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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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papilledema (pa-pil-e-de′ma)
Edema of the optic disk, often due to increased intracranial pressure. SYN: choked disk. [papilla + edema]

papilliferous (pap-i-lif′er-us)
Provided with papillae. [papilla + L. fero, to bear]

papilliform (pa-pil′i-form)
Resembling or shaped like a papilla.

papillitis (pap-i-li′tis)
1. Optic neuritis with swelling of the optic disk. 2. Inflammation of the renal papilla. [papilla + G. -itis, inflammation] foliate p. inflamed vestigial foliate papillae on the posterior lateral tongue. necrotizing p. SYN: renal papillary necrosis.

papillo-
A papilla, papillary. [L. papilla]

papilloadenocystoma (pap′i-lo-ad′e-no-sis-to′ma)
A benign epithelial neoplasm characterized by glands or glandlike structures, formation of cysts, and fingerlike projections of neoplastic cells covering a core of fibrous connective tissue.

papillocarcinoma (pap′i-lo-kar-si-no′ma)
A carcinoma that is characterized by papillary, fingerlike projections of neoplastic cells in association with cores of fibrous stroma as a supporting structure. [papilla + G. karkinoma, cancer]

papilloma (pap-i-lo′ma)
A circumscribed, benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. SYN: papillary tumor. [papilla + G. -oma, tumor] basal cell p. SYN: seborrheic keratosis. p. canaliculum a papillomatous benign tumor arising within the duct of a gland. p. diffusum widespread occurrence of papillomas. duct p. SYN: intraductal p.. p. durum a wart, corn, or cutaneous horn. SYN: hard p.. hard p. SYN: p. durum. Hopmann p. a papillomatous overgrowth of the nasal mucous membrane. SYN: Hopmann polyp. p. inguinale tropicum a cutaneous eruption, occurring in Colombia, characterized by numerous slender pink vegetations in the inguinal region. intracystic p. a p. growing within a cystic adenoma, filling the cavity with a mass of branching epithelial processes. intraductal p. a small, often nonpalpable, benign p. arising in a lactiferous duct and frequently causing bleeding from the nipple. SYN: duct p.. inverted p. an eplithelial tumor of the urinary bladder or nasal cavity in which proliferating epithelium is invaginated beneath the surface and is more smoothly rounded than in other papillomas. p. molle SYN: skin tag. Shope p. a papillomatous growth found in wild cottontail rabbits originally described by Shope that is caused by a virus in the family Papovaviridae and can be transferred to domestic rabbits where it will cause similar growths. A high percentage of these growths may become malignant. soft p. SYN: skin tag. transitional cell p. SYN: urothelial p.. urothelial p. a benign papillary tumor of urothelium. SYN: transitional cell p.. villous p. a p. composed of slender, fingerlike excrescences occurring in the bladder or large intestine, or from the choroid plexus of the cerebral ventricles; villous p. of the colon is usually sessile and frequently becomes malignant. SYN: villous tumor. zymotic p. SYN: yaws.

papillomatosis (pap′i-lo-ma-to′sis)
1. The development of numerous papillomas. 2. Papillary projections of the epidermis forming an undulating surface. confluent and reticulate p. discrete and confluent gray-brown papules of the anterior and posterior mid-chest, spreading gradually; Malassezia furfur has been found in the keratin layer. SYN: Gougerot-Carteaud syndrome. florid oral p. diffuse involvement of the lips and oral mucosa with benign squamous papillomas; microscopically, it resembles verrucous carcinoma, but it is not invasive or localized to a specific area of the oral mucosa. juvenile p. a form of fibrocystic disease of the breast in young women, with florid and sclerosing adenosis that microscopically may suggest carcinoma. laryngeal p. multiple squamous-cell papillomas of the larynx, seen most commonly in young children, usually due to infection by the human papilloma virus, which may be transmitted at birth from the maternal condylomata; recurrences are common, with remission after several years. SEE ALSO: recurrent respiratory p.. palatal p. SYN: inflammatory papillary hyperplasia. recurrent respiratory p. a disease of the respiratory tract caused by the human papilloma virus; characterized by rapid recurrence of papillomas after surgical removal, airway obstruction, and hoarseness to aphonia when the larynx is involved. SEE ALSO: laryngeal p.. subareolar duct p. a benign tumor that may clinically resemble Paget disease, but that is a papillary or solid growth of columnar and myoepithelial cells producing a florid pseudoinfiltrative pattern. SYN: adenoma of nipple, erosive adenomatosis of nipple.

papillomatous (pap-i-lo′ma-tus)
Relating to a papilloma.

Papillomavirus (pap-i-lo′ma-vi-rus)
A genus of viruses (family Papovaviridae) containing double-stranded circular DNA (MW 5 × 106), having virions about 55 nm in diameter, and including the papilloma and wart viruses of humans and other animals, some of which are associated with inductions of carcinoma. More than 70 types are known to infect humans and are differentiated by DNA homology. SYN: papilloma virus.

Papillon
M.M., 20th century French dermatologist. See P.-Lefèvre syndrome.

Papillon-Léage
E., 20th century French dentist. See Papillon-Léage and Psaume syndrome.

papilloretinitis (pap′i-lo-ret-i-ni′tis)
SYN: neuroretinitis.

papillotomy (pa-pi-lot′o-me)
An incision into a papilla; usually in reference to the major duodenal papilla. [papilla + G. tome, incision]

papillula, pl .papillulae (pa-pil′u-la, -le)
A small papilla. [Mod. L. dim. of L. papilla]

Papovaviridae (pa-po′va-vir′i-de)
A family of small, antigenically distinct viruses that replicate in nuclei of infected cells; most have oncogenic properties. Virions are 45–55 nm in diameter, nonenveloped, and ether-resistant; capsids are icosahedral with 72 capsomeres, and they contain double-stranded circular DNA (MW 3–5 × 106). The family includes 2 genera Papillomavirus and Polyomavirus. [papilloma + polyoma + vacuolating]

papovavirus (pa-po′va-vi′rus)
An old name for any virus of the family Papovaviridae.

PAPP
Abbreviation for p-aminopropiophenone.

Pappenheim
Artur, German physician, 1870–1916. See P. stain, Unna-P. stain.

Pappenheimer
A.M., U.S. pathologist, 1878–1955. His work in experimental pathology was extensive and included studies of the thymus, identification of the role of lice transmission in trench fever, development of an experimental model for rickets, and evaluation of viral infections in animals. See P. bodies, under body.

pappus (pap′us)
The first downy growth of beard. [G. pappos, down]

PAPS
Abbreviation for adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-phosphosulfate; 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate.

papular (pap′u-lar)
Relating to papules.

papule (pap′ul)
A circumscribed, solid elevation up to 100 cm in diameter on the skin. A p. may be pedunculated, sessile, or filiform. [L. papula, pimple] follicular p. a papular lesion arising about a hair follicle; not specific for any condition. moist p., mucous p. SYN: condyloma latum. piezogenic pedal p. pressure-induced papules of the heel, occurring probably as a result of herniation of fat tissue. pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP) intensely pruritic papulovesicles that begin on the abdomen in the third trimester and spread peripherally, resolves rapidly after delivery, and does not affect the fetus. split papules p.'s at commissures of the mouth seen in some cases of secondary syphilis.

papulo-
Papule. [L. papula, papule]

papuloerythematous (pap′u-lo-er-i-them′a-tus, -the′ma-tus)
Denoting an eruption of papules on an erythematous surface.

papulopustular (pap′u-lo-pus′too-lar)
Denoting an eruption composed of papules and pustules.

papulopustule (pap′u-lo-pus′tul)
A small semisolid skin elevation that rapidly evolves into a pustule.

papulosis (pap-u-lo′sis)
The occurrence of numerous widespread papules. bowenoid p. a clinically benign form of intraepithelial neoplasia that microscopically resembles Bowen disease or carcinoma in situ, occurring in young individuals of both sexes on the genital or perianal skin usually as multiple well-demarcated pigmented warty papules. lymphomatoid p. a chronic papular and ulcerative variant of pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta characterized by dermal perivascular infiltration by atypical T lymphocytes suggestive of a lymphoma; it is usually benign, but transformation to lymphoma has been reported. malignant atrophic p. a cutaneovisceral syndrome characterized by pathognomonic umbilicated porcelain-white papules with elevated telangiectatic annular borders, followed by the development of intestinal ulcers that perforate, causing peritonitis; arterioles in the lesions are occluded by thrombosis without inflammatory cells, leading to infarction, progressive neurological disability, and death. SYN: Degos disease, Degos syndrome.

papulosquamous (pap′u-lo-skwa′mus)
Denoting an eruption composed of both papules and scales. [papulo- + L. squamosus, scaly (squamous)]

papulovesicle (pap′u-lo-ves′i-kl)
A small skin elevation that evolves into a blister.

papulovesicular (pap′u-lo-ve-sik′u-lar)
Denoting an eruption composed of papules and vesicles.

PAPVR
Abbreviation for partial anomalous pulmonary venous return. See anomalous pulmonary venous connections, total or partial, under connection.

papyraceous (pap-i-ra′shus)
Like parchment or paper. [L. papyraceus, made of papyrus]

par
A pair; specifically a pair of cranial nerves, e.g., p. nonum, ninth pair, glossopharyngeal; p. vagum, the vagus or tenth pair. [L. equal]

para (par′a)
A woman who has given birth to one or more infants. P. followed by a roman numeral or preceded by a Latin prefix (primi-, secundi-, terti-, quadri-, etc.) designates the number of times a pregnancy has culminated in a single or multiple birth; e.g., p. I, primipara, a woman who has given birth for the first time; p. II, secundipara, a woman who has given birth for the second time to one or more infants. Cf.:gravida. [L. pario, to bring forth]

para-
1. Prefix denoting a departure from the normal. 2. Prefix denoting involvement of two like parts or a pair. 3. Prefix denoting adjacent, alongside, near, etc. 4. (p-) In chemistry, an italicized prefix denoting two substitutions in the benzene ring arranged symmetrically, i.e., linked to opposite carbon atoms in the ring. For words beginning with p. or p-, see the specific name. [G. alongside of, near]

para-actinomycosis (par-a-ak′ti-no-mi- ko′sis)
Chronic infection, usually pulmonary, resembling actinomycosis; ordinarily caused by nocardiosis. SYN: pseudoactinomycosis.

paraaminobenzoic acid (par′a-me′no)
SYN: p-aminobenzoic acid.

para-appendicitis (par′a-a-pen-di-si′tis)
SYN: periappendicitis.

parabanic acid (par′a-ban-ik)
SYN: oxalylurea.

parabiosis (par-a-bi-o′sis)
1. Fusion of whole eggs or embryos, as occurs in some forms of conjoined twins. 2. Surgical joining of the vascular systems of two organisms. [para- + G. biosis, life]

parabiotic (par-a-bi-ot′ik)
Relating to, or characterized by, parabiosis.

parabulia (par-a-boo′le-a)
Perversion of volition or will in which one impulse is checked and replaced by another. [para- + G. boule, will]

paracanthoma (par′ak-an-tho′ma)
A neoplasm arising from abnormal hyperplasia of the prickle cell layer of the skin. [para- + G. akantha, a thorn, + -oma, tumor]

paracanthosis (par′ak-an-tho′sis)
1. The development of paracanthomas. 2. A division of tumors that includes the cutaneous epitheliomas.

paracarmine
See p. stain.

paracasein (par-a-ka′se-in)
The compound produced by the action of rennin upon κ-casein (which liberates a glycoprotein), and that precipitates with calcium ion as the insoluble curd.

Paracelsus
Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, Swiss physician, 1493–1541. See paracelsian method.

paracenesthesia (par′a-se-nes-the′ze-a)
Deterioration in one's sense of bodily well-being, i.e., of the normal functioning of one's organs. [para- + G. koinos, common, + aisthesis, feeling]

paracentesis (par′a-sen-te′sis)
The passage into a cavity of a trocar and cannula, needle, or other hollow instrument for the purpose of removing fluid; variously designated according to the cavity punctured. SYN: tapping (2) . [G. parakentesis, a tapping for dropsy, fr. para, beside, + kentesis, puncture]

paracentetic (par-a-sen-tet′ik)
Relating to paracentesis.

paracentral (par-a-sen′tral)
Close to or beside the center or some structure designated “central.”

paracervical (par-a-ser′vi-kal)
Connective tissue adjacent to the uterine cervix.

paracervix (par-a-ser′viks) [TA]
The connective tissue of the pelvic floor extending from the fibrous subserous coat of the cervix of the uterus laterally between the layers of the broad ligament.

paracetaldehyde (par-as-e-tal′de-hid)
SYN: paraldehyde.

paracetamol (par-a-set′a-mol)
SYN: acetaminophen.

parachlorophenol (par′a-klor-o-fe′nol)
A disinfectant effective against most Gram-negative organisms; also available as camphorated p.. SYN: p-chlorophenol.

paracholera (par-a-kol′er-a)
A disease clinically resembling Asiatic cholera but due to a vibrio specifically different from Vibrio cholerae.

parachordal (par-a-kor′dal)
Alongside the anterior portion of the notochord in the embryo; designating the bilateral cartilaginous bars that enter into the formation of the base of the skull. [para- + G. chorde, cord]

parachroma (par-a-kro′ma)
Abnormal coloration of the skin. [para- + G. chroma, color]

parachymosin (par-a-ki′mo-sin)
An enzyme resembling chymosin.

paracinesia, paracinesis (par′a-si-ne′ze-a, -ne′sis)
SYN: parakinesia.

paracmasis (par-ak′ma-sis)
SYN: paracme.

paracmastic (par-ak-mas′tik)
Relating to the paracme.

paracme (par-ak′me)
1. The stage of subsidence of a fever. 2. The period of life beyond the prime; the decline or stage of involution of an organism. SYN: paracmasis. [G. the point at which the prime is past; fr. para, beyond, + akme, highest point, prime]

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (par′a-kok-sid-e-oy′dez bra-sil-e-en′sis)
A dimorphic fungus that causes paracoccidioidomycosis. In tissues and on enriched culture medium at 37°C, it grows as large spherical or oval cells that bear single or several buds and usually is identified by this characteristic; at lower temperatures, it grows slowly as a white mold with minimal sporulation.

paracoccidioidin (par′a-kok-sid-e-oy′din)
A filtrate antigen prepared from the filamentous form of the pathogenic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; used for demonstrating delayed type dermal hypersensitivity in populations and useful in demonstrating endemic areas in different geographic regions.




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