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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


pathergy (path′er-je)
Those reactions resulting from a state of altered activity, both allergic (immune) and nonallergic. [G. pathos, disease, + ergon, work]

pathetic (pa-thet′ik)
1. Denoting the fourth cranial nerve (p. nerve), the trochlear nerve. 2. Denoting that which arouses sorrow or pity. [G. pathetikos, relating to the feelings]

pathfinder (path′fin-der)
A filiform bougie for introduction through a narrow stricture end to serve as a guide for the passage of a larger sound or catheter.

pathic (path′ik)
A person who assumes the passive role in less frequently engaged sexual acts. SEE ALSO: passivism (2) . [G. pathikos, remaining passive]

See path-.

pathoamine (path-o-am′en)
A ptomaine; a toxic amine causing disease or resulting from a disease process.

pathobiology (path′o-bi-ol′o-je)
Pathology with emphasis more on the biologic than on the medical aspects.

pathocidin (path-o-si′din)

pathoclisis (path-o-klis′is)
A specific tendency to sensitivity to special toxins; a tendency for toxins to attack certain organs. [patho- + G. klisis, bending, proneness]

pathocrinia (path-o-krin′e-a)
Obsolete term for any disorder of the endocrine glands. [patho- + G. krino, to separate]

pathodontia (path-o-don′she-a)
The science concerned with diseases of the teeth. [patho- + G. odous, tooth]

pathoformic (path-o-for′mik)
Relating to the beginning of disease; denoting especially certain symptoms occurring in the transition period between a normal and a diseased state. [patho- + L. formo, to form]

pathogen (path′o-jen)
Any virus, microorganism, or other substance causing disease. [patho- + G. -gen, to produce] behavioral p. the personal habits and lifestyle behaviors of an individual which are associated with an increased risk of physical illness and dysfunction. SEE ALSO: risk factor. opportunistic p. an organism that is capable of causing disease only when the host's resistance is lowered, e.g., by other diseases or drugs.

pathogenesis (path-o-jen′e-sis)
The pathologic, physiologic, or biochemical mechanism resulting in the development of a disease or morbid process. Cf.:etiology. [patho- + G. genesis, production] drug p. the production of morbid symptoms by drugs.

pathogenic, pathogenetic (path-o-jen′ik, -je-net′ik)
Causing disease or abnormality. SYN: morbific, morbigenous, nosogenic, nosopoietic.

pathogenicity (path′o-je-nis′i-te)
The condition or quality of being pathogenic, or the ability to cause disease.

pathogeny (pa-thoj′e-ne)
Rarely used synonym for pathogenesis.

pathognomonic (path′og-no-mon′ik)
Characteristic or indicative of a disease; denoting especially one or more typical symptoms, findings, or pattern of abnormalities specific for a given disease and not found in any other condition. [see pathognomy]

pathognomy (pa-thog′no-me)
Rarely used term for diagnosis by means of a study of the typical symptoms of a disease, or of the subjective sensations of the patient. [patho- + G. gnome, a mark, a sign]

pathognostic (path-og-nos′tik)
Rarely used synonym for pathognomonic. [patho- + G. gnostikos, pertaining to knowledge]

pathologic, pathological (path-o-loj′ik, -i-kal)
1. Pertaining to pathology. 2. Morbid or diseased; resulting from disease.

pathologist (pa-thol′o-jist)
A specialist in pathology; a physician who practices, evaluates, or supervises diagnostic tests, using materials removed from living or dead patients, and functions as a laboratory consultant to clinicians, or who conducts experiments or other investigations to determine the causes or nature of disease changes. speech-language p. a practitioner concerned with the diagnosis and rehabilitation of persons with voice, speech, and language disorders.

pathology (pa-thol′o-je)
The medical science, and specialty practice, concerned with all aspects of disease, but with special reference to the essential nature, causes, and development of abnormal conditions, as well as the structural and functional changes that result from the disease processes. [patho- + G. logos, study, treatise] anatomic p. the subspecialty of p. that pertains to the gross and microscopic study of organs and tissues removed for biopsy or during postmortem examination, and also the interpretation of the results of such study. SYN: pathological anatomy. cellular p. 1. the interpretation of diseases in terms of cellular alterations, i.e., the ways in which cells fail to maintain homeostasis; 2. sometimes used as a synonym for cytopathology (1). clinical p. 1. any part of the medical practice of p. as it pertains to the care of patients; 2. the subspecialty in p. concerned with the theoretical and technical aspects ( i.e., the methods or procedures) of chemistry, immunohematology, microbiology, parasitology, immunology, hematology, and other fields as they pertain to the diagnosis of disease and the care of patients, as well as to the prevention of disease. comparative p. the p. of diseases of animals, especially in relation to human p.. dental p. SYN: oral p.. functional p. p. pertaining to abnormalities in function of a tissue, organ, or part, with or without associated changes in structure. humoral p. the thesis that disorders in the fluids of the body, especially the blood, are the basic factors in disease. medical p. p. pertaining to various diseases not suitable for treatment by surgery. molecular p. the study of biochemical and biophysical cellular mechanisms as the basic factors in disease. oral p. the branch of dentistry concerned with the etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical, gross, and microscopic aspects of oral and paraoral disease, including oral soft tissues, the teeth, jaws, and salivary glands. SYN: dental p.. speech p. the science concerned with functional and organic speech defects and disorders. SYN: speech-language p.. speech-language p. SYN: speech p.. surgical p. a field in anatomical p. concerned with examination of tissues removed from living patients for the purpose of diagnosis of disease and guidance in the care of patients.

pathometric (path-o-met′rik)
Relating to pathometry.

pathometry (pa-thom′e-tre)
Rarely used term for the determination of the proportionate number of individuals affected with a certain disease at a given time, and of the conditions leading to an increase or decrease in this number. [patho- + G. metron, measure]

pathomimesis (path′o-mi-me′sis)
Mimicry of a disease or dysfunction, whether intentional or unconscious. SYN: pathomimicry. [patho- + G. mimesis, imitation]

pathomimicry (path-o-mim′i-kre)
SYN: pathomimesis.

pathomiosis (path-o-mi-o′sis)
The attitude that leads a patient to minimize his or her disease. [patho- + G. meiosis, a lessening]

pathomorphism (path-o-mor′fizm)
Abnormal morphology.

pathonomia, pathonomy (path-o-no′me-a, pa-thon′o-me)
The science of the laws of morbid changes. [patho- + G. nomos, law]

pathophobia (path-o-fo′be-a)
SYN: nosophobia. [patho- + G. phobos, fear]

pathophysiology (path′o-fiz-e-ol′o-je)
Derangement of function seen in disease; alteration in function as distinguished from structural defects.

pathopoiesis (path′o-poy-e′sis)
Rarely used term for the mode of production of disease. [patho- + G. poiesis, making]

pathosis (pa-tho′sis)
Rarely used term for a state of disease, diseased condition, or disease entity. [patho- + G. -osis, condition]

pathotropism (pa-thot′ro-pizm)
Attraction of drugs toward diseased structures. [patho- + G. tropos, a turning]

pathway (path′wa)
1. A collection of axons establishing a conduction route for nerve impulses from one group of nerve cells to another group or to an effector organ composed of muscle or gland cells. 2. Any sequence of chemical reactions leading from one compound to another; if taking place in living tissue, usually referred to as a biochemical p. 4-aminobutyrate p. the p. that ultimately converts 4-aminobutyrate to succinate; succinate is then converted to α-ketoglutarate, via the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which is then acted upon by glutamate dehydrogenase; glutamate is then decarboxylated to reform 4-aminobutyrate; an important p. for those cells that make this neuroactive molecule. SYN: GABA p.. auditory p. neural paths and connections within the central nervous system, beginning at the organ of Corti hair cells, continuing along the eighth nerve, and terminating at the auditory cortex. critical p. outline or diagram that documents the process of diagnosis or treatment deemed appropriate for a condition based on practice guidelines. Embden-Meyerhof p. the anaerobic glycolytic p. by which d-glucose (most notably in muscle) is converted to lactic acid. Cf.:glycolysis. SYN: Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas p.. Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas p. SYN: Embden-Meyerhof p.. Entner-Douderoff p. a degradative p. for carbohydrates in certain microorganisms ( E.G., Pseudomonas sp.) that lack hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. GABA p. SYN: 4-aminobutyrate p.. hexose monophosphate p. SYN: pentose phosphate p.. lacrimal p. [TA] a space between the closed lids and the eyeball through which the tears flow to the punctum lacrimale. SYN: rivus lacrimalis [TA] , Ferrein canal. mercapturic acid p. a glutathione-dependent p. for the detoxification of a number of compounds, including arene oxides; an S-substituted glutathione is formed and ultimately converted to a mercapturic acid (an S-substituted N-acetylated l-cysteine), which is excreted; the leukotrienes are believed to be degraded through this p.. pentose phosphate p. a secondary p. for the oxidation of d-glucose (not occurring in skeletal muscle), generating reducing power (NADPH) in the cytoplasm outside the mitochondria and synthesizing pentoses and a few other sugars. It also provides a means of converting pentoses and certain other sugars into intermediates of the glycolytic p.. It proceeds from d-glucose 6-phosphate to d-ribulose and d-ribose phosphates, thence (with d-xylulose 5-phosphate) to d-sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate; carbon dioxide is released in the gluconate-ribulose step. In plants, it participates in the formation of d-glucose from carbon dioxide in the dark reactions of photosynthesis. This p. is defective in certain inherited diseases, e.g., glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. SYN: Dickens shunt, hexose monophosphate p., hexose monophosphate shunt, pentose monophosphate shunt, pentose phosphate cycle, phosphogluconate p., Warburg-Dickens-Horecker shunt, Warburg-Lipmann-Dickens-Horecker shunt. phosphogluconate p. SYN: pentose phosphate p.. polyol p. SYN: sorbitol p.. salvage p. the utilization of preformed purine and pyrimidine bases to synthesize nucleotides. sorbitol p. a p. responsible for d-fructose formation from sorbitol; increases in activity as the glucose concentration rises in diabetes. SYN: polyol p.. ubiquitin-protease p. p. in which a small protein cofactor, ubiquitin, couples with protein substrate to catalyze proteolytic destruction by proteases; this p. is highly selective and tightly regulated and is responsible for protein degradation seen in muscle-wasting diseases. visual p. neural paths and connections within the central nervous system, beginning with the retina and terminating in the occipital cortex.

See path-.

patient (pa′shent)
One who is suffering from any disease or behavioral disorder and is under treatment for it. Cf.:case (1) . [L. patiens, pres. p. of patior, to suffer] target p. in group therapy, the p. being analyzed in turn by another member p..

patricide (pat′ri-sid)
1. The killing of one's father. 2. One who commits such an act. See parricide. Cf.:matricide. [L. pater, father, + caedo, to kill]

Hugh T., U.S. neurologist, 1860–1938. See P. test.

patrilineal (pat-ri-lin′e-al)
Related to descent through the male line; inheritance of the Y chromosome is exclusively p.. [L. pater, father, + linea, line]

pattern (pat′ern)
1. A design; often refers to chest radiographic findings. 2. In dentistry, a form used in making a mold, as for an inlay or partial denture framework. airspace-filling p. SYN: alveolar p.. airway p. chest radiographic appearance of thickened bronchial walls, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, or acinar consolidation. alveolar p. cloudy to dense opacities, obscuring vascular markings, on chest radiographs. SYN: airspace-filling p.. ballerina-foot p. a vigorous posteromedial contraction of the left ventricle coupled with convexity anteriorly sometimes resulting from poor contraction of the opposing anterior wall; it is the most frequent dyssynergy observed in the prolapsed mitral valve leaflet syndrome (even with a normal anterior wall) and produces a configuration of angiographic dye in the right anterior oblique projection resembling a ballerina's foot; sometimes called dancer's foot malformation. butterfly p. bilateral, symmetric, pulmonary alveolar opacities sparing the periphery, on chest radiographs; usually caused by pulmonary edema. ground-glass p. radiographic or CT appearance of hazy opacity that fails to obscure pulmonary vascular markings. honeycomb p. dense, slightly irregular circular shadows, most common next to the pleura at the lung base, on chest radiographs or CT; caused by chronic interstitial fibrosis of diverse causes. hourglass p. a vigorous ringlike contraction observed angiographically in the left ventricular angiogram in the right anterior oblique projection, resembling an hourglass; it is seen in the prolapsed mitral valve leaflet syndrome. interstitial p. one of several chest radiographic patterns associated with interstitial infiltration or thickening, including honeycomb p., miliary p., reticulonodular p., or septal lines. juvenile p. a precordial T-wave inversion, sometimes with J-ST elevations in an electrocardiogram, resembling that seen in normal children, which occurs as a normal variant in some adults, especially black persons, and especially in leads V1, V2, and V3. miliary p. a chest radiographic p. of fine, rounded opacities, typical of hematogenous dissemination of tuberculosis; size has some relationship to that of a millet seed. mosaic p. on high-resolution CT scans of the lungs, a p. of brighter and darker regions corresponding to differences in perfusion or aeration; found in some cases of chronic thromboembolism or of bronchiolitis obliterans. Cf.:oligemia. occlusal p. SYN: occlusal form. reticulonodular p. (re-tik′u-lo-nod′u-lar) a somewhat netlike chest radiographic p., with nodular thickening at the intersections of the lines; a nonspecific interstitial p.. wax p. a p. of wax that, when invested and burned out or otherwise eliminated, will produce a mold in which a casting may be made. SYN: wax form.


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