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Medical Dictionary


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penniform (pen′i-form)
SYN: pennate. [L. penna, feather, + forma, form]

pennyroyal (pen′e-roy-al)
A name in folk medicine given to Mentha pulegium (an aromatic p.), or to Hedeoma pulegeoides (American p.) (family Labiatae); an aromatic stimulant formerly used as an emmenagogue.

penoscrotal (pe′no-skro′tal)
Relating to both penis and scrotum.

penotomy (pe-not′o-me)
SYN: phallotomy. [L. penis + G. tome, a cutting]

Penrose
Charles B., U.S. gynecologist, 1862–1925. See P. drain.

penta-
Combining form denoting five. [G. pente, five]

pentabasic (pen-ta-ba′sik)
Denoting an acid having five replaceable hydrogen atoms. [penta- + G. basis, base]

pentachlorophenol (pen-ta-klor-o-fen′ol)
Insecticide for termite control; preharvest defoliant; general herbicide. Has been used extensively for use in the preservation of wood, wood products, starches, dextrins, glues. No longer available for consumer use; a powerful irritant.

pentad
1. A collection of five things in some way related. 2. In chemistry, a pentavalent element. [G. pentas, the number five] Reynolds p. abdominal pain, fever, jaundice, shock, and depression of central nervous system function; usually indicative of acute suppurative cholangitis.

pentadactyl, pentadactyle (pen-ta-dak′til)
Having five fingers or toes on each hand or foot. SYN: quinquedigitate. [penta- + G. daktylos, finger]

pentaerythritol (pen-ta-e-rith′ri-tol)
The tetranitrate is a coronary vasodilator with action similar to that of other slow-acting organic nitrates.

pentaerythritol tetranitrate
An organic nitrate used as a vasodilator in the treatment of angina pectoris; exerts a longer duration of action than nitroglycerin; acts via conversion to nitric oxide.

pentagastrin (pen-ta-gas′trin)
The substituted pentapeptide, BOC-β-Ala-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe(NH2); a gastric acid stimulator.

pentalogy (pen-tal′o-je)
A rarely used term for a combination of five elements, such as five concurrent symptoms. [penta- + G. logos, treatise, word] p. of Cantrell a congenital defect involving a cleft lower sternum, an anterior diaphragmatic defect, absence of the parietal pericardium, a connected or separate omphalocele, and a major cardiac anomaly, most often tetralogy of Fallot and left ventricular diverticulum. SYN: thoracoabdominal ectopia cordis. p. of Fallot tetralogy of Fallot with, in addition, a patent foramen ovale or atrial septal defect.

pentamer (pen′ta-mer)
See virion. [penta- + G. meros, part]

pentamidine isethionate (pen-tam′i-den)
A toxic but effective drug used in the prophylaxis and treatment of early stages of both types of African sleeping sickness (Gambian and Rhodesian trypanosomiasis). It does not cross the blood-brain barrier and is not effective in the treatment of the advanced (neurologic) stage of the disease. Also used to treat leishmaniasis that does not respond to therapy with pentavalent antimonials and in the treatment of pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis carinii.

pentanoic acid (pen-ta-no′ik)
SYN: valeric acid.

pentapeptide (pen′ta-pep′tid)
A compound containing five amino acid residues linked via peptide bonds.

pentapiperide fumarate (pen-ta-pip′er-id)
An intestinal antispasmodic.

pentapiperium methylsulfate (pen′ta-pi-per′e-um)
An anticholinergic agent.

pentaquine (pen′ta-kwin)
An antimalarial agent closely related chemically to pamaquine but less toxic and more effective; it is administered with quinine, the two drugs acting synergically; active against Plasmodium vivax infections.

Pentastoma (pen-tas′to-ma)
Older name for a genus of Pentastomida, now called Linguatula. The species described as P. denticulatum proved to be the larva of Linguatula rhinaria, sometimes parasitic in the nose of humans and other mammals; adults are found in the lungs of reptiles. [penta- + G. stoma, mouth]

pentastomiasis (pen′ta-sto-mi′a-sis)
Infection of herbivorous animals, swine, and humans with larval tongue worms; lesions occur principally in the lymph nodes of the digestive tract, where they often resemble those of tuberculosis.

Pentastomida (pen-ta-stom′i-da)
The tongue worms, a group of parasitic wormlike animals considered to form a distinct phylum thought to be descended from primitive arthropods, though modified by parasitism to form elongate, pseudosegmented, wormlike organisms with two to three pairs of budlike degenerate limbs in the larva and anterior, hollow, fanglike hooks in the adult. Adults are usually parasitic in the lungs or respiratory tract of vertebrates, usually in snakes and other reptiles, though one group parasitizes the air sacs of birds and one family (Linguatulidae) has become adapted to the lungs of mammal carnivores (families Felidae and Canidae). Larvae are found in the viscera of many hosts that serve as prey of the final hosts (insects, fish, amphibians, chiefly frogs, and mammals, chiefly rodents). Dogs may develop adult Linguatula serrata in their nasal passages from infective larvae (nymphs) in the viscera of sheep, cattle, or rabbits, which became infected from water or vegetation contaminated with eggs passed by infected dogs; humans also can develop a larval infection from this source. Human infection of liver, spleen, and lungs has been reported in Africa from Armillifer armillatus and in China by A. moniliformis from contaminated water or vegetation or from handling infected snakes. [see Pentastoma]

pentatomic (pent′a-tom-ik)
Denoting five atoms per molecule. [penta- + atomic]

Pentatrichomonas (pen′ta-trik-o-mo′nas, pen′ta-tri-kom′o-nas)
A genus of parasitic protozoan flagellates, formerly part of the genus Trichomonas but now separated as a distinct genus by the presence of five anterior flagella and a granular parabasal body. The species P. hominis lives as a commensal in the colon of humans and other primates, dogs, cats, oxen, and various rodents. [penta- + Trichomonas]

pentavalent (pen-ta-va′lent, pen-tav′a-lent)
Having a combining power (valence) of five. SYN: quinquevalent.

pentazocine (pen-taz′o-sen)
An opioid agonist/antagonist analgesic with some addiction liability but only rare withdrawal syndrome and tolerance; very irritating to tissues on local injection; available as the hydrochloride and lactate salts.

pentetate trisodium calcium (pen′te-tat)
The calcium trisodium salt of pentetic acid. SYN: calcium trisodium pentetate.

pentetic acid (pen-tet′ik)
A pentaacetic acid triamine with affinity for heavy metals; used as the calcium sodium chelate in the treatment of iron-storage disease and poisoning from heavy metals and radioactive metals. SEE ALSO: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.

penthienate bromide (pen-thi′e-nat)
An anticholinergic agent.

pentifylline (pen-tif′i-len)
A vasodilator; has more lipid solubility than theobromine.

pentitol (pen′ti-tol)
A reduced pentose; e.g., ribitol, lyxitol, xylitol.

pentobarbital (pen-to-bar′bi-tahl)
An oral and intravenous sedative and short-acting hypnotic barbiturate; largely replaced by benzodiazepines.

pentolinium tartrate (pen-to-lin′e-um)
A quaternary ammonium compound with potent ganglionic blocking action; used in the management of severe and malignant hypertension and peripheral vasospastic diseases.

penton (pen′ton)
The pentagonal capsomere (p. base) along with the protruding fiber at each of the 12 vertices of the adenovirus capsid; antigenically, the p. base differs from the fiber, and both differ from the other (hexagonal) capsomeres.

pentosan (pen′to-san)
A poly- or oligosaccharide of a pentose; e.g., arabans, xylans.

pentose (pen′tos)
A monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms in the molecule; e.g., arabinose, lyxose, ribose, xylose, xylulose. p. nucleotide a nucleotide having a p. as the sugar component.

pentostatin (pen′to-stat′in)
An antineoplastic; a potent inhibitor of adenosine deaminase; interferes with the synthesis of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. SYN: 2-deoxycoformycin.

pentosuria (pen-to-soo′re-a)
The excretion of one or more pentoses in elevated amounts in the urine. alimentary p. the urinary excretion of l-arabinose and l-xylose, as the result of the excessive ingestion of fruits containing these pentoses. essential p. [MIM*260800] a benign heritable disorder in which the urinary output of l-xylulose is 1–4 g/24 h; it occurs principally in Ashkenazi Jewish individuals; autosomal recessive inheritance. SYN: l-xylulosuria, primary p.. primary p. SYN: essential p..

pentoxide (pen-tok′sid)
An oxide containing five oxygen atoms; e.g., phosphorus p., P2O5.

pentoxifylline (pen-toks-if′i-len)
A dimethylxanthine derivative that decreases blood viscosity and improves blood flow; used in the treatment of intermittent claudication.

pentulose (pen′tu-los)
A ketopentose; e.g., ribulose, xylulose.

pentyl (pen′til)
1. SYN: amyl. 2. The CH3(CH2)3CH2&cbond; moiety.

pentylenetetrazol (pen′ti-len-tet′ra-zol)
A powerful stimulant to the central nervous system; has been used to cause generalized convulsion in the shock treatment of emotional states and as a respiratory stimulant; mainly used in experimental studies of seizure mechanisms and the search for anticonvulsant drugs.




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