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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


perivaginitis (per′i-vaj-i-ni′tis)
Inflammation of the connective tissue around the vagina. SYN: pericolpitis.

perivascular (per′i-vas′ku-lar)
Surrounding a blood or lymph vessel. SYN: circumvascular. [peri- + L. vasculum, vessel]

perivasculitis (per′i-vas-koo-li′tis)
SYN: periangitis.

perivenous (per-i-ve′nus)
Surrounding a vein.

perivertebral (per-i-ver′te-bral)
Around a vertebra or vertebrae. SYN: perispondylic.

perivesical (per-i-ves′i-kal)
SYN: pericystic. [peri- + L. vesica, bladder]

perivisceral (per-ivis′er-al)
SYN: perisplanchnic.

perivisceritis (per′i-vis-er-i′tis)
Inflammation surrounding any viscus or viscera. [peri- + L. viscera, internal organs, + G. -itis, inflammation]

perivitelline (per′i-vi-tel′in, -in)
Surrounding the vitellus or yolk. [peri- + L. vitellus, yolk]

periwinkle (per′i-wing-kl)
SYN: Vinca rosea.

perkinism (per′kin-izm)
A form of quackery purporting to treat disease by applying metals with magnetic and magic properties.

Elisha, U.S. physician, 1741–1799. See perkinism.

perlèche (per-lesh′)
SYN: angular cheilitis. [Fr. per, intensive, + lécher, to lick]

Richard, 19th century German ophthalmologist. See P. nucleus, convergence nucleus of P..

perlingual (per-ling′gwal)
Through or by way of the tongue, denoting a method of medication. [L. per, through, + lingua, tongue]

Max, German pathologist, 1843–1881. See P. Prussian blue stain, P. test.

permanganate (per-mang′ga-nat)
A salt of permanganic acid. Formerly used in efforts (probably unsuccessful) to oxidize and thus detoxify alkaloidal poisons.

permanganic acid (per-mang-gan′ik)
An acid, HMnO4, derived from manganese, forming permanganates with bases. SEE ALSO: potassium permanganate.

permeability (per′me-a-bil′i-te)
The property of being permeable.

permeable (per′me-a-bl)
Permitting the passage of substances ( e.g., liquids, gases, heat), as through a membrane or other structure. SYN: pervious. [L. permeabilis (see permeate)]

permeant (per′me-ant)
Able to pass through a particular semipermeable membrane. [L. permeabilis (see permeate)]

permease (per′me-as)
Any of a group of membrane-bound carriers (enzymes) that effect the transport of solute through a semipermeable membrane; this term is not typically used with eukaryotes.

permeate (per′me-at)
1. To pass through a membrane or other structure, typically by diffusion. 2. That which can so pass. [L. permeo, to pass through]

permeation (per-me-a′shun)
The process of spreading through or penetrating, as the extension of a malignant neoplasm by proliferation of the cells continuously along the blood vessels or lymphatics. [L. per-meo, pp. -meatus, to pass through]

perniciosiform (per-nish′e-o′si-form)
Rarely used term meaning apparently pernicious, denoting a condition or disease that appears to be pernicious or malignant.

pernicious (per-nish′us)
Destructive; harmful; denoting a disease of severe character and usually fatal without appropriate treatment. [L. perniciosus, destructive, fr. pernicies, destruction]

perniosis (per-ne-o′sis)
SYN: chilblain. [L. pernio, chilblain, + G. -osis, condition]

Maimed, malformed. [G. peros]

perobrachius (pe-ro-bra′ke-us)
An individual with a congenital malformation of one or both hands and forearms. [pero- + G. brachion, arm]

perocephalus (pe-ro-sef′a-lus)
An individual with congenitally defective face and head. [pero- + G. kephale, head]

perochirus (pe-ro-ki′rus)
An individual with a congenital malformation of one or both hands. [pero- + G. cheir, hand]

perodactyly, perodactylia (pe-ro-dak′ti-le, -dak-til′e-a)
Congenitally malformed fingers or toes. [pero- + G. daktylos, finger or toe]

perogen (per′o-jen)
A preparation of sodium perborate that, when mixed with the accompanying catalyzer, liberates 10% of the oxygen in the salt.

peromelia, peromely (pe-ro-me′le-a, pe-rom′e-le)
Severe congenital malformations of extremities, including absence of hand or foot. [pero- + G. melos, limb]

perone (per-o′ne)
SYN: fibula. [G. p., brooch, the small bone of the arm or leg, the fibula, fr. peiro, to pierce]

peroneal (per-o-ne′al)
SYN: fibular. [L. peroneus, fr. G. perone, fibula]

peroneotibial (per′o-ne′o-tib′e-al)
SYN: tibiofibular.

peropus (pe′ro-pus)
A person with a congenital malformation of one or both feet. [pero- + G. pous, foot]

peroral (per-o′ral)
Through the mouth, denoting a method of medication or an approach. [L. per, through, + os (or-), mouth]

per os (PO)
By or through the mouth, denoting a method of medication. [L.]

perosplanchnia (pe-ro-splank′ne-a)
Congenital malformation of the viscera. [pero- + G. splanchnon, viscus]

perosseous (per-os′e-us)
Through bone. [L. per, through, + os, bone]

See peroxy-.

peroxidases (per-ok′si-das-ez) [EC subclass 1.11]
Hydrogen peroxide–reducing oxidoreductases;enzymes in animal and plant tissues that catalyze the dehydrogenation (oxidation) of various substances in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, which acts as hydrogen acceptor, being converted to water in the process. horseradish p. a p. isolated from horseradish that is used in immunohistochemistry to label the antigen-antibody complex.

peroxide (per-ok′sid)
1. That oxide of any series that contains the greatest number of oxygen atoms; applied most correctly to compounds containing an –O–O– link, as in hydrogen p. (H–O–O–H); a hydroperoxide is R–O–O–H. 2. The O22− ion. 3. Any member of a class of metallic oxides that contain the p. ion.

peroxisome (per-ok′si-som)
A membrane-bound organelle occurring in many eukaryotic cells that often has an electron-dense crystalline inclusion containing catalase, urate oxidase, and other oxidative enzymes relating to the formation and degradation of H2O2; thought to be important in detoxifying various molecules and in catalyzing the breakdown of fatty acids to acetyl-CoA; an absence of peroxisomes is found in individuals with Zellweger syndrome. [peroxide + G. soma, body]

Prefix denoting the presence of an extra O atom, as in peroxides, peroxy acids ( e.g., hydrogen peroxide, peroxyformic acid). Often shortened to per-.

peroxyacetyl nitrate (per-ok-se-a-se′til)
The major pollutant responsible for eye and nose irritation in smog.

peroxy acid (per-ok′se)
SYN: peracid.

peroxyformic acid (per-ok′se-for′mik)
SYN: performic acid.

peroxyl (per-ok′sil)
H–O–O;one of the free radicals presumed formed as a result of the bombardment of tissue by high-energy radiation.

perphenazine (per-fen′a-zen)
An antipsychotic of the phenothiazine type.

per primam (per pri′mam in-ten-she-o′nem)
By first intention. See healing by first intention. [L.]

per rectum (per rek′tum)
By or through the rectum, denoting a method of medication. [L.]

persalt (per′sawlt)
In chemistry, any salt that contains the greatest possible amount of the acid radical.

per saltum (per sal′tum)
At a leap; at one bound; not gradually or through different stages. [L.]

perseveration (per-sev-er-a′shun)
1. The constant repetition of a meaningless word or phrase. 2. The duration of a mental impression, measured by the rapidity with which one impression follows another as determined by the revolving of a two-colored disk. 3. In clinical psychology, the uncontrollable repetition of a previously appropriate or correct response, even though the repeated response has since become inappropriate or incorrect. [L. persevero, to persist]

persic oil (per′sik)
The fixed oil expressed from the kernels of varieties of Prunus armeniaca (apricot kernel oil) or Prunus persica (peach kernel oil); used as a vehicle.

persistence (per-sis′tens)
Obstinate continuation of characteristic behavior, or of existence in spite of treatment or adverse environmental conditions. [L. persisto, to abide, stand firm] lactase p. an inherited trait (autosomal dominant) in which the levels of lactase do not decline after weaning. Cf.:lactase restriction. microbial p. the phenomenon of survival, in high concentration of an antimicrobial substance, of microbes that seem not to be resistant variants (mutants) since their progeny are fully susceptible.

persister (per-sis′ter)
That which, or one who, is capable of persistence; especially a bacterium that exhibits microbial persistence.

persona (per-so′na)
A term that embodies the totality of the individual, the total constellation of the physical, psychological, and behavioral attributes of each unique individual; in jungian psychology, the outer aspect of character, as opposed to anima (2); the assumed personality used to mask the true one. [L. per, through, + sonare, to sound: from the small megaphone in ancient dramatic masks, to aid in projecting the actor's voice]

personality (per-son-al′i-te)
1. The unique self; the organized system of attitudes and behavioral predispositions by which one feels, thinks, acts, and impresses and establishes relationships with others. 2. An individual with a particular p. pattern. affective p. a chronic behavioral pattern in an enduring disturbance of feelings or mood expressed as a form of depression and related emotional features that color the whole of the psychic life. antisocial p. See psychopath, sociopath, antisocial p. disorder. SYN: psychopathic p.. asthenic p. an older term for a p. type characterized by low energy level, easy fatigability, incapacity for enjoyment, lack of enthusiasm, and oversensitivity to physical and emotional stress. SYN: asthenic p. disorder. authoritarian p. a cluster of p. traits reflecting a desire for security and order, e.g., rigidity, highly conventional outlook, unquestioning obedience, scapegoating, desire for structured lines of authority. avoidant p. SYN: avoidant p. disorder. basic p. basic p. type. borderline p. borderline p. disorder. compulsive p. SYN: obsessive-compulsive p. disorder. cyclothymic p. a p. disorder in which a person experiences regularly alternating periods of elation and depression, less severe than seen in bipolar disorder, usually not related to external circumstances. SYN: cyclothymic p. disorder. dependent p. SYN: dependent p. disorder. dual p. an older term for a mental disturbance in which a person assumes alternately two different identities without either p. being consciously aware of the other. SEE ALSO: multiple p.. hysterical p. SYN: histrionic p. disorder. inadequate p. a p. disorder, characterized by personal and social ineptness plus emotional and physical instability, that renders the individual unable to cope with the normal vicissitudes of life. masochistic p. a p. disorder in which the individual accepts exploitation and sacrifices self-interest while at the same time feeling morally superior or feigning moral superiority, attempting to elicit sympathy, and inducing guilt in others. multiple p. SYN: dissociative identity disorder. neurasthenic p. an obsolete term for a condition characterized by some of the following features: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. In its most severe form it may become a chronic disturbance of mood called dysthymia (depressive neurosis) in which a depressive mood accompanies the features listed above. obsessive p. SYN: obsessive-compulsive p. disorder. See obsessive-compulsive p., obsessive-compulsive disorder. obsessive-compulsive p. SYN: obsessive-compulsive p. disorder. paranoid p. SYN: paranoid p. disorder. passive-aggressive p. a p. disorder characterized by a pervasive and enduring pattern of behavior in which aggressive feelings are manifested in passive ways, especially through mild obstructionism and stubbornness. perfectionistic p. a p. characterized by rigidity, extreme inhibition, and excessive concern with conformity and adherence to often unique standards. psychopathic p. SYN: antisocial p.. schizoid p. SYN: schizoid p. disorder. schizotypal p. SYN: schizotypal p. disorder. shut-in p. a rarely used term for a person who responds inadequately to contacts with other people. syntonic p. a rarely used term for a stable p., one characterized by even temperament. type A p., type B p. type A behavior, type B behavior.

The product of the number of years times the number of members of a population who have been affected by a certain condition; e.g., years of treatment with a certain drug.

perspiration (pers-pi-ra′shun)
1. The excretion of fluid by the sweat glands of the skin. SYN: diaphoresis, sudation, sweating. SEE ALSO: sweat. 2. All fluid loss through normal skin, whether by sweat gland secretion or by diffusion through other skin structures. 3. The hypotonic fluid excreted by the sweat glands; it consists of water containing sodium chloride and phosphate, urea, ammonia, ethereal sulfates, creatinine, fats, and other waste products; the average daily quantity is estimated at about 1500 g. SYN: sudor. SEE ALSO: sweat (1) . [L. per-spiro, pp. -atus, to breathe everywhere] insensible p. p. that evaporates before it is perceived as moisture on the skin; the term sometimes includes evaporation from the lungs. sensible p. the p. excreted in large quantity, or when there is much humidity in the atmosphere, so that it appears as moisture (sweat) on the skin.

perstillation (per-sti-la′shun)
See pervaporation. [L. per, through, + stillo, to trickle, distil]

persuasion (per-swa′zhun)
The act of influencing the mind of another, by authority, argument, reason, or personal insight; an important element in most types of psychotherapy. [L. persuasio, fr. persuadeo, to persuade]

persulfate (per-sul′fat)
A salt of persulfuric acid.

persulfide (per-sul′fid)
1. The compound of a series of sulfides that contains more atoms of sulfur than any other. 2. The sulfur analog of a peroxide.

persulfuric acid (per-sul-fur′ik)
H2SO5; peroxymonosulfuric acid;an oxidizing agent.

pertactin (per-tak′tin)
An antigenic material produced by Bordetella pertussis used to improve the effectiveness of pertussis vaccines. [pertussis + act + -in]


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