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pelviureterography (pel-vi-u-re-ter-og′ra-fe)
SYN: pyelography.

pelvo-
See pelvi-.

pelvocaliectasis (pel′vo-kal-e-ek-ta′sis)
SYN: hydronephrosis.

pelvocephalography (pel′vo-sef-a-log′ra-fe)
SYN: cephalopelvimetry.

pelvoscopy (pel-vos′co-pe)
SYN: pelvioscopy.

pelvospondylitis ossificans (pel′vo-spon-di-li′tis os-if′i-kanz)
Deposit of bony substance between the vertebrae of the sacrum. [L. pelvis, basin, + G. spondylos, vertebra, + -itis; L. os, bone, + facio, to make]

pelyco-
The pelvis. See pelvi-. [G. pelyx, bowl (pelvis)]

pemoline (pem′o-len)
A psychostimulant used in the treatment of attention deficit disorder (hyperactivity) in children.

pemphigoid (pem′fi-goyd)
1. Resembling pemphigus. 2. A disease resembling pemphigus but significantly distinguishable histologically (nonacantholytic) and clinically (generally benign course). [G. pemphix, blister, + eidos, resemblance] benign mucosal p. SYN: ocular cicatricial p.. bullous p. a chronic, generally benign disease, most commonly of old age, characterized by tense nonacantholytic bullae in which serum antibodies are localized to hemidesmosomal components of the epidermal basement membrane, causing detachment of the entire thickness of the epidermis. localized p. of Brunsting-Perry a variant of p., primarily on the scalp and face, with some scar formation. ocular p. SYN: ocular cicatricial p.. ocular cicatricial p. a chronic disease that produces adhesions and progressive cicatrization and shrinkage of the conjunctival, oral, and vaginal mucous membranes. SYN: benign mucosal p., ocular p..

pemphigus (pem′fi-gus)
1. Autoimmune bullous diseases with acantholysis: p. vulgaris, p. foliaceus, p. erythematosus, or p. vegetans. 2. A nonspecific term for blistering skin diseases. [G. pemphix, a blister] benign familial chronic p. [MIM*169600] recurrent eruption of vesicles and bullae that become scaling and crusted lesions with vesicular borders, predominantly of the neck, groin, and axillary regions; autosomal dominant inheritance, presenting in late adolescence or early adult life. SYN: Hailey-Hailey disease. Brazilian p. SYN: fogo selvagem. p. erythematosus an eruption involving sun-exposed skin, especially the face; the lesions are scaling erythematous macules and blebs, combining the clinical features of both lupus erythematosus and p. vulgaris; bullae are subcorneal; probably a variant of p. foliaceus, occasionally penicillamine-induced. SYN: Senear-Usher disease, Senear-Usher syndrome. p. foliaceus a generally chronic form of p., rarely affecting mucosal surfaces, in which extensive exfoliative dermatitis, with no perceptible blistering, may be present in addition to the bullae; serum autoantibodies induce bullae and crusted acantholytic superficial epidermal lesions. p. gangrenosus 1. SYN: dermatitis gangrenosa infantum. 2. SYN: bullous impetigo of newborn. paraneoplastic p. painful mucosal erosions and polymorphous skin eruptions with biopsy findings resembling p. vulgaris, associated with neoplasm and serum antibodies reactive with intercellular substance of all epithelia; usually rapidly fatal. p. vegetans 1. a rare, verrucous form of p. vulgaris in which vegetations develop on the eroded surfaces left by ruptured bullae; new bullae continue to form; SYN: Neumann disease. 2. a chronic benign vegetating form of p., with lesions commonly in the axillae and perineum; spontaneous remissions and occasionally permanent healing to occur. SYN: Hallopeau disease. p. vulgaris a serious form of p., occurring in middle age, in which cutaneous flaccid acantholytic suprabasal bullae and oral mucosal erosions may be localized a few months before becoming generalized; blisters break easily and are slow to heal; results from the action of autoimmune antibodies that localize to intercellular sites of stratified squamous epithelium.

pempidine (pem′pi-den)
Secondary amine of the mecamylamine group, effective as a ganglionic blocking agent; also available as p. tartrate, with the same uses.

pendelluft (pen-del-luft′)
Transient movement of gas out of some alveoli and into others when flow has just stopped at the end of inspiration, or such movement in the opposite direction just at the end of expiration; occurs when regions of the lung differ in compliance, airway resistance, or inertance so that the time constants of their filling (or emptying) in response to a change of transpulmonary pressure are not the same. [Ger. Pendel, pendulum, + Luft, air]

Pendred
Vaughan, English surgeon, 1869–1946. See P. syndrome.

penectomy (pe-nek′to-me)
SYN: phallectomy. [L. penis + G. ektome, excision]

penes
Plural of penis, as in diphallus.

penetrance (pen′e-trans)
The frequency, expressed as a fraction or percentage, of individuals who are phenotypically affected, among persons of an appropriate genotype (i.e., homozygous or hemizygous for recessives, heterozygous or hemozygous for dominants); for an autosomal dominant disorder, if only a proportion of individuals carrying the mutant allele display the abnormal phenotype, the trait is said to show incomplete p.. If all with the mutant allele show the abnormal phenotype, the trait is said to have complete or full p.. See penetration. genetic p. (pen′e-trans) the extent to which a genetically determined condition is expressed in an individual.

penetrate (pen′e-trat)
To pierce; to pass into the deeper tissues or into a cavity.

penetration (pen-e-tra′shun)
1. A piercing or entering. 2. Mental acumen. 3. SYN: focal depth. [L. penetratio, fr. penetro, pp. -atus, to enter]

penetrometer (pen-e-trom′e-ter)
An obsolete instrument for measuring the penetrating power of x-rays from any given source. [penetration + G. metron, measure]

-penia
Deficiency. [G. penia, poverty]

penial (pe′ne-al)
SYN: penile.

peniaphobia (pe′ne-a-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of poverty. [G. penia, poverty, + phobos, fear]

penicillamine (pen-i-sil′a-men)
A degradation product of penicillin; a chelating agent used in the treatment of lead poisoning, hepatolenticular degeneration, and cystinuria, and in the removal of excess copper in Wilson disease; also available as p. hydrochloride. SYN: β,β-dimethylcysteine.

penicillanate (pen-i-sil′a-nat)
A salt of penicillanic acid.

penicillanic acid (pen-i-si-lan′ik)
A penicillin without the characterizing R group (with H– replacing ROONH–) of penicillin.

penicillary (pen-i-sil′a-re)
Denoting a penicillus (1).

penicillate (pen-i-sil′at)
1. Pertaining to a penicillus. 2. Having a tuftlike structure.

penicillic acid (pen-i-sil′ik)
An antibiotic produced by Penicillium puberulum, a mold found on maize, and from P. cyclopium; active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but toxic to animal tissues.

penicillin (pen-i-sil′in)
1. Originally, an antibiotic substance obtained from cultures of the molds Penicillium notatum or P. chrysogenum; interferes with cell wall synthesis in bacteria. 2. One of a family of natural or synthetic variants of penicillic acid. They are mainly bactericidal in action, are especially active against Gram-positive organisms, and, with the exception of hypersensitivity reactions, show a particularly low toxic action on animal tissue. [see penicillus] aluminum p. the trivalent aluminum salt of an antibiotic substance or substances produced by the growth of the molds Penicillium notatum or P. chrysogenum; used for oral or sublingual administration. p. amidase an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the penicillins, producing a carboxylic acid anion and penicin; penicin is the precursor of many synthetic penicillins. p. B SYN: phenethicillin potassium. benzyl p. SYN: p. G. buffered crystalline p. G crystalline potassium p. G or crystalline sodium p. G buffered with not less than 4% and not more than 5% of sodium citrate. chloroprocaine p. O a crystalline salt of 2-chloroprocaine and p. O, insoluble in water; the level of the antibiotic in the blood persists for 24 hours; its antibacterial activity is similar to that of p. O and G. p. G a commonly used p. compound; it comprises 85% of the p. salts: sodium, potassium, aluminum, and procaine, with the latter exerting prolonged action on intramuscular injection, because of limited solubility. An antibiotic obtained from the mold Penicillium chrysogenum used orally and parenterally; primarily active against Gram-positive staphylococci and streptococci; destroyed by bacterial β-lactamase. SYN: benzyl p., benzylpenicillin. p. G benzathine a relatively insoluble preparation that may remain in the body for 1–2 weeks. p. G hydrabamine a dipenicillin compound, a mixture of p. G salts consisting chiefly of the salt of the diacidic base N,N ′-bis-(dehydroabietyl) ethylenediamine. p. G potassium the potassium salt of p. G, containing 85–90% p. G. p. G procaine the procaine salt of p. G; it has a more prolonged action than p. G. p. G sodium the sodium salt of p. G, containing not less than 85% p. G. p. N SYN: cephalosporin N. p. O produced by growing the mold in a medium containing allylmercaptomethylacetic acid; also available as the potassium and sodium salts. SYN: allylmercaptomethylpenicillin. p. phenoxymethyl SYN: p. V. p. V a p. derivative containing a phenoxyacetyl group; obtained from Penicillium chrysogenum Q 176; a crystalline nonhydroscopic acid, very stable even in high humidity; it resists destruction by gastric juice; the potassium salt is used orally; precursor for the synthesis of analogs of cephalosporin C. SYN: p. phenoxymethyl, phenoxymethylpenicillin. p. V benzathine p. for oral use. p. V hydrabamine a compound with preparation and uses analogous to those of p. G hydrabamine.

penicillinase (pen-i-sil′i-nas)
1. SYN: β-lactamase. 2. A purified enzyme preparation obtained from cultures of a strain of Bacillus cereus; formerly used in the treatment of slowly developing or delayed penicillin reactions. Used by bacteria to develop penicillin resistance.

penicillinate (pen-i-sil′i-nat)
A salt of a penicillic acid ( i.e., of a penicillin).

penicilliosis
Invasive infection by a species of Penicillium.

Penicillium (pen-i-sil′e-um)
A genus of fungi (class Ascomycetes, order Aspergillales), species of which yield various antibiotic substances and biologicals; e.g., citrinum yields citrinin; P. claviforme, P. expansum, and P. patulum yield patulin; P. chrysogenum yields penicillin; P. griseofulvum yields griseofulvin; P. notatum yields penicillin and notatin; P. cyclopium and P. puberulum yield penicillic acid; P. purpurogenum and P. rubrum yield rubratoxin. P. marneffei is a true pathogen in Southeast Asia and in bamboo rats. [see penicillus] P. lilacinum SYN: Paecilomyces lilacinus.

penicilloic acid (pen′i-si-lo′ik)
Alkali and bacterial degradation product of a penicillin, resulting from hydrolysis of the 1,7 bond.

penicilloyl polylysine (pen-i-sil′o-il)
A preparation of polylysine and a penicillic acid, used intradermally in the diagnosis of penicillin sensitivity; sensitive persons may react with systemic manifestations, including generalized cutaneous eruptions.

penicillus, pl .penicilli (pen-i-sil′us, -sil′i) [TA]
1. [NA] One of the tufts formed by the repeated subdivision of the minute arterial twigs in the spleen. 2. In fungi, one of the branched conidiophores bearing chains of conidia in Penicillium species. [L. paint brush]

penicin (pen′i-sin)
SYN: 6-aminopenicillanic acid.

penile (pe′nil)
Relating to the penis. SYN: penial.

penillic acids (pe-nil′ik)
Acid degradation products of penicillins, produced by cleavage of the 1,7 bond, forming penicilloic acid, and formation of a bond between the exocyclic carbonyl carbon and N-1 with elimination of H2O from those two positions and the exocyclic NH.

penin (pen′in)
6-Aminopenicillanic acid; an intermediate in the synthesis of penicillins.

penis, pl .penes (pe′nis) [TA]
The organ of copulation and urination in the male; it is formed of three columns of erectile tissue, two arranged laterally on the dorsum (corpora cavernosa p.) and one median below (corpus spongiosum); the urethra traverses the latter; the extremity (glans p.) is formed by an expansion of the corpus spongiosum, and is more or less completely covered by a free fold of skin (preputium). SYN: intromittent organ, membrum virile, phallus, priapus, virga. [L. tail] bifid p. SYN: diphallus. buried p. normal p. obscured by suprapubic fat. clubbed p. a deformity of the erect p. marked by a curve to one side or toward the scrotum. concealed p. usually a complication of circumcision wherein the anastomotic line between shaft skin and preputial collar closes like an iris or cicatrix over glans (some equate this to buried p.). p. femineus obsolete term for clitoris. gryposis p. SYN: chordee (1) . p. muliebris obsolete term for clitoris. webbed p. deficient ventral penile shaft skin that is buried in scrotum or tethered to scrotal midline by a fold or web of skin. The urethra and erectile bodies are usually normal.

penischisis (pe-nis′ki-sis)
A fissure of the penis resulting in an abnormal opening into the urethra, either above (epispadias), below (hypospadias), or to one side (paraspadias). [L. penis + G. schisis, fissure]

pennate (pen′at)
Feathered; resembling a feather. SYN: penniform. [L. pennatus, fr. penna, feather]




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