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Medical Dictionary


plicotomy (pli-kot′o-me)
Division of the posterior malleolar fold. [plica + G. tome, incision]

Multiple in form; its combinations are used both adjectivally and substantively of a (specified) multiple of chromosomes. [G. -plo-, -fold, + -ides, in form; L. -ploïdeus]

ploidy (ploy′de)
The number of haploid sets in a cell. Gametes normally contain one; somatic cells two. SEE ALSO: polyploidy. [-ploid + -y, condition]

plombage (plom-bahzh′)
Formerly, the use of an inert material in collapse of the lung in the surgical treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. [Fr. lit. lead-work]

plosive (plo′siv)
Speech sound made by impounding the air stream for a moment and then suddenly releasing it.

plot (plot)
A graphical representation. double-reciprocal p. a graphic representation of enzyme kinetic data in which 1/v (on the vertical axis), where v is the initial velocity, is plotted as a function of the reciprocal of the substrate concentration (1/[S]). SYN: Lineweaver-Burk p., Woolf-Lineweaver-Burk p.. Eadie-Hofstee p. a graphic representation of enzyme kinetic data in which velocities, v, are plotted on the vertical axis as a function of the v/[S] ratio on the horizontal axis. On occasion, these axes are reversed. Sometimes referred to as the Eadie-Augustinsson p. or Woolf-Eadie-Augustinsson-Hofstee p.. funnel p. a graphic method of detecting publication bias. The estimate of risk derived from a set of epidemiologic studies used in a metaanalysis is plotted against sample size. If there is no publication bias, the p. is funnel-shaped; if studies giving significant results are more likely to be published than negative studies, the p. is asymmetric. SEE ALSO: metaanalysis. Hanes p. a graphic representation of enzyme kinetic data in which the substrate concentration divided by the velocity ( i.e., the [S]/v ratio) is plotted on the vertical axis as a function of [S]. Sometimes referred to as the Hanes-Wilkinson p.. Hill p. a graphic representation of enzyme kinetic data or of binding phenomena to assess the degree of cooperativity of a system; the vertical axis in a Hill p. is log [Y/(1 − Y)], in which Y is the degree of saturation (for enzymes, the vertical axis is log [v/(Vmax − v)], where v is the initial velocity and Vmax is the maximum velocity, and the horizontal axis is the logarithm of the ligand concentration. Lineweaver-Burk p. SYN: double-reciprocal p.. Ramachandran p. a graphic representation in which the dihedral angle of rotation about the α-carbon-to-carbonyl-carbon bond in polypeptides is plotted against the dihedral angle of rotation about the α-carbon-to-nitrogen bond. SYN: conformational map. Scatchard p. 1. a graphic representation used in the analysis of binding phenomena in which the concentration of bound ligand divided by the concentration of free ligand is plotted against the concentration of bound ligand; 2. similar to (1), except the concentration of the bound ligand is on the vertical axis. Woolf-Lineweaver-Burk p. SYN: double-reciprocal p..

Abbreviation for pyridoxal 5-phosphate; parathyroid hormonelike protein.

plug (plug)
Any mass filling a hole or closing an orifice. Dittrich plugs minute, dirty-grayish, ill-smelling masses of bacteria and fatty acid crystals in the sputum in pulmonary gangrene and fetid bronchitis. SYN: Traube plugs. epithelial p. a mass of epithelial cells temporarily occluding an embryonic opening; the term is most commonly used with reference to the external nares. laminated epithelial p. SYN: keratosis obturans. meconium p. a p. of thick, inspissated meconium that may cause intestinal obstruction. mucous p. a mass of mucus and cells filling the cervical canal between periods or during pregnancy; a mass of mucous occluding a main or lobar bronchus. Traube plugs SYN: Dittrich plugs.

A dental instrument used for condensing gold (foil), amalgam, or any plastic material in a cavity; operated by hand or by mechanical means. SYN: packer (2) , plugging instrument. automatic p. a mechanically or electrically activated device used to provide condensing pressure in the placement of amalgam or gold foil in a cavity preparation. SYN: automatic condenser. back-action p. an instrument for condensing gold foil or amalgam in areas that cannot be reached directly. foot p. a p. the shape of which resembles a foot, used for condensing gold foil; the working surface may be flat or curved in the heel-toe direction. root canal p. fine-tapered root canal instrument, blunt at the tip, used for pressing or forcing a gutta percha cone into a root canal.

plumbago (plum-ba′go)
SYN: graphite. [L. p., black lead]

plumbic (plum′bik)
1. Relating to or containing lead. 2. Denoting the higher valence of the lead ion, Pb4+. [L. plumbum, lead]

plumbism (plum′bizm)
SYN: lead poisoning. [L. plumbum, lead]

plumbum (plum′bum)
SYN: lead. [L.]

Henry S., U.S. physician, 1874–1937. See P. disease, P.-Vinson syndrome.

plumose (ploo′mos)
Feathery. [L. pluma, feather]

Several, more. SEE ALSO: multi-, poly-. [L. plus, pluris]

pluricausal (ploor-i-kaw′zal)
Having two or more causes; used in reference to the etiology of a disease; often indicates that a given disease develops only when two or more causative factors are operative simultaneously.

pluriglandular (ploo-ri-glan′doo-lar)
Denoting several glands or their secretions. SYN: multiglandular, polyglandular.

plurilocular (ploo-ri-lok′u-lar)
SYN: multilocular.

plurinuclear (ploo-ri-noo′kle-ar)
SYN: multinuclear.

pluripotent, pluripotential (ploo-rip′o-tent, ploo′re-po-ten′shal)
1. Having the capacity to affect more than one organ or tissue. 2. Not fixed as to potential development. SEE ALSO: p. cells, under cell.

pluriresistant (ploo′ri-re-sis′tant)
Having multiple aspects of resistance.

plutomania (ploo-to-ma′ne-a)
A delusion that one has great wealth. [G. ploutos, wealth, + mania, frenzy]

plutonism (ploo′ton-izm)
Effects produced, as demonstrated in experimental animals, by means of exposure to the radioactive element plutonium present in atomic piles; they consist of hepatic damage, bone changes, and graying of the hair.

plutonium (Pu) (ploo-to′ne-um)
A transuranium artificial radioactive element, atomic no. 94, atomic wt. 244.064. The best-known α-emitting isotope is 239Pu (half-life 24,110 years) which, like 235U, is fissionable and can be used in atomic bombs and nuclear power plants; 238Pu (half-life 87.74 years) is used as an energy source in pacemakers. Pu ions are bone-seekers; ingestion is a radiation hazard, as with radium and radiostrontium. [planet, Pluto]

Symbol for promethium.

Abbreviation for picomolar (10−12 M).

Symbol for picometer.

P mitrale (mi-tra′le)
Broad, notched P waves in several or many leads of the electrocardiogram with a prominent late negative component to the P wave in lead V1, presumed to be characteristic of mitral valvular disease. (Although this term is extensively used in electrocardiographic literature, it is actually a misnomer and would be more appropriately called P-sinistrocardiale, as it results from overload of the left atrium regardless of the cause and may occur independently of disease of the mitral valve.)

Abbreviation for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

Abbreviation for picomole.

Abbreviation for proportional mortality ratio.

Abbreviation for premenstrual syndrome.

Breath, respiration. [G. pneo, to breathe]

Combining form denoting breath or respiration. SEE ALSO: pneum-, pneumo-. [G. pneo, to breathe]

pneum-, pneuma-, pneumat-, pneumato-
Presence of air or gas, the lungs, or breathing. SEE ALSO: pneo-, pneumo-. [G. pneuma, pneumatos, air, breath]

pneuma (noo′ma)
In ancient Greek philosophy and medicine: 1. Air or an all-pervading fiery essence in the air (which today would be identified with oxygen), which was the creative and animating spirit of the universe; drawn into the body through the lungs, it generated and sustained the innate heat in the left ventricle of the heart and was distributed by the arteries to the brain and all parts of the body. 2. Soul or psyche. [G. p., air, breath]

pneumarthrogram (noo-marth′ro-gram)
Film records of pneumarthrography.

pneumarthrography (noo-marth-rog′ra-fe)
Radiographic examination of a joint following the introduction of air, with or without another contrast medium.

pneumarthrosis (noo-mar-thro′sis)
Presence of air in a joint. [G. pneuma, air, + arthron, joint, + -osis, condition]

pneumatic (noo-mat′ik)
1. Relating to air or gas, or to a structure filled with air. 2. Relating to respiration. [G. pneumatikos]

pneumatic antishock garment
An inflatable suit used to apply pressure to the peripheral circulation, thus reducing blood flow and fluid exudation into tissues, to maintain central blood flow in the presence of shock. SYN: military antishock trousers.

pneumatics (noo-mat′iks)
The science concerned with the physical properties of air or gases. [G. pneuma, air or gas]

pneumatism (noo′ma-tizm)
The doctrine of the pneumatists.

pneumatists (noo′ma-tists)
Followers of the school whose physiology centered on the pneuma and who conceived the causes of disease as disturbances of this vital principle.

pneumatization (noo′ma-ti-za′shun)
The development of air cells such as those of the mastoid and ethmoidal bones. [G. pneuma, air]

pneumatized (noo′ma-tizd)
Containing air.

See pneum-.

pneumatocardia (noo′ma-to-kar′de-a)
Presence of air bubbles or gas in the blood of the heart; produced by air embolism.

pneumatocele (noo′mat′o-sel)
1. An emphysematous or gaseous swelling. 2. SYN: pneumonocele. 3. A thin-walled cavity within the lung, one of the characteristic sequelae of staphylococcus pneumonia and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. [G. pneuma, air, + kele, tumor, hernia] extracranial p. collection of gas beneath the galea aponeurotica, usually due to fracture into the paranasal sinuses. SYN: extracranial pneumocele. intracranial p. a collection of gas within the skull, in the brain, or in the meninges. SYN: intracranial pneumocele.

SYN: celomic bay.

pneumatohemia (noo′ma-to-he′me-a)
SYN: pneumohemia.

pneumatometer (noo-ma-tom′e-ter)
Obsolete term for spirometer.

pneumatorrhachis (noo-ma-tor′a-kis)
SYN: pneumorrhachis. [G. pneuma, air, + rhachis, spine]

pneumatoscope (noo′ma-to-skop, noo-mat′o-skop)
1. Obsolete term for an instrument for measuring the extent of the respiratory excursions of the chest. 2. Obsolete term for an instrument for use in auscultatory percussion, the percussion sounds of the chest being heard at the mouth. SYN: pneumoscope. [G. pneuma, air, + skopeo, to examine]

pneumatosis (noo-ma-to′sis)
Abnormal accumulation of gas in any tissue or part of the body. [G. a blowing out] p. coli a usually benign condition in which gas is seen radiographically in the wall of the colon; sometimes associated with obstructive lung disease. p. cystoides intestinalis a condition of unknown cause characterized by the occurrence of gas cysts in the intestinal mucous membrane; may produce intestinal obstruction. SYN: intestinal emphysema.

pneumaturia (noo-ma-too′re-a)
The passage of gas or air from the urethra during or after urination, resulting from infected urine or, more commonly, from an intestinal fistula. [G. pneuma, air, + ouron, urine]

pneumatype (noo′ma-tip)
A device for determining the patency of the nasal fossae by exhaling through the nose against a plate of cooled glass. [G. pneuma, breath, + typos, type]

pneumo-, pneumon-, pneumono-
The lungs, air or gas, respiration, or pneumonia. SEE ALSO: aer-, pneo-, pneum-. [G. pneumon, pneumonos, lung]

pneumoarthrography (noo′mo-ar-throg′ra-fe)
Radiography of a joint after injection of air and usually a water-soluble contrast medium. [G. pneuma, air, + arthron, joint, + grapho, to write]

pneumobacillus (noo′mo-ba-sil′us)
SYN: Klebsiella pneumoniae.

pneumobulbar (noo-mo-bul′bar)
Relating to the lungs and their connection with the medulla oblongata by way of the vagus nerve. [G. pneumon, lung, + L. bulbus, bulb]

pneumocardial (noo′mo-kar′de-al)
SYN: cardiopulmonary.

pneumocele (noo′mo-sel)
SYN: pneumonocele. extracranial p. SYN: extracranial pneumatocele. intracranial p. SYN: intracranial pneumatocele.

pneumocentesis (noo′mo-sen-te′sis)
SYN: pneumonocentesis.

pneumocephalus (noo-mo-sef′a-lus)
Presence of air or gas within the cranial cavity. [G. pneuma, air, + kephale, head]

pneumocholecystitis (noo′mo-ko′le-sis-ti′tis)
Cholecystitis with gas-forming organisms giving rise to gas in the gallbladder.

pneumococcal (noo-mo-kok′al)
Pertaining to or containing the pneumococcus.

pneumococcemia (noo′mo-kok-se′me-a)
The presence of pneumococci in the blood. [pneumococcus + G. haima, blood]

pneumococcidal (noo′mo-kok-si′dal)
Destructive to pneumococci. [pneumococcus + L. caedo, to kill]


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