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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


paramnesia (par-am-ne′ze-a)
False recollection, as of events that have never occurred or partial forgetting of events that have occurred. [para- + G. amnesia, forgetfulness]

Paramoeba (par-a-me′ba)
Former name for Entamoeba.

paramolar (par-a-mo′lar)
A supernumerary tooth lying among, lingual, or buccal to the maxillary or mandibular molars.

paramorphine (par-a-mor′fen)
SYN: thebaine.

Paramphistomatidae (par′am-fis-to-mat′i-de)
A family of parasitic trematodes characterized by large fleshy bodies with a large posterior sucker; included are the genera Paramphistomum, Gastrodiscoides, and Watsonius.

paramphistomiasis (par′am-fis-to-mi′a-sis)
Infection of animals and humans with trematodes of the family Paramphistomatidae; human disease is caused by Gastrodiscoides hominis in Asia and Watsonius watsoni in Africa.

Paramphistomum (par-am-fis′to-mum)
The rumen fluke, a genus of digenetic trematodes (family Paramphistomatidae) parasitic in the rumen or paunch of cattle; species include P. microbothrioides, P. cervi, and P. liorchis. [para- + G. amphistomos, having a double mouth, fr. amphi, two-sided, + stoma, mouth]

paramusia (par-a-moo′ze-a)
Loss of the ability to read or to render music correctly. [para- + G. mousa, music, + -ia]

paramyloidosis (par-am′i-loy-do′sis)
1. Deposition in tissues of an amyloid-like protein resembling light chains of immunoglobulins in primary amyloidosis or (particularly) in atypical amyloidosis of multiple myeloma. 2. Various hereditary amyloidoses (Portuguese amyloidosis, Indiana amyloidosis) characterized by progressive hypertrophic polyneuritis with sensory changes, ataxia, paresis, and muscle atrophy due to amyloid deposits in peripheral and visceral nerves.

paramyoclonus multiplex (par′a-mi-ok′lo-nus)
SYN: myoclonus multiplex. [para- + G. mys, muscle, + klonos, a tumult]

paramyotonia (par′a-mi-o-to′ne-a)
An atypical form of myotonia. SYN: paramyotonus. ataxic p. a disorder characterized by a tonic muscular spasm on attempted movement, associated with slight paresis and ataxia. congenital p., p. congenita [MIM*168300] a nonprogressive myotonia induced by exposure of muscles to cold; there are episodes of intermittent flaccid paralysis, but no atrophy or hypertrophy of muscles; autosomal dominant inheritance caused by mutation in the sodium channel gene (SCN4A) on chromosome 17q. This is a disorder allelic to hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. There is a variant autosomal dominant form [MIM*168350] in which cold is not a provoking factor. SYN: Eulenburg disease.

paramyotonus (par-a-mi-ot′o-nus)
SYN: paramyotonia.

Paramyxoviridae (par-a-mik′so-vir′i-de)
A family of RNA-containing viruses about twice the size of the influenza viruses (Orthomyxoviridae) but similar to them in morphology. Virions are 150–300 nm in diameter, enveloped and ether-sensitive and contain RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Nucleocapsids are helical, considerably larger than those of the influenza viruses, and contain single-stranded unsegmented RNA. Four genera are recognized: Paramyxovirus, Morbillivirus, Rubulavirus, and Pneumovirus, all of which cause cell fusion and produce cytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions. Diseases associated with these viruses include croup and other upper respiratory infections, measles, mumps, and pneumonia.

Paramyxovirus (par-a-mik′so-vi-rus)
A genus of viruses (family Paramyxoviridae) that includes parainfluenza viruses (types 1 and 3).

paranalgesia (par-an-al-je′ze-a)
Analgesia of the lower half of the body. [para- + analgesia]

paranasal (par-a-na′sal)
Alongside the nose.

paraneoplasia (par′a-ne-o-pla′ze-a)
Hormonal, neurologic, hematologic, and other clinical and biochemical disturbances associated with malignant neoplasms but not directly related to invasion by the primary tumor or its metastases.

paraneoplastic (par′a-ne-o-plas′tik)
Relating to or characteristic of paraneoplasia.

paranephric (par-a-nef′rik)
1. Relating to the paranephros. 2. SYN: pararenal.

paranephros, pl .paranephroi (par-a-nef′ros, -nef′roy)
SYN: suprarenal gland. [para- + G. nephros, kidney]

paranesthesia (par-an-es-the′ze-a)
Anesthesia of the lower half of the body. [para- + anesthesia]

paraneurone (par-a-noor′on)
A gland or aggregate of cells containing neurosecretory granules. SYN: neuroendocrine cell (2) .

parangi (pa-rang′ge, -ran′je)
A disease similar to yaws, occurring in Sri Lanka.

paranoia (par-a-noy′a)
A severe but relatively rare mental disorder characterized by the presence of systematized delusions, often of a persecutory character involving being followed, poisoned, or harmed by other means, in an otherwise intact personality. SEE ALSO: paranoid personality. [G. derangement, madness, fr. para- + noeo, to think] acute hallucinatory p. a form in which periods of hallucination occur in addition to the delusions. litigious p. a form of p. in which one is inclined to initiate lawsuits.

paranoiac (par-a-noy′ak)
1. Relating to or affected with paranoia. 2. One who is suffering from paranoia.

paranoid (par′a-noyd)
1. Relating to or characterized by paranoia. 2. Having delusions of persecution.

paranomia (par-a-no′me-a)
A form of aphasia in which objects are called by the wrong names. [para- + G. onoma, name]

paranuclear (par-a-noo′kle-ar)
1. SYN: paranucleate. 2. Outside, but near the nucleus.

paranucleate (par′a-noo′kle-at)
Relating to or having a paranucleus. SYN: paranuclear (1) .

paranucleolus (par′a-noo-kle′o-lus)
See sex chromatin.

paranucleus (par-a-noo′kle-us)
An accessory nucleus or small mass of chromatin lying outside, though near, the nucleus.

paraomphalic (par′a-om-fal′ik)
SYN: paraumbilical. [para- + G. omphalos, umbilicus]

paraoperative (par-a-op′er-a-tiv)
SYN: perioperative.

paraoral (par-a-o′ral)
Near or adjacent to the mouth. [para- + L. os (or-), mouth]

paraovarian (par′a-o-var′e-an)
SYN: parovarian (2) .

paraoxon (par-a-ok′son)
An organophosphorous cholinesterase inhibitor used in insecticides; parathion is converted in the liver to p..

parapancreatic (par′a-pan-kre-at′ik)
Near or alongside of the pancreas.

paraparesis (par-a-pa-re′sis)
Weakness affecting the lower extremities. [para- + paresis]

paraparetic (par′a-pa-ret′ik)
1. Relating to paraparesis. 2. A person with paraparesis.

parapedesis (par′a-pe-de′sis)
Excretion or secretion through an abnormal channel. [para- + G. pedesis, a bending, deflection]

paraperitoneal (par′a-per′i-to-ne′al)
Outside of or alongside the peritoneum.

parapestis (par-a-pes′tis)
SYN: ambulant plague. [para- + L. pestis, plague]

paraphasia (par-a-fa′ze-a)
A form of aphasia in which a person has lost the ability to speak correctly, substituting one word for another and jumbling words and sentences unintelligibly. SEE ALSO: jargon. SYN: paragrammatism, paraphrasia, pseudoagrammatism. [para- + G. phasis, speech] thematic p. incoherent speech that wanders from the theme or subject under discussion.

paraphasic (par-a-fa′sik)
Relating to paraphasia.

paraphia (pa-ra′fe-a)
Any disorder of the sense of touch. SYN: pseudesthesia (1) , pseudoesthesia (1) . [para- + G. haphe, touch]

paraphilia (par-a-fil′e-a)
1. A condition, in either men or women, of compulsive responsivity and obligatory dependence on an unusual or personally or socially unacceptable external stimulus or internal fantasy for sexual arousal or orgasm. 2. In legal parlance, a perversion or deviancy. [para- + G. philos, fond]

paraphimosis (par′a-fi-mo′sis)
1. Painful constriction of the glans penis by a phimotic foreskin, which has been retracted behind the corona. 2. See p. palpebrae. [para- + G. phimosis] p. palpebrae total spastic eversion of the upper and lower eyelids.

paraphonia (par-a-fo′ne-a)
Any disorder of the voice, especially a change in its tone. [para- + G. phone, voice]

paraphrasia (par-a-fra′ze-a)
SYN: paraphasia. [para- + G. phrasis, speech]

paraphysial, paraphyseal (par-a-fiz′e-al)
Pertaining to the paraphysis.

paraphysis, pl .paraphyses (pa-raf′i-sis, -sez)
A median organ developing from the roofplate of the diencephalon in certain lower vertebrates. Present in the human embryo and fetus for a short time. SYN: paraphysial body. [G. an offshoot]

parapineal (par-a-pin′e-al)
Beside the pineal; denoting the visual or photoreceptive portion of the pineal body present, if not functioning, in certain lizards.

paraplasm (par′a-plazm)
1. Obsolete term for hyaloplasm. 2. Malformed or abnormal tissue. [para- + G. plasma, a thing formed]

paraplastic (par-a-plas′tik)
Relating to paraplasm.

paraplegia (par-a-ple′je-a)
Paralysis of both lower extremities and, generally, the lower trunk. [para- + plege, a stroke] ataxic p. progressive ataxia and paresis of the leg muscles due to sclerosis of the lateral and posterior funiculi of the spinal cord. congenital spastic p. a spastic paralysis of the lower extremities occurring in the infant. SYN: infantile spastic p.. p. dolorosa paralysis of the lower extremities in which the affected parts, in spite of loss of motion and sensation, are the seat of excruciating pain; occurs in certain cases of cancer of the spinal cord. SYN: painful p.. p. in extension paralysis of the legs, maintained in an extended position by hypertonic extensor muscles. p. in flexion the fixation of the paralyzed legs in a flexed posture; usually in transection of the spinal cord. infantile spastic p. SYN: congenital spastic p.. painful p. SYN: p. dolorosa. Pott p. paralysis of the lower part of the body and the extremities, due to pressure on the spinal cord as the result of tuberculous spondylitis. SYN: Pott paralysis. spastic p. paresis of the lower extremities with increased muscle tone and spasmodic contraction of the muscles. SYN: Erb-Charcot disease (2) . superior p. paralysis of both arms.

paraplegic (par-a-ple′jik)
Relating to or suffering from paraplegia.

Parapoxvirus (par-a-poks′vi-rus)
The genus of viruses (family Poxviridae) that includes the contagious ecthyma of sheep, bovine papular stomatitis, and paravaccinia viruses. They possess the nucleoprotein antigen common to all viruses included in the family but differ from other poxviruses in morphology ( e.g., virions are smaller and have thicker external coats) and by not multiplying in embryonated eggs.

parapraxia (par-a-prak′se-a)
A condition analogous to paraphasia and paragraphia in which there is a defective performance of purposive acts; e.g., slips of the tongue, or mislaying of objects. [para- + G. praxis, a doing]

paraproctitis (par′a-prok-ti′tis)
Inflammation of the cellular tissue surrounding the rectum. [para- + G. proktos, anus, + -itis, inflammation]

paraproctium, pl .paraproctia (par′a-prok′she-um, -te-um; -a)
The cellular tissue surrounding the rectum. [para- + G. proktos, anus]

paraprostatitis (par′a-pros-ta-ti′tis)
Obsolete term for inflammation of the tissue around the prostate gland. [para- + L. prostata, prostate, + -itis, inflammation]

paraprotein ((par-a-pro′ten)
1. A monoclonal immunoglobulin of blood plasma, observed electrophoretically as an intense band in γ, β, or α regions, due to an isolated increase in a single immunoglobulin type as a result of a clone of plasma cells arising from the abnormal rapid multiplication of a single cell. The finding of a p. in a patient's serum indicates the presence of a proliferating clone of immunoglobulin-producing cells and may be seen in a variety of malignant, benign, or nonneoplastic diseases. 2. SYN: monoclonal immunoglobulin. [para + protein, fr. G. protos, first]

paraproteinemia (par′a-pro-ten-e′me-a)
The presence of a monoclonal gammopathy in the blood.

parapsoriasis (par′a-so-ri′a-sis)
A heterogenous group of skin disorders unrelated to psoriasis, including pityriasis lichenoides and small and large plaque p.. p. en plaque a form of large plaque p. in middle age that frequently develops into mycosis fungoides. Affecting the trunk and proximal extremities, the lesions exceed 5 cm in diameter and are often symmetric. Small plaques p. en plaque is a benign variant, also called digitate dermatosis. p. guttata SYN: pityriasis lichenoides. p. lichenoides SYN: poikiloderma atrophicans vasculare. p. lichenoides et varioliformis acuta SYN: pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta. small plaque p. SYN: digitate dermatosis. p. varioliformis SYN: pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta.

parapsychology (par′a-si-kol′o-je)
The study of extrasensory perception, such as thought transference (telepathy) and clairvoyance.

paraquat (par′a-kwaht)
A weedkiller that produces delayed toxic effects on the liver, kidneys, and lungs when ingested; progressive interstitial pneumonia with proliferation of alveolar lining cells may develop.

pararama (par-a-ra′ma)
Painful or crippling disease of the fingers, first described in Brazilian rubber workers, produced by accidental contact with setae of the larva of the moth, Premolis semirufa; immediate pruritus, hyperemia, and local edema may be followed by chronic swelling and immobility that may lead to loss of one or more fingers, presenting a clinical picture corresponding to ankylosis.

pararectal (par-a-rek′tal)
Near the rectum or rectus muscle.

pararenal (par-a-re′nal)
Near or adjacent to the kidneys. SYN: paranephric (2) .


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