinal solution, dried, and burned; formerly, the fumes were inhaled in the treatment of asthma and other respiratory affections. [L. papyrus; G. papyros, a kind of rush, from which writing p. was made] articulating p. SYN: occluding p.. chromatography p. used in p. chromatography. SYN: high-quality filter p.. Congo red p. p. impregnated with Congo red; used as a pH indicator, changing from blue-violet at 3.0 to red at 5.0. filter p. an unsized p. used in pharmacy and chemistry for filtering solutions; many varieties are used for p. chromatography. high-quality filter p. SYN: chromatography p.. niter p. p. impregnated with potassium nitrate that is ignited to produce fumes inhaled as treatment for asthma. SYN: potassium nitrate p., saltpeter p.. occluding p. an inked p. or ribbon interposed between natural or artificial teeth to determine tooth contacts. SYN: articulating p.. potassium nitrate p. SYN: niter p.. saltpeter p. SYN: niter p..

James W., U.S. anatomist, 1883–1958. See P. circuit.

papilla, pl .papillae (pa-pil′a, -pil′e) [TA]
Any small, nipplelike process. SYN: teat (3) . [L. a nipple, dim. of papula, a pimple] acoustic p. SYN: spiral organ. basilar p. the auditory sense organ of birds, amphibians, and reptiles; homologous to the organ of Corti in mammals. Bergmeister p. a small mass of glial tissue that forms during fetal life a temporary conical investment of the hyaloid artery at its emergence into the vitreous chamber; vestiges of it may persist as a prepapillary membrane. bile p. SYN: major duodenal p.. p. of breast SYN: nipple. circumvallate papillae SYN: vallate papillae. clavate papillae SYN: fungiform papillae. conic papillae SYN: conical papillae. papillae conicae SYN: conical papillae. conical papillae numerous projections on the dorsum of the tongue, scattered among the filiform papillae and similar to them, but shorter. SYN: conic papillae, papillae conicae. papillae corii p. of dermis. papillae of corium p. of dermis. dental p. [TA] a projection of the mesenchymal tissue of the developing jaw into the cup of the enamel organ; its outer layer becomes a layer of specialized columnar cells, the odontoblasts, that form the dentin of the tooth. SYN: p. dentis [TA] , dentinal p.. dentinal p. SYN: dental p.. p. dentis [TA] SYN: dental p.. dermal papillae SYN: p. of dermis. papillae dermis [TA] SYN: p. of dermis. p. of dermis [TA] the superficial projections of the dermis (corium) that interdigitate with recesses in the overlying epidermis; they contain vascular loops and specialized nerve endings, and are arranged in ridgelike lines best developed in the hand and foot. SYN: papillae dermis [TA] , papillae corii&star, papillae of corium&star, dermal papillae. p. ductus parotidei [TA] SYN: p. of parotid gland. p. duodeni major [TA] SYN: major duodenal p.. p. duodeni minor [TA] SYN: minor duodenal p.. filiform papillae [TA] numerous elongated conical keratinized projections on the dorsum of the tongue. SYN: papillae filiformes [TA] . papillae filiformes [TA] SYN: filiform papillae. papillae foliatae [TA] SYN: foliate papillae. foliate papillae [TA] numerous projections arranged in several transverse folds upon the lateral margins of the tongue just in front of the palatoglossus muscle. SYN: papillae foliatae [TA] , folia linguae. fungiform papillae [TA] numerous minute elevations on the dorsum of the tongue, of a fancied mushroom shape, the tip being broader than the base; the epithelium of many of these papillae has taste buds. SYN: papillae fungiformes [TA] , clavate papillae. papillae fungiformes [TA] SYN: fungiform papillae. gingival p. [TA] thickening (seen as an elevation) of the gingiva that fills the interproximal space between two adjacent teeth. SYN: p. gingivalis [TA] , interdental p.&star, p. interdentalis&star, gingival septum, interproximal p.. p. gingivalis [TA] SYN: gingival p.. hair p. a knoblike indentation of the bottom of the hair follicle, upon which the hair bulb fits like a cap; it is derived from the corium and contains vascular loops for the nourishment of the hair root. SYN: p. pili. ileal p. [TA] seen in the cadaver as a bilabial prominence of the terminal ileum protruding into the large intestine at the cecocolic junction; in the living individual, it appears as a truncated cone with a star-shaped orifice. SYN: p. ilealis [TA] , valva ileocecalis [TA] , Bauhin valve, ileocecal eminence, ileocecal valve, ileocolic valve, Tulp valve, Tulpius valve, valve of Varolius. p. ilealis [TA] SYN: ileal p.. p. incisiva [TA] SYN: incisive p.. incisive p. [TA] a slight elevation of the mucosa at the anterior extremity of the raphe of the palate. SYN: p. incisiva [TA] , palatine p.. interdental p. gingival p.. p. interdentalis gingival p.. interproximal p. SYN: gingival p.. lacrimal p. [TA] a slight projection from the margin of each eyelid near the medial commissure, in the center of which is the lacrimal punctum (opening of the lacrimal duct). SYN: p. lacrimalis [TA] . p. lacrimalis [TA] SYN: lacrimal p.. lenticular papillae SYN: folliculi linguales, under folliculus. lingual papillae 1. SYN: papillae of tongue. 2. SYN: lingual gingival p.. lingual gingival p. the lingual portions of the gingiva filling the interproximal space between adjacent teeth; in molar and premolar areas, there may be separate lingual and buccal interdental papillae. SYN: lingual interdental p., lingual papillae (2) . lingual interdental p. SYN: lingual gingival p.. p. lingualis, pl .papillae linguales SYN: papillae of tongue. major duodenal p. [TA] point of opening of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct into the duodenum; it is located posteriorly in the descending part of the duodenum. SYN: p. duodeni major [TA] , bile p., p. of Vater, Santorini major caruncle. p. mammae [TA] SYN: nipple. minor duodenal p. [TA] the site of the opening of the accessory pancreatic duct into the duodenum, located anterior to and slightly superior to the major p.. SYN: p. duodeni minor [TA] , Santorini minor caruncle. nerve p. one of the papillae in the dermis containing a tactile corpuscle or other form of end organ. SYN: neurothele. p. nervi optici SYN: optic disk. optic p. (p) SYN: optic disk. palatine p. SYN: incisive p.. parotid p. SYN: p. of parotid gland. p. parotidea SYN: p. of parotid gland. p. of parotid gland [TA] the projection at the opening of the parotid duct into the vestibule of the mouth opposite the neck of the upper second molar tooth. SYN: p. ductus parotidei [TA] , p. parotidea, parotid p.. p. pili SYN: hair p.. renal p. [TA] the apex of a renal pyramid that projects into a minor calyx; some 10–25 openings of papillary ducts occur on its tip, forming the area cribrosa. SYN: p. renalis [TA] . p. renalis, pl .papillae renales [TA] SYN: renal p.. retrocuspid p. a small tissue tag located on the mandibular gingiva lingual to the cuspid teeth; usually occurs bilaterally, is more commonly identified in children, and is considered a normal anatomic structure. tactile p. one of the papillae of the dermis containing a tactile cell or corpuscle. papillae of tongue [TA] numerous variously shaped projections of the mucous membrane of the dorsum of the tongue; includes filiform, foliate, fungiform, and vallate papillae. SYN: lingual papillae (1) , p. lingualis. urethral p., p. urethralis the slight projection often present in the vestibule of the vagina marking the urethral orifice. papillae vallatae, pl .papillae vallatae [TA] SYN: vallate papillae. vallate papillae [TA] one of eight or ten projections from the dorsum of the tongue forming a row anterior to and parallel with the sulcus terminalis; each p. is surrounded by a circular trench (fossa) having a slightly raised outer wall (vallum); on the sides of the vallate p. and the opposed margin of the vallum are numerous taste buds. SYN: papillae vallatae [TA] , circumvallate papillae. vascular papillae dermal papillae containing vascular loops. p. of Vater SYN: major duodenal p..

papillary, papillate (pap′i-lar-e, -i-lat)
Relating to, resembling, or provided with papillae.

papillectomy (pap-i-lek′to-me)
Surgical removal of any papilla. [papilla + G. ektome, excision]


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