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Medical Dictionary


pneumococcolysis (noo′mo-kok-ol′i-sis)
Lysis or destruction of pneumococci. [pneumococcus + G. lysis, dissolution]

pneumococcosis (noo′mo-kok-o′sis)
Rarely used term for infection with pneumococci.

pneumococcosuria (noo′mo-kok-o-soo′re-a)
The presence of pneumococci or their specific capsular substance in the urine. [pneumococcus + G. ouron, urine]

pneumococcus, pl .pneumococci (noo-mo-kok′us, -kok′si)
SYN: Streptococcus pneumoniae. [G. pneumon, lung, + kokkos, berry (coccus)] Fraenkel p. SYN: Streptococcus pneumoniae.

pneumocolon (noo-mo-ko′lon)
Gas in the colon or interstitial gas in the wall of the colon. [G. pneuma, air, + kolon, colon]

pneumoconiosis, pneumokoniosis, pl .pneumoconioses (noo′mo-ko-ne-o′sis, -sez)
Inflammation commonly leading to fibrosis of the lungs caused by the inhalation of dust incident to various occupations; characterized by pain in the chest, cough with little or no expectoration, dyspnea, reduced thoracic excursion, sometimes cyanosis, and fatigue after slight exertion; degree of disability depends on the types of particles inhaled, as well as the level of exposure to them. SYN: anthracotic tuberculosis, pneumonoconiosis, pneumonokoniosis. [G. pneumon, lung, + konis, dust, + -osis, condition] bauxite p. a condition due to the occupational inhalation of bauxite fumes emitted during the manufacture of alumina abrasives; characterized by cough, shortness of breath, a combined obstructive and restrictive breathing pattern, and impairment of diffusing capacity. SYN: Shaver disease. coal worker's p. SYN: anthracosilicosis. collagenous p. a disease of the lungs, characterized by interstitial fibrosis, caused by inhalation of dusts or toxins in the workplace. p. siderotica (sid-er-ot′i-ka) p. caused by inhalation of iron dust. SYN: pulmonary siderosis.

pneumocranium (noo-mo-kra′ne-um)
Air present between the cranium and the dura mater; the term is commonly used to indicate extradural or subdural air. [G. pneuma, air, + kranion, skull]

Pneumocystis carinii (noo-mo-sis′tis ka-ri′ne-i)
The eukaryotic microorganism responsible for interstitial pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. The exact taxonomic position remains unclear, as the organism has morphologic similarities to protozoa but shares substantial 16S ribosomal RNA and mitochondrial DNA with some species of the Ascomycetes. P. carinii fails to grow on fungal culture media but takes up fungal stains, and infections from it respond to antiprotozoal as well as to some antifungal drugs. [G. pneuma, air, breathing, + kystis, bladder, pouch]

pneumocystography (noo′mo-sis-tog′ra-fe)
Radiography of the bladder following injection of air. [G. pneuma, air, + kystis, bladder, + grapho, to write]

pneumocystosis (noo′mo-sis-to′sis)
SYN: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

pneumocyte (noo′mo-sit)
SYN: alveolar cell. [pneumo- + G. kytos, cell]

pneumoderma (noo-mo-der′ma)
SYN: subcutaneous emphysema. [G. pneuma, air, + derma, skin]

pneumodynamics (noo′mo-di-nam′iks)
The mechanics of respiration. [G. pneuma, breath, + dynamis, force]

pneumoempyema (noo′mo-em′pi-e′ma)
A rarely used term for pyopneumothorax.

pneumoencephalogram (noo′mo-en-sef′a-lo-gram)
Radiographs obtained by pneumoencephalography.

pneumoencephalography (noo′mo-en-sef′a-log′ra-fe)
Radiographic visualization of cerebral ventricles and subarachnoid spaces by use of gas such as air; no longer used because of CT and MRI. [G. pneuma, air, + enkephalos, brain, + grapho, to write]

pneumogastric (noo-mo-gas′trik)
1. Relating to the lungs and the stomach. 2. Obsolete term denoting the nervus vagus. SYN: gastropneumonic, gastropulmonary. [G. pneumon, lung, + gaster, stomach]

pneumogastrography (noo′mo-gas-trog′ra-fe)
Rarely used radiographic study of stomach after injection of air. [G. pneuma, air, + gaster, stomach, + grapho, to write]

pneumogram (noo′mo-gram)
1. The record or tracing made by a pneumograph. 2. Radiographic record of pneumography. [G. pneumon, lung, + gramma, a drawing]

pneumograph (noo′mo-graf)
Generic term for any device that records respiratory excursions from movements on the body surface; e.g., an impedance p., which applies the principles of impedance plethysmography to the chest. [G. pneumon, lung, + grapho, to write]

pneumography (noo-mog′ra-fe)
1. Examination with a pneumograph. 2. A general term indicating radiography after injection of air. SYN: pneumoradiography, pneumoroentgenography. [G. pneumon, lung, + grapho, to write]

pneumohemia (noo-mo-he′me-a)
Presence of air in blood vessels. SEE ALSO: air embolism. SYN: pneumatohemia. [G. pneuma, air, + haima, blood]

pneumohemopericardium (noo′mo-he-mo-per-i-kar′de-um)
SYN: hemopneumopericardium.

pneumohemothorax (noo′mo-he-mo-thor′aks)
SYN: hemopneumothorax.

pneumohydrometra (noo′mo-hi-dro-me′tra)
The presence of gas and serum in the uterine cavity. [G. pneuma, air, + hydor (hydr-), water, + metra, uterus]

pneumohydropericardium (noo′mo-hi′dro-par-i-kar′de-um)
SYN: hydropneumopericardium.

pneumohydroperitoneum (noo′mo-hi-dro-per-i-to-ne′um)
SYN: hydropneumoperitoneum.

pneumohydrothorax (noo-mo-hi-dro-thor′aks)
SYN: hydropneumothorax.

pneumohypoderma (noo′mo-hi-po-der′ma)
SYN: subcutaneous emphysema. [G. pneuma, air, + hypo, beneath, + derma, skin]

See pneumoconiosis.

pneumolith (noo′mo-lith)
A calculus in the lung. SYN: pulmolith. [G. pneumon, lung, + lithos, stone]

pneumolithiasis (noo-mo-li-thi′a-sis)
Formation of calculi in the lungs.

pneumology (noo-mol′o-je)
A rarely used term for the study of diseases of the lung and air passages. [G. pneuma, lung, + logos, study]

pneumolysis (noo-mol′i-sis)
Surgical separation of the lung and costal pleura from the endothoracic fascia; formerly used in collapse therapy for tuberculosis. [G. pneumon, lung, + lysis, a loosening]

pneumomalacia (noo-mo-ma-la′she-a)
Softening of the lung tissue. [G. pneumon, lung, + malakia, softness]

pneumomassage (noo′mo-ma-sahzh′)
Compression and rarefaction of the air in the external auditory meatus, causing movement of an intact tympanic membrane. [G. pneuma, air, + massage]

pneumomediastinum (noo′mo-me′de-a-sti′num)
Abnormal presence of air in mediastinal tissues; multiple causes include pulmonary interstitial emphysema, ruptured bleb, perforation of the cervical or thoracic esophagus or airways, cervicomediastinal infection, and perforated abdominal viscus. SYN: mediastinal emphysema. [G. pneuma, air, + mediastinum]

pneumomelanosis (noo′mo-mel-a-no′sis)
Blackening of the lung tissue from the inhalation of coal dust or other black particles. SEE ALSO: anthracosis. SYN: pneumonomelanosis. [G. pneumon, lung, + melanosis, a becoming black]

pneumomycosis (noo′mo-mi-ko′sis)
Obsolete term denoting any disease of the lungs caused by the presence of fungi. [G. pneumon, lung, + mykes, fungus]

pneumomyelography (noo′mo-mi′e-log′ra-fe)
Rarely used radiographic examination of spinal canal after injection of air or gas into the subarachnoid space. [G. pneuma, air, + myelos, marrow, + grapho, to write]

See pneumo-.

pneumonectomy (noo′mo-nek′to-me)
Removal of an entire lung. SYN: pulmonectomy. [G. pneumon, lung, + ektome, excision]

pneumonia (noo-mo′ne-a)
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma characterized by consolidation of the affected part, the alveolar air spaces being filled with exudate, inflammatory cells, and fibrin. Most cases are due to infection by bacteria or viruses, a few to inhalation of chemicals or trauma to the chest wall, and a small minority to rickettsiae, fungi, and yeasts. Distribution may be lobar, segmental, or lobular; when lobular and in associated with bronchitis, it is termed bronchopneumonia. SEE ALSO: pneumonitis. [G. fr. pneumon, lung, + -ia, condition] acute interstitial p. a severe and usually fatal form of p. occurring primarily in infants; usually considered a form of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. alcoholic p. p. occurring in patient with alcoholism, usually after a period of intoxication with stupor, resulting in aspiration. anaerobic p. p. caused by bacteria usually originating in the mouth, especially in the presence of periodontal disease; cavitation common. apex p., apical p. p. of the apex or apices. aspiration p. bronchopneumonia resulting from the inhalation of foreign material, usually food particles or vomit, into the bronchi; p. developing secondary to the presence in the airways of fluid, blood, saliva, or gastric contents. SYN: deglutition p.. atypical p. p. caused by a nonbacterial pathogen, classically caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, but generally used to refer to any nonbacterial p. with mild systemic symptoms, including viral. See primary atypical p.. bacterial p. infection of the lung with any of a large variety of bacteria, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). bilious p. p. following aspiration of gastric contents containing bile. bronchial p. SYN: bronchopneumonia. caseous p. a form of severe pulmonary tuberculosis in which tubercles are not prominent, but with a diffuse extensive cellular infiltration that undergoes caseation affecting large areas of lung. central p. a form of p. in which exudation is confined for a time to the central portion of a lobe or the hilar region. SYN: core p.. chemical p. p. caused by inhalation of toxic gas, such as the war gases phosgene or chlorine; exudation into alveoli causes the lungs to be edematous and hemorrhagic; large amounts of fluid that fill the air passages block gaseous exchange; recovery occurs, permanent damage of the lungs remains, and recurrent pulmonary infections are common. chronic p. vague or indefinite term for long-standing inflammation of pulmonary tissue of any etiology. chronic eosinophilic p. a disease characterized by night sweats, exertional dyspnea, occasional wheezing, and peripheral eosinophilia. X-rays show peripheral, nonsegmental pulmonary infiltrates that can be nodular with cavitation. Responds to treatment with corticosteroids. SYN: Carrington disease. community-acquired p. p. caused by any organism found regularly outside the hospital; common organisms include Streptoccum pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenza, Mycoplasma, as opposed to hospital-acquired or nosocomical p.. congenital p. p. in the newborn, infection being contracted prenatally. core p. SYN: central p.. deglutition p. SYN: aspiration p.. desquamative p. relatively rare form of p. with homogeneous filling of alveolar air spaces with macrophages and a few type II epithelial lining cells, some alveolar septal infiltration with inflammatory and connective tissue cells; usually idiopathic, but some cases have been reported in association with drugs or underlying systemic connective tissue disease; rarely progresses to end-stage lung disease. desquamative interstitial p. (D.I.P.) diffuse proliferation of alveolar epithelial cells, which desquamate into the air sacs and become filled with macrophages, accompanied by interstitial cellular infiltration and fibrosis; gradual onset of dyspnea and nonproductive cough occurs. p. dissecans SYN: p. interlobularis purulenta. double p. lobar p. involving both lungs. embolic p. infarction following embolization of a pulmonary artery or arteries. eosinophilic p. SYN: Loeffler syndrome I. SYN: eosinophilic pneumonopathy. fibrous p. a process affecting pulmonary tissue and leading to deposition of collagen, either interstitially or in alveolar sacs. Friedländer p. a form of p. caused by infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae (Friedländer bacillus), characteristically severe and lobar in distribution. Friedländer bacillus p. p. caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, the Friedländer bacillus. gangrenous p. gangrene of the lungs. giant cell p. a rare complication of measles, with the postmortem finding of multinucleated giant cells lining alveoli. SYN: Hecht p., interstitial p.. Hecht p. SYN: giant cell p.. hospital-acquired p. p. in a patient in a hospital, or hospital-like setting, such as a rehabilitation facility. Often caused by Gram-negative or staphylococcal organisms. SYN: nosocomial p.. hypostatic p. p. resulting from infection developing in the dependent portions of the lungs due to decreased ventilation of those areas, with resulting failure to drain bronchial secretions; occurs primarily in the aged or those debilitated by disease who lie in the same position for long periods. influenza p. p. complicating influenza. influenzal virus p. serious, often fatal form of p. caused by a virus of the influenzal type; occurs in epidemics and pandemics. p. interlobularis purulenta p. in which the lobules of the lung are separated by collections of purulent exudate. SYN: p. dissecans. interstitial p. SYN: giant cell p.. interstitial plasma cell p. SYN: Pneumocystis carinii p.. intrauterine p. fetal p. contracted in utero and manifesting itself in the early neonatal period. lipid p., lipoid p. pulmonary condition marked by inflammatory and fibrotic changes in the lungs due to the inhalation of various oily or fatty substances, particularly liquid petrolatum, or resulting from accumulation in the lungs of endogenous lipid material, either cholesterol from obstructive pneumonitis or following fracture of a bone; phagocytes containing lipid are usually present. SYN: oil p.. lobar p. p. affecting one or more lobes, or part of a lobe, of the lung in which the consolidation is virtually homogeneous; often due to infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae; sputum is scanty and usually of a rusty tint from altered blood. lymphocytic interstitial p. (LIP) SYN: lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis. lymphoid interstitial p. (LIP) SYN: lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis. p. malleosa (ma-le′o-sa) p. associated with glanders. metastatic p. a purulent inflammation in the lungs due to infected emboli. migratory p. a form of p. in which successive areas of the lung are affected; may occur in bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. SYN: wandering p.. nosocomial p. SYN: hospital-acquired p.. obstructive p. infection of lung resulting from obstruction of airway, by narrowing resulting from previous disease process, persistent bronchospasm, or thick secretions or by aspiration of a foreign body. oil p. SYN: lipid p.. Pittsburgh p. a variant of Legionnaires disease caused by Legionella micdadei. plague p. SYN: pneumonic plague. pleuritic p. p. associated with inflammation of the overlying pleura. SYN: pneumonopleuritis. Pneumocystis carinii p. (PCP) p. resulting from infection with Pneumocystis carinii, frequently seen in the immunologically compromised, such as persons with AIDS, or steroid-treated individuals, the elderly, or premature or debilitated babies during their first 3 months. In AIDS patients the tissue damage is usually restricted to the pulmonary parenchyma, whereas in the infantile form of the disease the alveoli are filled with a honeycomb-like or foamy network of acidophilic material, apparently not fibrin and not stainable with silver, within which the organisms, individually or in aggregates, are enmeshed; throughout the alveolar walls and pulmonary septa there is a diffuse infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells, chiefly plasma cells and macrophages, as well as a few lymphocytes. Patients may be only slightly febrile (or even afebrile), but are likely to be extremely weak, dyspneic, and cyanotic. This is a major cause of morbidity among patients with AIDS. SYN: interstitial plasma cell p., pneumocystosis. postobstructive p. p. occurring distally to a bronchial obstruction. primary atypical p. an older term referring to an acute systemic disease with involvement of the lungs, usually caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and marked by fever, cough, relatively few physical signs, and scattered densities on x-rays; usually associated with development of cold agglutinins and antibodies to the infectious agent. purulent p. p. caused by an organism that produces pus, implying that there can be destruction of lung tissue with permanent changes; usually sputum contains pus. Staphylococci, hemolytic streptococci, under streptococcus, and Friedländer bacillus are typical causes, as opposed to Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is rarely a cause of purulent p.. rheumatic p. p. rarely occurring in severe acute rheumatic fever, even when the disease was common; consolidation occurs, the lungs being of a rubbery consistency, with fibrin exudate and small hemorrhages, as well as edema from left ventrical failure. septic p. SYN: suppurative p.. staphylococcal p. p., usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus, usually commencing as a bronchopneumonia, and frequently leading to suppuration and destruction of lung tissue. streptococcal p. p. due to Streptococcus pyogenes. suppurative p. any p. associated with the formation of pus and destruction of pulmonary tissue; abscess formation may occur. SYN: septic p.. terminal p. p. occurring in the course of some other disease near its fatal termination. tularemic p. tularemia with pulmonary lesions. typhoid p. p. complicating typhoid fever. unresolved p. p. in which the alveolar exudate persists and eventually undergoes fibrosis. uremic p. 1. SYN: uremic lung. 2. terminal infective p. occurring in a patient with uremia. usual interstitial p. of Liebow (UIP) a progressive inflammatory condition starting with diffuse alveolar damage and resulting in fibrosis and honeycombing over a variable time period; also a common feature of collagen-vascular diseases. wandering p. SYN: migratory p.. woolsorter's p. SYN: pulmonary anthrax.

pneumonic (noo-mon′ik)
1. SYN: pulmonary. 2. Relating to pneumonia.

pneumonitis (noo-mo-ni′tis)
Inflammation of the lungs. SEE ALSO: pneumonia. SYN: pulmonitis. [G. pneumon, lung, + -itis, inflammation] acute interstitial p. usually considered a form of hypersensitivity p.. hypersensitivity p. chronic progressive form of pneumonia with wheezing, dyspnea, diffuse infiltrates seen on radiographs; occurs following exposure to any of a variety of antigens, sometimes occupational, and many names are given to cases with known types of exposure (such as farmer's lung, maple bark stripper's lung, chicken plucker's lung, bagassosis, byssinosis, and humidifier lung); biopsy findings usually show patchy infiltration of alveolar walls with lymphocytes, plasma cells, and other inflammatory cells; can progress to irreversible interstitial fibrotic disease with restrictive pattern on pulmonary function, but in early disease most manifestations are reversible if offending antigen is identified and removed from environment. lymphocytic interstitial p. a rare disease characterized by interstitial accumulation of lymphocytes in the lungs and late fibrosis; usually a result of a lymphoma, occasionally seen in AIDS, especially in children; sometimes seen as an autoimmune disorder. SYN: lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. radiation p. the interstitial pneumonia and fibrosis that follow pulmonary irradiation at radiotherapeutic doses. uremic p. SYN: uremic lung.

See pneumo-.

pneumonocele (noo-mon′o-sel)
Protrusion of a portion of the lung through a defect in the chest wall. SYN: pleurocele, pneumatocele (2) , pneumocele.

pneumonocentesis (noo′mo-no-sen-te′sis)
Rarely used term for paracentesis of the lung. SYN: pneumocentesis. [G. pneumon, lung, + kentesis, puncture]

pneumonococcal (noo′mo-no-kok′al)
Relating to or associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae.

pneumonococcus (noo′mo-no-kok′us)
SYN: Streptococcus pneumoniae.

pneumonoconiosis, pneumonokoniosis (noo′mo-no-ko-ne-o′sis)
SYN: pneumoconiosis.

pneumonocyte (noo′mo-no-sit)
Nonspecific term referring to cells lining alveoli in the respiratory part of the lung. [G. pneumon, lung, + kytos, cell] granular pneumonocytes SYN: great alveolar cells, under cell. phagocytic p. an alveolar phagocyte containing hemosiderin, carbon, or other foreign particles.

See pneumonoconiosis.

pneumonomelanosis (noo′mo-no-mel-a-no′sis)
SYN: pneumomelanosis.

pneumonopathy (noo′mo-nop′a-the)
Disease of the lung. eosinophilic p. SYN: eosinophilic pneumonia.

pneumonopexy (noo′mo-no-pek-se)
Fixation of the lung by suturing the parietal and visceral pleurae or otherwise causing adhesion of the two layers. SYN: pneumopexy. [G. pneumon, lung, + pexis, fixation]

pneumonopleuritis (noo′mo′no-ploo-ri′tis)
SYN: pleuritic pneumonia.

pneumonorrhaphy (noo-mo-nor′a-fe)
Suture of the lung. [G. pneumon, lung, + rhaphe, suture]

pneumonotomy (noo-mo-not′o-me)
Incision of the lung. SYN: pneumotomy. [G. pneumon, lung, + tome, incision]

pneumo-orbitography (noo′mo-or′bi-tog′ra-fe)
Radiographic visualization of the orbital contents following injection of a gas, usually air.

pneumopericardium (noo′mo-per-i-kar′de-um)
Presence of gas (usually air) in the pericardial sac. [G. pneuma, air, + pericardium] tension p. the presence of air under pressure in the pericardial space, with the potential for cardiac tamponade.


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