|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
phenylglycolic acid (fen′il-gli-kol′ik)
SYN: mandelic acid.
phenylisothiocyanate (PITC, PhNCS) (fen′il-i′so-thi-o-si′a-nat)
A reagent that condenses with the free N-terminal amino group of a peptide chain to form a phenylthiohydantoin in the Edman method of identifying N-terminal amino acids. SYN: Edman reagent.
phenylketonuria (PKU) (fen′il-ke′to-noo′re-a)
Autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of metabolism of phenylalanine characterized by deficiency of 1) phenylalanine hydroxylase [MIM*261600] caused by mutation in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) on 12q; 2) occasionally, dihydropteridine reductase [MIM*261630], caused by mutation in the dihydropteridine reductase gene (DHPR) on 4p; 3) rarely, dihydrobiopterin synthetase [MIM*261640], caused by mutation in the pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin synthase gene (PTS) on 11q; or 4) even more rarely, guanidine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 [MIM*233910]. The disorder is characterized by inadequate formation of l-tyrosine, elevation of serum l-phenylalanine, urinary excretion of phenylpyruvic acid and other derivatives, and accumulation of phenylalanine and its metabolites, which can produce brain damage resulting in severe mental retardation, often with seizures, other neurologic abnormalities such as retarded myelination and deficient melanin formation leading to hypopigmentation of the skin and eczema. Cf.:hyperphenylalaninemia. SYN: Folling disease, phenylpyruvate oligophrenia. [phenyl + ketone + G. ouron, urine] nonclassical p. SYN: malignant hyperphenylalaninemia.
phenyllactic acid (fen-il-lak′tik)
A product of phenylalanine catabolism, appearing prominently in the urine in individuals with phenylketonuria.
phenylmercuric acetate (fen′il-mer-ku′rik)
A bacteriostatic preservative, fungicide, and herbicide (especially for crabgrass).
A mixture of p. and phenylmercuric hydroxide; an antiseptic used for the prophylactic disinfection of the intact skin or of minor wounds.
A sympathomimetic amine, used as a nasal decongestant, bronchodilator, and appetite suppressant.
phenylpyruvic acid (fen′il-pi-roo′vik)
The transaminated product of the action of phenylalanine aminotransferase; elevated in the urine in individuals with phenylketonuria.
See p. peptide.
phenylthiohydantoin (PTH) (fen′il-thi′o-hi-dan′to-in)
The compound formed from an amino acid in the Edman method of protein degradation, in which phenylisothiocyanate reacts with the amino moiety of the N-terminal amino acid to form a phenylthiocarbamoyl peptide or protein, on which weak acids act to release the p. containing the N-terminal amino acid.
phenylthiourea (fen′il-thi′o-u-re′a) [MIM*171200]
A substance that tastes bitter to some persons but is tasteless to others. The ability to taste it is thought to be an autosomal dominant trait. P. contains the N–C&dbond;S group upon which the taste peculiarity apparently depends; goitrogenic or antithyroid substances ( e.g., thiourea and thiouracil), which also contain this group, possess the same property with respect to taste. SYN: phenylthiocarbamide.
phenyltrimethylammonium (PTMA) (fen′il-tri-meth′il-a-mo′ne-um)
A highly selective stimulant of the motor endplates of skeletal muscle.
phenyramidol hydrochloride (fen-i-ram′i-dol)
An analgesic and a muscle relaxant.
An anticonvulsant used in the treatment of generalized tonic clonic and complex partial epilepsy. Also available as p. sodium, with the same uses as p.. SYN: 5,5-diphenylhydantoin.
1. Prefix denoting the same substituents on a phorbin or phorbide (porphyrin) residue as are present in chlorophyll, excluding any ester residues and Mg. 2. Combining form meaning gray, dark-colored. [G. phaios, dusky]
1. SYN: chromaffin. 2. Staining darkly with chromic salts. [G. phaios, dusky, + chroma, color]
A primitive chromaffin cell that, with sympathetoblasts, enters into the formation of the adrenal gland. [G. phaios, dusky, + chroma, color, + blastos, germ]
A chromaffin cell of a sympathetic paraganglion, medulla of an adrenal gland, or a pheochromocytoma. [pheochrome + G. kytos, cell]
A functional chromaffinoma, usually benign, derived from adrenal medullary tissue cells and characterized by the secretion of catecholamines, resulting in hypertension, which may be paroxysmal and associated with attacks of palpitation, headache, nausea, dyspnea, anxiety, pallor, and profuse sweating. P. is often hereditary, not only in phacomas such as Hippel-Lindau disease, neurofibromatosis, and familial endocrine neoplasia, but also as an isolated defect [MIM*171300] as an autosomal dominant trait. SEE ALSO: paraganglioma.
A type of melanin found in red hair; it contains sulfur and is alkali-soluble; elevated levels are found in the rufous type of oculocutaneous albinism. Cf.:eumelanin. [G. phaios, dusky, + melos (melan-), black]
The formation of pheomelanin by living cells.
A spherical melanosome of pheomelanin in red hair.
A procedure in which blood is removed from a donor, separated, and a portion retained, with the remainder returned to the donor. SEE ALSO: leukapheresis, plateletpheresis, plasmapheresis. [G. aphairesis, a taking away, a withdrawal]
A type of ectohormone secreted by an individual and perceived by a second individual of the same or similar species, thereby producing a change in the sexual or social behavior of that individual. Cf.:allelochemicals, allomones, kairomones. [G. phero, to carry, + hormao, to excite, stimulate]
1. Abbreviation for Pharmacopoeia Germanica; German Pharmacopoeia. 2. Abbreviation for Graduate in Pharmacy, a degree no longer offered in the U.S.
phi (φ, Φ) (fi)
1. The 21st letter of the Greek alphabet. 2. (&Uphi;) Symbol for phenyl; potential energy; magnetic flux. 3. (&p.;) Symbol for plane angle; volume fraction; quantum yield; the dihedral angle of rotation about the N–Cα bond associated with a peptide bond.
SYN: vial. [G. phiale, a broad flat vessel]
In fungi, a conidiogenous cell in which the meristematic end remains unchanged as successive conidia are extruded out to form chains. [G. phiale, a broad, flat vessel]
phialoconidium, pl .phialoconidia (fi′a-lo-ko-nid′e-um, fi′a-lo-ko-nid′e-a)
A conidium produced by a phialide.
A genus of fungi of which at least two species, P. verrucosa and P. dermatitidis (Exophiala dermatitides), cause chromoblastomycosis. [G. phiale, a broad, flat vessel, + phoreo, to carry]
-phil, -phile, -philic, -philia
Affinity for, craving for. SEE ALSO: philo-. [G. philos, fond, loving; phileo, to love]
philiater (fil′e-a′ter, fi-li′a-ter)
Rarely used term for one interested in the study of medicine. [G. philos, fond, + iatreia, practice of medicine]
Sir Robert W., Scottish physician, 1857–1939. See P. glands, under gland.
Claudien, French pathologist, 1866–1903. See P. triangle.
Charles, French urologist, 1809–1871. See P. catheter.
See under reflex.
See -phil. [G. philos, fond, loving; phileo, to love]
Rarely used term for a morbid impulse to imitate or mimic. [philo- + G. mimesis, imitation]
Philopia casei (fil-o′pe-a ka′se-i)
A species that may cause temporary intestinal myiasis. SYN: cheese maggot.
1. Procreative, producing offspring. 2. In psychiatry, an obsolete term for pedophilia. [philo- + L. progenies, offspring, progeny]
philtrum, pl .philtra (fil′trum, -tra) [TA]
1. A philter or love potion. 2. [NA] The infranasal depression; the groove in the midline of the upper lip. [L., fr. G. philtron, a love-charm, depression on upper lip, fr. phileo, to love]
phimosis, pl .phimoses (fi-mo′sis, -sez)
Narrowness of the opening of the prepuce, preventing its being drawn back over the glans. [G. a muzzling, fr. phimos, a muzzle] p. clitoridis agglutination of the clitoral folds. p. vaginalis narrowness of the vagina.
Pertaining to phimosis.
Pain originating in a vein. [phlebo- + G. algos, pain]
Vasodilation of the veins. SYN: venectasia. [phlebo- + G. ektasis, a stretching]
Excision of a segment of a vein, performed sometimes for the cure of varicose veins. SEE ALSO: strip (2) . SYN: venectomy. [phlebo- + G. ektome, excision]
Pathologic dilation (varix) of a vein. [phlebo- + G. eurys, wide]
Relating to phlebitis.
Inflammation of a vein. [phlebo- + G. -itis, inflammation] adhesive p. a form of p. in which the walls adhere, leading to obliteration of the vessel. p. nodularis necrotisans obsolete term for p. in which tuberculous nodules are formed in the skin; the lesions spread peripherally and undergo central necrosis. septic p. inflammation of a vein due to infection.
Vein [G. phleps]
Intravenous injection of an isotonic solution of dextrose or other substances in quantity. SYN: venoclysis. [phlebo- + G. klysis, a washing out] drip p. intravenous injection of a liquid drop by drop, by the drip method.
Laws and principles governing blood pressures and flow within the venous circulation. [phlebo- + G. dynamis, force]
A tracing of the jugular or other venous pulse. SYN: venogram (2) . [phlebo- + G. gramma, something written]
A venous sphygmograph; an instrument for making a tracing of the venous pulse. [phlebo- + G. grapho, to write]
1. The recording of the venous pulse. 2. SYN: venography. [phlebo- + G. graphe, a writing]
1. Resembling a vein. 2. SYN: venous. 3. Containing many veins. [phlebo- + G. eidos, resemblance]
A calcific deposit in a venous wall or thrombus; commonly seen on abdominal radiographs in the lower pelvic region. SYN: phlebolite, vein stone. [phlebo- + G. lithos, stone]
The formation of phleboliths.
The branch of medical science concerned with the anatomy and diseases of the veins. [phlebo- + G. logos, study]
A manometer for measuring venous blood pressure.
Inflammation of the uterine veins. [phlebo- + G. metra, uterus, + -itis, inflammation]
Thickening of the walls of a vein by an overgrowth of muscular fibers arranged irregularly, intersecting each other without any definite relation to the axis of the vessel. [phlebo- + myoma + G. -osis, condition]
Repair of a vein. [phlebo- + G. plastos, formed]
Suture of a vein. [phlebo- + G. rhaphe, seam]
Fibrous hardening of the walls of the veins. SYN: venofibrosis, venosclerosis. [phlebo- + G. sklerosis, hardening]
1. Abnormally slow motion of blood in veins, usually with venous distention. 2. Treatment of congestive heart failure by compressing proximal veins of the extremities with tourniquets. SYN: bloodless phlebotomy. SYN: venostasis. [phlebo- + G. stasis, a standing still]
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