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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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phalangeal (fa-lan′je-al)
Relating to a phalanx.

phalangectomy (fal-an-jek′to-me)
Excision of one or more of the phalanges of hand or foot. [phalang- + G. ektome, excision]

phalanges (fa-lan′jez)
Plural of phalanx. [L.]

phalanx, gen. phalangis, pl .phalanges (fa′langks, fa-langks′; fa-lan′jis; -jez) [TA]
1. [NA] One of the long bones of the digits, 14 in number for each hand or foot, two for the thumb or great toe, and three each for the other four digits; designated as proximal, middle, and distal, beginning from the metacarpus. 2. One of a number of cuticular plates, arranged in several rows, on the surface of the spiral organ (of Corti), which are the heads of the outer row of pillar cells and of phalangeal cells; between them are the free ends of the hair cells. [L. fr. G. p. (-ang-), line of soldiers, bone between two joints of the fingers and toes] distal p. of foot [TA] small, relatively flat bone of the toes underlying the nail bed, each of which bears a tuberosity on its distal plantar aspect from which connective tissue strands (skin ligaments) radiate through the pulp; the bases of the phalanges of the lateral four toes articulate proximally with the heads of middle phalanges; whereas that of the great toe articulates with a proximal p.. SYN: p. distalis pedis [TA] . distal p. of hand [TA] small, spade-shaped bone in the ends of the fingers underlying the nail bed, each of which bears a tuberosity on its distal palmar aspect from which connective tissue strands (skin ligaments) radiate through the pulp; the bases of the phalanges of the medial four fingers articulate proximally with the heads of middle phalanges; that of the thumb articulates with a proximal p.. SYN: p. distalis manus [TA] . p. distalis manus [TA] SYN: distal p. of hand. p. distalis pedis [TA] SYN: distal p. of foot. p. media pedis et manus [TA] SYN: middle phalanges of foot and hand. middle phalanges of foot and hand [TA] the small, long bone in the middle of the lateral four toes and medial four fingers, lying between and articulating with a distal and a proximal p.. SYN: p. media pedis et manus [TA] . proximal p. of foot [TA] the relatively larger bone of the toes that articulates proximally with the head of a metatarsal; those of the lateral four toes articulate distally with a middle p.; that of the great toe articulates distally with a distal p.. SYN: p. proximalis pedis [TA] . proximal p. of hand [TA] the relatively larger bone of the fingers that articulates proximally with the head of a metacarpal; those of the medial four fingers articulate distally with a middle p.; that of the thumb articulates distally with a distal p.. SYN: p. proximalis manus [TA] . p. proximalis manus [TA] SYN: proximal p. of hand. p. proximalis pedis [TA] SYN: proximal p. of foot. tufted p. one of the terminal phalanges of the fingers in acromegaly; it has an expanded extremity resembling a sheaf of wheat. ungual p. the distal p. of each of the digits; so called because of the flattened tuberosity at its termination that supports the nail.

phall-, phalli-, phallo-
The penis. [G. phallos]

phallalgia (fal-al′je-a)
SYN: phallodynia. [phall- + G. algos, pain]

phallectomy (fal-ek′to-me)
Surgical removal of the penis. SYN: penectomy. [phall- + G. ektome, excision]

phallic (fal′ik)
1. Relating to the penis. 2. In psychoanalysis, relating to the penis, especially during the phases of infantile psychosexuality. SEE ALSO: p. phase. [G. phallos, penis]

phallicism (fal′i-sizm)
Worship of the male genitalia. SYN: phallism.

phalliform (fal′i-form)
SYN: phalloid.

phallism (fal′izm)
SYN: phallicism.

phallo-
See phall-.

phallocampsis (fal-o-kamp′sis)
Curvature of the erect penis. SEE ALSO: chordee. [phallo- + G. kampsis, a bending]

phallocrypsis (fal-o-krip′sis)
Dislocation and retraction of the penis. [phallo- + G. krypsis, concealment]

phallodynia (fal-o-din′e-a)
Pain in the penis. SYN: phallalgia. [phallo- + G. odyne, pain]

phalloid (fal′oyd)
Resembling in shape a penis. SYN: phalliform. [phallo- + G. eidos, resemblance]

phalloidin (fa-loy′din)
Best known of the toxic cyclic peptides produced by the poisonous mushroom, Amanita phalloides; closely related to amanitin.

phallolysin (fa-lol′i-sin)
A glycoprotein that is the heat-sensitive (destroyed in cooking) toxin of the mushroom Amanita phalloides.

phalloncus (fal-ong′kus)
A tumor or swelling of the penis. [phallo- + G. onkos, mass]

phalloplasty (fal′o-plas-te)
Surgical reconstruction of the penis. [phallo- + G. plastos, formed]

phallotomy (fal-ot′o-me)
Surgical incision into the penis. SYN: penotomy. [phallo- + G. tome, a cutting]

phallotoxins (fal′o-toks′ins)
A class of heterodetic cyclic heptapeptides present in Amanita phalloides; together with the amatoxins, the main toxin components of this fungus.

phallus, pl .phalli (fal′us, fal′i)
SYN: penis. [L.; G. phallos]

phanero-
Visible, obvious. [G. phaneros]

phanerogenic (fan′er-o-jen′ik)
Denoting a disease, the etiology of which is manifest. Cf.:cryptogenic. [phanero- + G. genesis, origin]

phaneromania (fan′er-o-ma′ne-a)
Obsolete term for constant preoccupation with some external part, as plucking the beard, pulling the lobe of the ear, picking at a pimple, etc. [phanero- + G. mania, frenzy]

phaneroscope (fan′er-o-skop)
A lens used to concentrate the light from a lamp upon the skin, to facilitate examination of lesions of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. [phanero- + G. skopeo, to view]

phanerosis (fan-er-o′sis)
The act or process of becoming visible. [phanero- + G. osis, condition] fatty p. presumed unmasking of previously invisible fat in the cytoplasm of cells; marked fatty metamorphosis is associated with an absolute increase in the fat content of cells, so that the occurrence of p. is doubted.

phanerozoite (fan′er-o-zo′it)
An exoerythrocytic tissue stage of malaria infection other than the primary exoerythrocytic stages (cryptozoite and metacryptozoite generations); consists chiefly of reinfection of the liver by merozoites produced by a blood infection (not found in falciparum malaria). [phanero- + G. zoon, animal]

phanquone (fan′kwon)
An amebicide.

phantasia (fan-ta′ze-a)
SYN: fantasy. [G. appearance]

phantasm (fan′tazm)
The mental imagery produced by fantasy. SYN: phantom (1) . [G. phantasma, an appearance]

phantasmagoria (fan-taz-ma-gor′e-a)
A fantastic sequence of haphazardly associative imagery.

phantasmology (fan-tas-mol′o-je)
The study of spiritualistic manifestations and of apparitions. [G. phantasma, an appearance, + logos, study]

phantasmoscopia, phantasmoscopy (fan-taz-mo-sko′pe-a, -mos′ko-pe)
A rarely used term for the delusion of seeing phantoms. [G. phantasma, an appearance, + skopeo, to view]

phantom (fan′tom)
1. SYN: phantasm. 2. A model, especially a transparent one, of the human body or any of its parts. SEE ALSO: manikin. 3. In radiology, a mechanical or computer-originated model for predicting irradiation dosage deep in the body. [G. phantasma, an appearance] Schultze p. a model of a female pelvis used in demonstrating the mechanism of childbirth and the application of forceps. sensory p. a perceived sensation unrelated to or distinct from any actual stimulus, which can occur in any of the senses.

phantomize (fan′tom-iz)
In psychiatry, to create mental imagery by fantasy.

pharmacal (far′ma-kal)
SYN: pharmaceutic.

pharmaceutic, pharmaceutical (far-ma-soo′tik, soo′ti-kal)
Relating to pharmacy or to pharmaceutics. SYN: pharmacal. [G. pharmakeutikos, relating to drugs]

pharmaceutics (far-ma-soo′tiks)
1. SYN: pharmacy (1) . 2. The science of pharmaceutical systems, i.e., preparations, dosage forms, etc.

pharmaceutist (far-ma-soo′tist)
SYN: pharmacist.

pharmacist (far′ma-sist)
One who is licensed to prepare and dispense drugs and compounds and is knowledgeable concerning their properties. SYN: pharmaceutist. [G. pharmakon, a drug]

pharmaco-
Drugs. [G. pharmakon, medicine]

pharmacochemistry (far′ma-ko-kem′is-tre)
SYN: pharmaceutical chemistry.

pharmacodiagnosis (far′ma-ko-di-ag-no′sis)
Use of drugs in diagnosis.

pharmacodynamic (far′ma-ko-di-nam′ik)
Relating to drug action.

pharmacodynamics (far′ma-ko-di-nam′iks)
The study of uptake, movement, binding, and interactions of pharmacologically active molecules at their tissue site(s) of action. [pharmaco- + G. dynamis, force]

pharmacoendocrinology (far′ma-ko-en′do-krin-ol′o-je)
The pharmacology of endocrine function.

pharmacoepidemiology (far′ma-ko-ep-i-de-me- ol′o-je)
The study of the distribution and determinants of drug-related events in populations, and the application of this study to efficacious drug treatment.

pharmacogenetics (far′ma-ko-je-net′iks)
The study of genetically determined variations in responses to drugs in humans or in laboratory organisms. SYN: pharmacogenomics.

pharmacogenomics (far′ma-ko-jen-om′iks)
SYN: pharmacogenetics.

pharmacognosist (far-ma-kog′no-sist)
One skilled in pharmacognosy.

pharmacognosy (far-ma-kog′no-se)
A branch of pharmacology concerned with the physical characteristics and botanical and animal sources of crude drugs. SYN: pharmaceutical biology. [pharmaco- + G. gnosis, knowledge]

pharmacography (far-ma-kog′ra-fe)
A treatise on or description of drugs. [pharmaco- + G. graphe, description]

pharmacokinetic (far′ma-ko-ki-net′ik)
Relating to the disposition of drugs in the body ( i.e., their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination).

pharmacokinetics (far′ma-ko-ki-net′iks)
Movements of drugs within biologic systems, as affected by uptake, distribution, binding, elimination, and biotransformation; particularly the rates of such movements. [pharmaco- + G. kinesis, movement]

pharmacologic, pharmacological (far′ma-ko-loj′ik, -loj′i-kal)
1. Relating to pharmacology or to the composition, properties, and actions of drugs. 2. Sometimes used in physiology to denote a dose (of a chemical agent that either is or mimics a hormone, neurotransmitter, or other naturally occurring agent) that is so much larger or more potent than would occur naturally that it might have qualitatively different effects. Cf.:homeopathic (2) , physiologic (4) , supraphysiologic.

pharmacologist (far-ma-kol′o-jist)
A specialist in pharmacology. clinical p. a p. who has undergone training in basic pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, and one of several specialities of medical practice.

pharmacology (far-ma-kol′o-je)
The science concerned with drugs, their sources, appearance, chemistry, actions, and uses. [pharmaco- + G. logos, study] biochemical p. a branch of p. concerned with the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the actions of drugs. clinical p. the branch of p. concerned with the p. of therapeutic agents in the prevention, treatment, and control of disease in humans. marine p. a branch of p. concerned with pharmacologically active substances present in aquatic plants and animals; its objective is to find and develop new therapeutic agents.

pharmacomania (far′ma-ko-ma′ne-a)
Morbid impulse to take drugs. [pharmaco- + G. mania, frenzy]

Pharmacopeia, Pharmacopoeia (far′ma-ko-pe′a)
A work containing monographs of therapeutic agents, standards for their strength and purity, and their formulations. The various national pharmacopeias are referred to by abbreviations, of which the following are the most frequently encountered: USP, the P. of the United States of America (United States P.); BP, British Pharmacopoeia; Codex medicamentarius, the French P.; I.C. Add. (or BA), the Indian and Colonial Addendum to the BP; IP, International P.; P. Austr., the Austrian P.; Ph.G., the German P. (D.A.B.); P. Helv., the Swiss P.. The first edition of the USP was compiled in 1820 and was made a legal standard by the terms of the National Food and Drugs Act in January, 1907. [G. pharmakopoiia, fr. pharmakon, a medicine, + poieo, to make]

pharmacopeial (far′ma-ko-pe′al)
Relating to the Pharmacopeia; denoting a drug in the list of the Pharmacopeia. SEE ALSO: official.

pharmacophilia (far′ma-ko-fil′e-a)
Morbid fondness for taking drugs. [pharmaco- + G. phileo, to love]

pharmacophobia (far′ma-ko-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of taking drugs. [pharmaco- + G. phobos, fear]

pharmacopsychosis (far′ma-ko-si-ko′sis)
Rarely used term for a psychosis causally related to taking a drug. [pharmaco- + psychosis]

pharmacotherapy (far′ma-ko-thar′a-pe)
Treatment of disease by means of drugs. SEE ALSO: chemotherapy. [pharmaco- + G. therapeia, therapy]

pharmacy (far′ma-se)
1. The practice of preparing and dispensing drugs. SYN: pharmaceutics (1) . 2. A drugstore. [G. pharmakon, drug] clinical p. a branch of p. practice that emphasizes the therapeutic use of drugs rather than the preparation and dispensing of drugs.

Pharm. D.
Abbreviation for Doctor of Pharmacy.

pharyng-
See pharyngo-.

pharyngeal (fa-rin′je-al)
Relating to the pharynx. SYN: pharyngeus. [Mod. L. pharyngeus]




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