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Medical Dictionary


physiognosis (fiz-e-og-no′sis)
Diagnosis of disease based upon a study of the facial appearance or bodily habitus. [physio- + G. gnosis, knowledge]

physiologic, physiological (fiz-e-o-loj′ik, -loj′i-kal)
1. Relating to physiology. 2. Normal, as opposed to pathologic; denoting the various vital processes. 3. Denoting something that is apparent from its functional effects rather than from its anatomical structure; e.g., a p. sphincter. 4. Denoting a dose or the effects of such a dose (of a chemical agent that either is or mimics a hormone, neurotransmitter, or other naturally occurring agent) that is within the range of concentrations or potencies that would occur naturally. Cf.:homeopathic (2) , pharmacologic (2) , supraphysiologic.

physiologicoanatomical (fiz′e-o-loj′i-ko-an-a-tom′i-kal)
Relating to both physiology and anatomy.

physiologist (fiz-e-ol′o-jist)
A specialist in physiology.

physiology (fiz-e-ol′o-je)
The science concerned with the normal vital processes of animal and vegetable organisms, especially as to how things normally function in the living organism rather than to their anatomical structure, their biochemical composition, or how they are affected by drugs or disease. [L. or G. physiologia, fr. G. physis, nature, + logos, study] comparative p. the science concerned with the differences in the vital processes in different species of organisms, particularly with a view to the adaptation of the processes to the specific needs of the species, to illuminating the evolutionary relationships among different species, or to establishing other interspecific generalizations and relationships. general p. the science of the functions or vital processes common to almost all living things, whether animal or plant, as opposed to aspects of p. peculiar to particular types of animals or plants, or to the application of p. to applied sciences such as medicine and agriculture. hominal p. p. as applied to the elucidation of the normal functions of the human being. pathologic p. that part of the science of disease concerned with disordered function, as distinguished from anatomical lesions. SYN: physiopathology.

physiopathologic (fiz′e-o-path-o-loj′ik)
Relating to pathologic physiology.

physiopathology (fiz′e-o-pa-thol′o-je)
SYN: pathologic physiology.

physiopsychic (fiz′e-o-si′kik)
Pertaining to both mind and body.

physiopyrexia (fiz′e-o-pi-rek′se-a)
Fever produced by a physical agent. [physio- + G. pyrexis, feverishness]

physiotherapeutic (fiz′e-o-thar-a-pu′tik)
Pertaining to physical therapy.

physiotherapist (fiz′e-o-thar′a-pist)
A physical therapist. See physical therapy (2) .

physiotherapy (fiz′e-o-thar′a-pe)
SYN: physical therapy (1) . [physio- + G. therapeia, treatment] oral p. the use of a toothbrush, interdental stimulator, floss, irrigating device, or other adjunctive aid to maintain oral health.

physique (fi-zek′)
constitutional type;the physical or bodily structure; the “build.” [Fr.]

physis (fi′sis)
A term sometimes used in referring to the epiphysial cartilage. [G. growth]

1. Tendency to swell or inflate. 2. Relation to air or gas. [G. physao, to inflate, distend]

physocele (fi′so-sel)
1. A circumscribed swelling due to the presence of gas. 2. A hernial sac distended with gas. [physo- + G. kele, tumor, hernia]

Physocephalus sexalatus (fi′so-sef′a-lus sek′sa-la′tus)
A small species of spiruroid nematodes (family Spiruridae) found in the stomach of pigs, horses, camels, rabbits, and hares; worldwide in distribution, and especially prevalent in hogs. [G. physa, bellows, + kephale, head]

physocephaly (fi-so-sef′a-le)
Swelling of the head resulting from introduction of air into the subcutaneous tissues. [physo- + G. kephale, head]

physometra (fi-so-me′tra)
Distention of the uterine cavity with air or gas. SYN: uterine tympanites. [physo- + G. metra, uterus]

Physopsis (fi-sop′sis)
A subgenus of the genus Bulinus, most species of which transmit the human blood fluke, Schistosoma haematobium, and some animal schistosomes in Africa south of the Sahara. [G. physis, growth, + opsis, aspect, appearance]

physopyosalpinx (fi′so-pi-o-sal′pingks)
Pyosalpinx accompanied by a formation of gas in a uterine tube. [physo- + G. pyon, pus, + salpinx, trumpet]

physostigma (fi-so-stig′ma)
The dried seed of P. venenosum (family Leguminosae), a vine of western Africa; it contains the alkaloids physostigmine (eserine), eseramine, eseridine (geneserine) and physovenine; in toxic doses it causes vomiting, colic, salivation, diarrhea, convulsions, sweating, dyspnea, vertigo, slow pulse, and extreme prostration. SYN: Calabar bean, ordeal bean. [G. physa, bellows, + stigma, a mark, spot; so called because of the shape of the stigma]

physostigmine (fi-so-stig′men, -min)
An alkaloid of physostigma; it is a reversible inhibitor of the cholinesterases, and prevents destruction of acetylcholine; used as a cholinergic agent, and experimentally to enhance the action of acetylcholine at any of its sites of liberation. SYN: eserine. p. salicylate used by conjunctival instillation to reduce tension in glaucoma, in the treatment of postoperative intestinal atony and urinary retention, in the management of myasthenia gravis, and to counteract excessive doses of tubocurarine; also available as p. sulfate, with the same uses. SYN: eserine salicylate.

See phyto-.

phytanate (fi′tan-at)
The anion of phytanic acid. p. α-oxidase an enzyme that oxidizes phytanic acid, removing the carboxyl group.

phytanic acid (fi-tan′ik)
A branched-chain fatty acid that accumulates in the serum and tissues in Refsum disease and attributed to the hereditary absence of phytanate α-oxidase; arises from phytol and acts as an inhibitor of the α-oxidation of palmitic (hexadecanoic) acid; it also accumulates in a number of other disorders, notably peroxisomal disorders.

6-phytase (fi′tas)
Phytate 6-phosphate;an enzyme-hydrolyzing phytic acid, removing the 6-phosphoric group, thus producing orthophosphate and 1l-myo-1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate.

phytate (fi′tat)
A salt or ester of phytic acid.

phytic acid (fi′tik)
The hexakisphosphoric ester of myo-inositol; the mixed salt with magnesium and calcium is phytin.

phytin (fi′tin)
The calcium magnesium salt of phytic acid; a dietary supplement used to provide calcium, organic phosphorus, and myo-inositol.

phyto-, phyt-
Plants. [G. phyton, a plant]

phytoagglutinin (fi′to-a-gloo′ti-nin)
A lectin that causes agglutination of erythrocytes or of leukocytes.

phytobezoar (fi-to-be′zor)
A gastric concretion formed of vegetable fibers, with the seeds and skins of fruits, and sometimes starch granules and fat globules. SYN: food ball. [phyto- + bezoar]

phytochemistry (fi-to-kem′is-tre)
The biochemical study of plants; concerned with the identification, biosynthesis, and metabolism of chemical constituents of plants; especially used in regard to natural products.

phytodermatitis (fi′to-der-ma-ti′tis)
Dermatitis caused by various mechanisms, including mechanical and chemical injury, allergy, or photosensitization (phytophotodermatitis) at skin sites previously exposed to plants.

Phytoflagellata (fi′to-flaj-e-la′ta)
A subclass of Phytomastigophorea, the members of which have yellow or green chromatophores. [phyto- + L. flagellum, a whip]

phytohemagglutinin (PHA) (fi′to-hem-a-gloo′ti-nin)
A phytomitogen from plants that agglutinates red blood cells. The term is commonly used specifically to refer to the lectin obtained from the red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), which is also a mitogen that stimulates T lymphocytes more vigorously than B lymphocytes. SYN: phytolectin.

phytoid (fi′toyd)
Resembling a plant; denoting an animal having many of the biologic characteristics of a vegetable. [G. phytodes, fr. phyton, plant, + eidos, resemblance]

phytol (fi′tol)
An unsaturated primary alcohol derived from the hydrolysis of chlorophyll; a constituent of vitamins E and K1. SYN: phytyl alcohol.

phytolectin (fi-to-lek′tin)
SYN: phytohemagglutinin.

Phytomastigina (fi′to-mas-ti-ji′na)
Former term for plant-like flagellates, originally classified as a suborder or order, raised to the class Phytomastigophorea (Phytomastigophorasida) in recent classifications. [phyto- + G. mastix, whip]

Phytomastigophorasida (fi′to-mas′ti-go-fo-ras′i-da)
SYN: Phytomastigophorea.

Phytomastigophorea (fi′to-mas′ti-gof-o-re′a)
A class of the subphylum Mastigophora (flagellates) within the phylum Sarcomastigophora (flagellate and ameboid protozoans), consisting mostly of free-living plantlike flagellates with or without chloroplasts, and usually with one or two flagella. Cf.:Zoomastigophorea. SYN: Phytomastigophorasida. [phyto- + G. mastix, whip, + phoros, bearing]

phytomenadione (fi′to-men-a-di′on)
SYN: phylloquinone.

phytomitogen (fi-to-mi′to-jen)
A mitogenic lectin causing lymphocyte transformation accompanied by mitotic proliferation of the resulting blast cells identical to that produced by antigenic stimulation; e.g., phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A.

phytonadione (fi′to-na-di′on)
SYN: phylloquinone.

phytophagous (fi-tof′a-gus)
Plant-eating; vegetarian. [phyto- + G. phago, to eat]

phytophotodermatitis (fi′to-fo′to-der-ma-ti′tis)
Phytodermatitis resulting from photosensitization.

phytopneumoconiosis (fi′to-noo′mo-ko-ne-o′sis)
A chronic fibrous reaction in the lungs due to the inhalation of particles of vegetable origin. [phyto- + pneumoconiosis]

phytoporphyrin (fi-to-por′fi-rin)
1. A porphyrin similar to the pheophorbide of the chlorophylls but with the vinyl group replaced by an ethyl group, with no methoxycarbonyl group, and minus two hydrogen atoms, producing one more double bond in ring D. 2. Any plant porphyrin.

phytosis (fi-to-sis)
A disease process caused by infection with a vegetable organism, such as a fungus.

phytosphingosine (fi-to-sfing′go-sen, -sin)
A sphingosine derivative isolated from various plants.

phytosterol (fi-to-ster′ol)
Generic term for the sterols of plants.

phytosterolemia (fi-to-ster′ol-e-me-a)
An inherited disorder in which there is a hyperabsorption of phytosterols and shellfish sterols resulting in tendon and tuberous xanthomata. SYN: sitosterolemia.

phytotoxic (fi-to-tok′sik)
1. Poisonous to plant life. 2. Pertaining to a phytotoxin.

phytotoxin (fi-to-tok′sin)
A toxic substance of plant origin. SYN: plant toxin. [phyto- + G. toxikon, poison]

phytotrichobezoar (fi′to-trik′o-be′zor)
SYN: trichophytobezoar.

phytyl (fi′til)
The radical found in phylloquinone (vitamin K1); a tetraprenyl radical, reduced in 3 of the 4 prenyl groups.

phytyl alcohol
SYN: phytol.

Abbreviation for Periodontal Index.

Abbreviation for inorganic phosphate.

The pH value for the isoelectric point of a given substance.

pi (π, Π) (pi)
1. The 16th letter of the Greek alphabet. 2. (&Upi;). Symbol for osmotic pressure; in mathematics, symbol for the product of a series. 3. (&p.;). Symbol for the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter (approximately 3.14159). 4. Symbol for pros.

pia (pi′a, pe′a)
SYN: p. mater. [L. fem. of pius, tender]

pia-arachnitis (pi′a-a-rak-ni′tis)
SYN: leptomeningitis.

pia-arachnoid (pi′a-a-rak′noyd, pe′a-)
SYN: leptomeninx.

pial (pi′al, pe′al)
Relating to the pia mater.

pia mater (pi′a ma′ter, pe′a mah′ter) [TA]
A delicate vasculated fibrous membrane firmly adherent to the glial capsule of the brain (p. cranialis [TA]) and spinal cord (p. spinalis [TA] or membrana limitans gliae); following exactly the outer markings of the cerebrum and also the ependymal lining circumference of the choroid membranes and plexus, it invests the cerebellum but not so intimately as it does the cerebrum, not dipping down into all the smaller sulci. The p. and the arachnoid are collectively called leptomenin [TA], as distinguished from dura mater or pachymeninx. SYN: pia. [L. tender, affectionate mother]

pian (pe-an′, pi′an)
SYN: yaws. p. bois a form of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis guyanensis in the Amazon delta; a small proportion of cases are said to metastasize to the nasal mucosa with espundia-like involvement. SYN: bosch yaws, bush yaws.

piarachnoid (pi′a-rak′noyd)
SYN: leptomeninx.

piblokto, pibloktog (pib-lok′to)
A hysterical dissociative state, usually occurring in Innit women, in which the individual screams, tears off clothes, and runs out into the snow; afterward, there is no memory of the episode. [Native]

pica (pi′ka, pe′ka)
A perverted appetite for substances not fit as food or of no nutritional value; e.g., clay, dried paint, starch, ice. [L. p., magpie]

Luigi, late 19th century Italian physician. See P. syndrome.

Arnold, Czechoslovakian psychiatrist, 1851–1924. See P. atrophy, P. bundle, P. disease.

Friedel, German physician, 1867–1926. See P. bodies, under body, P. disease, P. syndrome.

Ludwig, German physician, 1868–1935. See P. cell, Niemann-P. cell, Niemann-P. disease.

William, British general practitioner, researcher in transmission of infections in isolated communities, 1885–1969. See P. chart.

pickling (pik′ling)
In dentistry, the process of cleansing metallic surfaces of the products of oxidation and other impurities by immersion in acid.

Frederick A., *1889. See Lepehne-P. stain.

1. Combining form meaning small. 2. (p) Prefix used in the SI and metric system to signify submultiples of one-trillionth (10−12). SYN: bicro-. [It. piccolo]

picogram (pg) (pi′ko-gram, pe′ko-gram)
One-trillionth of a gram.


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