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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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parafuchsin (par-a-fuk′sin)
SYN: pararosanilin.

paragammacism (par′a-gam′a-sizm)
Substitution of another letter sound for the g sound. SEE ALSO: gammacism. [para- + G. gamma, the letter g]

paraganglia (par-a-gang′gle-a)
Plural of paraganglion.

paraganglioma (par′a-gang-gle-o′ma)
A neoplasm usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or the medulla of the adrenal gland; the latter is usually termed a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma. nonchromaffin p. SYN: chemodectoma.

paraganglion, pl .paraganglia (par-a-gang′gle-on, -a)
A small, roundish body containing chromaffin cells; a number of such bodies may be found retroperitoneally near the aorta and in organs such as the kidney, liver, heart, and gonads. SYN: chromaffin body.

paragene (par′a-jen)
SYN: plasmid.

paragenital (par-a-jen′i-tal)
Alongside the gonads.

parageusia (par-a-gu′se-a, -joo′se-a)
SYN: dysgeusia. [para- + G. geusis, taste]

parageusic (par-a-gu′sik)
Relating to parageusia.

paragnathus (pa-rag′na-thus)
1. A developmental defect resulting in an individual with an accessory lower jaw. 2. A parasitic fetus attached to the jaw of the autosite. [para- + G. gnathos, jaw]

paragnomen (par-ag-no′men)
An unexpected reaction. [para- + G. gnomen, gnome, judgment]

paragonimiasis (par′a-gon-i-mi′a-sis)
Infection with a worm of the genus Paragonimus, especially P. westermani. SYN: pulmonary distomiasis.

Paragonimus (par-a-gon′i-mus)
A genus of lung flukes, parasitic in humans and a wide variety of mammals, that feed upon crustacea carrying the metacercariae. [para- + G. gonimos, with generative power] P. kellicotti a species of fluke prevalent in certain wild animals, such as raccoons, and occurring in dogs, in the Great Lakes region of the U.S.; it is morphologically similar to P. westermani. P. ringeri SYN: P. westermani. P. westermani the bronchial or lung fluke; a species that causes paragonimiasis, found chiefly in Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, the Philippines, and Thailand; eggs are coughed up in sputum or swallowed and passed in the feces; miracidia invade Melania snails, and produce large numbers of stumpy-tailed cercariae that leave the snail and crawl into muscles and viscera of crayfish or crabs and encyst; in humans the excysted worms invade the wall of the gut and migrate through the diaphragm into the lungs; the developing parasites cause an intense inflammatory reaction and eventually induce fibrous-walled nodules that usually contain a pair of adult worms, along with exudate, eggs, and remains of red blood cells; the fibroparasitic nodules may become contiguous and form multiloculated cystlike structures; in some instances, the flukes involve the brain, liver, peritoneum, intestine, or skin. SYN: P. ringeri.

paragonorrheal (par′a-gon-o-re′al)
Indirectly related to or consequent to gonorrhea.

paragrammatism (par-a-gram′a-tizm)
SYN: paraphasia.

paragraphia (par-a-graf′e-a)
1. Loss of the power of writing from dictation, although the words are heard and comprehended. 2. Writing one word when another is intended. [para- + G. grapho, to write]

parahepatic (par-a-he-pat′ik)
Adjacent to the liver.

parahidrosis (par′a-hi-dro′sis)
SYN: paridrosis.

parahormone (par-a-hor′mon)
A substance, product of ordinary metabolism, not produced for a specific purpose, that acts like a hormone in modifying the activity of some distant organ; e.g., the action of carbon dioxide on the control of breathing.

parahypophysis (par′a-hi-pof′i-sis)
A small mass of pituitary tissue, or tissue resembling in structure the anterior lobe of the hypophysis, occasionally found in the dura mater lining of the sella turcica.

parakappacism (par′a-kap′a-sizm)
Substitution of another letter sound for that of k. SEE ALSO: kappacism. [para- + G. kappa, the letter k]

parakeratosis (par′a-ker-a-to′sis)
Retention of nuclei in the cells of the stratum corneum of the epidermis, observed in many scaling dermatoses such as psoriasis and subacute or chronic dermatitis. p. pustulosa idiopathic subungual keratosis with nail deformity or pitting and with pustular or well-demarcated scaling eczematous changes of the fingertips; usually seen in young girls. p. scutularis a disease of the scalp marked by the formation of crusts that envelop the hairs.

parakinesia, parakinesis (par′a-ki-ne′ze-a, -ki-ne′sis)
Any motor abnormality. SYN: paracinesia, paracinesis. [para- + G. kinesis, movement]

paralalia (par-a-la′le-a)
Any speech defect; especially one in which one letter is habitually substituted for another. [para- + G. lalia, talking] p. literalis SYN: stammering.

paralambdacism (par-a-lam′da-sizm)
Mispronunciation of the letter l, or the substitution of some other letter for it. SEE ALSO: lambdacism. [para- + G. lambda, letter l]

paraldehyde (par-al′de-hid)
(CH3CHO)3;a cyclic polymer of acetaldehyde; a potent hypnotic sedative, and anticonvulsant suitable for oral, rectal, intravenous, and intramuscular administration; its offensive odor limits its use; effective in suppressing abstinence from alcohol dependence. SYN: paracetaldehyde.

paraleprosis (par-a-le-pro′sis)
Presence of certain trophic or nerve changes suggesting an attenuated form of leprosy in regions where the disease has long prevailed.

paralepsy (par′a-lep-se)
1. A rarely used term for a temporary attack of mental inertia and hopelessness. 2. A sudden alteration in mood or emotional tension. [G. para- + lepsis, seizure]

paralexia (par-a-lek′se-a)
Misapprehension of written or printed words, other meaningless words being substituted for them in reading. [para- + G. lexis, speech]

paralgesia (par-al-je′ze-a)
Painful paresthesia; any disorder or abnormality of the sense of pain. [para- + G. algesis, the sense of pain]

paralgia (par-al′je-a)
Abnormal or unusual pain. [para- + G. algos, pain]

paralipophobia (par′a-lip-o-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of neglect of duty. [G. paraleipo, to omit, pass over, + phobos, fear]

parallactic (par-a-lak′tik)
Relating to a parallax.

parallax (par′a-laks)
1. The apparent displacement of an object that follows a change in the position from which it is viewed. 2. See phi phenomenon. [G. alternately, fr. par-allasso, to make alternate, fr. allos, other] binocular p. the difference in the angles formed by the lines of sight to two objects situated at different distances from the eyes; a factor in the visual perception of depth. SYN: stereoscopic p.. heteronymous p. the apparent movement of an object toward the closed eye; noted in exophoria. homonymous p. the apparent movement of an object toward the open eye when one is closed; noted in esophoria. stereoscopic p. SYN: binocular p.. vertical p. the relative vertical displacement of the image when each eye is closed in turn; seen in vertical diplopia, or heterophoria.

parallelism (par′a-lel-izm)
1. The state of being structurally parallel. 2. In psychology, the mind-body doctrine that for every conscious process there is a corresponding or parallel organic process, without asserting a causal interrelation between the two. [para- + G. allelon, of one another, fr. allos, other]

parallelometer (par′a-lel-om′e-ter)
An apparatus used for paralleling the attachments and abutments for fixed or removable partial dentures.

parallergic (par-a-ler′jik)
Denoting an allergic state in which the body becomes predisposed to nonspecific stimuli following original sensitization with a specific allergen.

paralogia, paralogism, paralogy (par-a-lo′je-a, pa-ral′o-jizm, -ral′o-je)
False reasoning, involving self-deception. [G. p., a fallacy, fr. para, beside, + logos, reason] thematic p. false reasoning in relation chiefly to one theme or subject, upon which the mind dwells insistently.

paralysis, pl .paralyses (pa-ral′i-sis, -sez)
1. Loss of power of voluntary movement in a muscle through injury or disease of it or its nerve supply. 2. Loss of any function, as sensation, secretion, or mental ability. [G. fr. para- + lysis, a loosening] acute ascending p. a p. of rapid course beginning in the legs and involving progressively the trunk, arms, and neck, ending sometimes in death in 1–3 weeks; generally due to either a fulminant Guillain-Barré syndrome or an ascending necrotizing myelopathy. SYN: ascending p.. p. agitans obsolete term for parkinsonism (1) . ascending p. SYN: acute ascending p.. Brown-Séquard p. SYN: Brown-Séquard syndrome. bulbar p. SYN: progressive bulbar p.. central p. p. due to a lesion in the brain or spinal cord. compression p. p. due to external presure on a nerve. crossed p. SYN: alternating hemiplegia. crutch p. a form of pressure p. affecting the arm and caused by compression of the infraclavicular brachial plexus or radial nerve by the crosspiece of a crutch. SYN: crutch palsy. diphtheritic p. SYN: postdiphtheritic p.. diver's p. lay term for decompression sickness. Duchenne-Erb p. SYN: Erb palsy. Erb p. SYN: Erb palsy. facial p. paresis or p. of the facial muscles, usually unilateral, due to either 1) a lesion involving either the nucleus or the facial nerve peripheral to the nucleus (peripheral facial p.) or 2) a supranuclear lesion in the cerebrum or upper brainstem (central facial p.); with the latter, facial weakness is usually partial and the upper portion of the face is relatively spared, because of bilateral cortical connections. SYN: facial palsy, facioplegia, fallopian neuritis. familial periodic p. one of the inherited muscle disorders manifested as recurrent episodes of marked generalized weakness. See hyperkalemic periodic p., hypokalemic periodic p., normokalemic periodic p.. faucial p. SYN: isthmoparalysis. flaccid p. p. with a loss of muscle tone. Cf.:spastic diplegia. generalized p. SYN: global p.. ginger p. SYN: jake p.. global p. p. of both whole sides of the body. SYN: generalized p.. glossolabiolaryngeal p., glossolabiopharyngeal p. SYN: progressive bulbar p.. glossopalatolabial p. SYN: progressive bulbar palsy. glossopharyngeolabial p. SYN: progressive bulbar palsy. Gubler p. SYN: Gubler syndrome. hyperkalemic periodic p. [type II MIM*170500] a form of periodic p. in which the serum potassium level is elevated during attacks; onset occurs in infancy, attacks are frequent but relatively mild, and myotonia is often present; autosomal dominant inheritance caused by mutation in the sodium channel gene (SCN4A) on chromosome 17q. hypokalemic periodic p. [type I MIM*170400] a form of periodic p. in which the serum potassium level is low during attacks; onset usually occurs between the ages of 7–21 years; attacks may be precipitated by exposure to cold, high carbohydrate meal, or alcohol, may last hours to days, and may cause respiratory p.; autosomal dominant caused by mutation in the muscle dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive calcium channel α-1-subunit (CACNL1A3) on chromosome 1q, or X-linked inheritance. hysterical p. a psychosomatic numbness of a limb sometimes to the point of p.. See hysteria. immune p. the induction of tolerance due to injection of large amounts of antigen. The antigen is poorly metabolized and the p. remains only during the persistence of the above. See immunologic tolerance. SYN: immunologic p.. immunologic p. SYN: immune p.. jake p. polyneuropathy produced by drinking synthetic Jamaican ginger (or “jake” in the vernacular) containing triorthocresylphosphate. SYN: ginger p.. Klumpke p. SYN: Klumpke palsy. Landry p. SYN: Guillain-Barré syndrome. lead p. SYN: lead palsy. mimetic p. p. of the facial muscles. mixed p. combined motor and sensory p.. motor p. loss of the power of muscular contraction. musculospiral p. p. of the muscles of the forearm due to injury of the radial (musculospiral) nerve. normokalemic periodic p. [type III MIM 170600] a form of periodic p. in which the serum potassium level is within normal limits during attacks; onset usually occurs between the ages of 2–5 years; there is often severe quadriplegia, usually improved by the administration of sodium salts; autosomal dominant inheritance. SYN: sodium-responsive periodic p.. obstetric p. SYN: obstetric palsy. ocular p. p. of extraocular and intraocular muscles. periodic p. term for a group of diseases characterized by recurring episodes of muscular weakness or flaccid p. without loss of consciousness, speech, or sensation; attacks begin when the patient is at rest, and there is apparent good health between attacks. See hyperkalemic periodic p., hypokalemic periodic p., normokalemic periodic p.. peripheral facial p. SYN: Bell palsy. postdiphtheritic p. p. affecting the uvula most frequently, but also any other muscle, due to toxic neuritis; usually appears in the second or third week following the beginning of the attack of diphtheria. SYN: diphtheritic p.. posticus p. p. of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles. Pott p. SYN: Pott paraplegia. pressure p. p. due to compression of a nerve, nerve trunk, plexus, or spinal cord. SYN: pressure palsy. progressive bulbar p. progressive weakness and atrophy of the muscles of the tongue, lips, palate, pharynx, and larynx, usually occurring in later life; most often caused by motor neuron disease. SYN: bulbar palsy, bulbar p., Erb disease, glossolabiolaryngeal p., glossolabiopharyngeal p.. pseudobulbar p. p. of the lips and tongue, simulating progressive bulbar p., but due to supranuclear lesions with bilateral involvement of the upper motor neurons; characterized by speech and swallowing difficulties, emotional instability, and spasmodic, mirthless laughter. sensory p. loss of sensation; anesthesia. sleep p. brief episodic loss of voluntary movement that occurs when falling asleep (hypnagogic sleep p.) or when awakening (hypnopompic sleep p.). One of the narcoleptic tetrad. SYN: sleep dissociation. sodium-responsive periodic p. SYN: normokalemic periodic p.. spastic spinal p. SYN: spastic diplegia. spinal p. loss of motor power due to a lesion of the spinal cord. SYN: myeloparalysis, myeloplegia, rachioplegia. supranuclear p. p. due to lesions above the primary motor neurons. tick p. an ascending flaccid p. caused by the continuing presence of gravid Dermacentor and Ixodes ticks; reported from North America and Australia; affects humans (mainly children) and other animals. Todd p. p. of temporary duration (normally not more than a few days) that occurs in the limb or limbs involved in jacksonian epilepsy after the seizure. SYN: Todd postepileptic p.. Todd postepileptic p. SYN: Todd p.. vasomotor p. SYN: vasoparesis. Zenker p. paresthesia and p. in the area of the external popliteal nerve.

paralyssa (par′a-lis′a)
A paralytic form of rabies caused by the bite of the vampire bat (Desmodus). [paralysis + G. lyssa, madness (rabies)]

paralytic (par-a-lit′ik)
Relating to paralysis or suffering from paralysis.

paralyze (par′a-liz)
To render incapable of movement.

paramagnetic (par′a-mag-net′ik)
Having the property of paramagnetism; in magnetic resonance imaging, contrast media are chosen for their p. property, which shortens relaxation time.

paramagnetism (par-a-mag′ne-tizm)
The property of having a strong magnetic moment from one or more unpaired electrons, causing orientation in a magnetic field; most significant in imaging are ions of certain transition metals such as gadolinium, iron, and manganese, or organic compounds that are stable free radicals; molecular oxygen also exhibits p..

paramastigote (par-a-mas′ti-got)
A mastigote having two flagella, one long and one short. SYN: paraflagellate (2) . [para- + G. mastix, whip]

paramastoid (par-a-mas′toyd)
Near the mastoid process.

Paramecium (par-a-me′she-um, -se-um)
An abundant genus of freshwater holotrichous ciliates, characteristically slipper-shaped and often large enough to be visible to the naked eye; commonly used for genetic and other studies. [G. paramekes, rather long, fr. mekos, length]

paramedian (par-a-me′de-an)
Near the middle line. SYN: paramesial.

paramedic (par-a-med′ik)
A person trained and certified to provide emergency medical care.

paramedical (par-a-med′i-kal)
1. Related to the medical profession in an adjunctive capacity, e.g., denoting allied health fields such as physical therapy, speech pathology, etc. 2. Relating to a paramedic.

paramenia (par-a-me′ne-a)
Any disorder or irregularity of menstruation. [para- + G. men, month]

paramesial (par-a-me′se-al)
SYN: paramedian.

paramesonephric (par-a-mes-o-nef′rik)
Close to or alongside the embryonic mesonephros. See p. duct.

parameter (pa-ram′e-ter)
One of many dimensions or ways of measuring or describing an object or evaluating a subject: 1. In a mathematical expression, an arbitrary constant that can possess different values, each value defining other expressions, and can determine the specific form but not the general nature of the expression; e.g., in the equation y = a + bx, a and b are parameters. 2. In statistics, a term used to define a characteristic of a population, in contrast to a sample from that population; e.g., the mean and standard deviation of a total population. 3. In psychoanalysis, any tactic, other than interpretation, used by the analyst to further the patient's progress. [para- + G. metron, measure] enzyme parameters those factors and constants that govern the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, e.g., Vmax and Km. infection transmission p. the proportion of total possible contacts between infectious cases and susceptibles that lead to new infections. SEE ALSO: serial interval, mass action principle. practice parameters SYN: practice guidelines, under guideline.

paramethadione (par′a-meth-a-di′on)
An anticonvulsant used in petit mal epilepsy.

paramethasone (par-a-meth′a-son)
A glucocorticoid with anti-inflammatory effects and toxicity similar to those of prednisone. p. acetate acetic ester of p. at C-21; a glucocorticoid useful in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other collagen diseases, allergic conditions, and certain hematologic disorders.

parametrial (par-a-me′tre-al)
Pertaining to the parametrium.

parametric (par-a-met′rik)
Relating to the parametrium, or structures immediately adjacent to the uterus.

parametritic (par′a-me-trit′ik)
Relating to parametritis.

parametritis (par′a-me-tri′tis)
Inflammation of the tissue adjacent to the uterus, particularly in the broad ligament. SYN: pelvic cellulitis. [parametrium + G. -itis, inflammation]

parametrium, pl .parametria (par-a-me′tre-um, -a) [TA]
The connective tissue of the pelvic floor extending from the fibrous subserous coat of the supracervical portion of the uterus laterally between the layers of the broad ligament. [para- + G. metra, uterus]

paramimia (par-a-mim′e-a)
The use of gestures unsuited to the words that they accompany. [para- + G. mimia, imitation]




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