|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
An enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae. There are 3 distinct serotypes, with Type 1 responsible for 85% of the cases of paralytic polio and most epidemics.
poliovirus hominis (po′le-o-vi′rus hom′i-nis)
SYN: poliomyelitis virus.
In dentistry, the act or process of making a restoration smooth and glossy.
Adam, Austrian otologist, 1835–1920. See P. bag, P. method, P. luminous cone.
Inflation of the eustachian tube and middle ear by the Politzer method. negative p. withdrawal of secretions from a cavity by suction, effected by attaching a compressed Politzer bag or rubber bulb to a tube inserted in the cavity.
polkissen of Zimmermann (pol′kis-en)
SYN: extraglomerular mesangium. [Ger. Polkissen, pole + cushion]
Rarely used term for unduly frequent thirst. [G. pollakis, often, + dipsa, thirst]
Rarely used term for extraordinary urinary frequency. [G. pollakis, often, + ouron, urine]
Microspores of seed plants carried by wind or insects prior to fertilization; important in the etiology of hay fever and other allergies. [L. fine dust, fine flour]
pollex, gen. pollicis, pl .pollices (pol′eks, pol′i-sis, -sez) [TA]
SYN: thumb. [L.] p. pedis SYN: great toe I.
Construction of a substitute thumb. [L. pollex, thumb, + -ize, to make like, + -ation, state]
Hay fever excited by the pollen of various plants. SYN: pollenosis. [L. pollen, pollen, + G. -osis, condition]
An undesired contaminant that results in pollution.
Rendering unclean or unsuitable by contact or mixture with an undesired contaminant. [L. pollutio, fr. pol-luo, pp. -lutus, to defile] air p. contamination of air by smoke and harmful gases, mainly oxides of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen, as from automobile exhausts, industrial emissions, or burning rubbish. SEE ALSO: smog. noise p. annoying or damaging environmental noise levels, as from automobile engines, industrial machinery, or amplified music.
SYN: polar body. [G. polos, pole, + kytos, cell]
polonium (Po) (po-lo′ne-um)
A radioactive element, atomic no. 84, isolated from pitchblende; the longest-lived isotope is 209Po (half-life 102 years); 210Po is radium F (half-life 138.38 days), the only readily accessible isotope. [L. fr. Polonia, Poland, native country of Mme. M.S. Curie who with her husband, P. Curie, discovered the substance]
An oxyalkylene polymer, nonionic surface-active agent similar in actions and uses to dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate; used in constipation due to hard dry stools. SYN: poloxalkol.
A bulge of smooth muscle cells, as in the penile arteries and veins, formerly thought to regulate blood flow. [G. cushion, bolster]
polus, pl .poli (po′lus, -li) [TA]
SYN: pole. [L. pole] p. anterior bulbi oculi [TA] SYN: anterior pole of eyeball. p. anterior lentis [TA] SYN: anterior pole of lens. p. frontalis [TA] SYN: frontal pole [TA] of cerebrum. p. inferior inferior pole. p. inferior renis inferior pole of kidney. p. inferior testis lower pole of testis. poli lienalis inferior et superior See anterior extremity of spleen, posterior extremity of spleen. p. occipitalis [TA] SYN: occipital pole [TA] of cerebrum. p. posterior bulbi oculi [TA] SYN: posterior pole of eyeball. p. posterior lentis [TA] SYN: posterior pole of lens. poli renales inferior et superior See superior pole of kidney, inferior pole of kidney. p. superior superior pole. p. superior renis superior pole of kidney. p. superior testis upper pole of testis. p. temporalis [TA] SYN: temporal pole [TA] of cerebrum.
Abbreviated form and colloquialism for polymorphonuclear leukocyte.
1. Prefix denoting many; multiplicity. Cf.:multi-, pluri-. 2. In chemistry, prefix meaning “polymer of,” as in polypeptide, polysaccharide, polynucleotide; often used with symbols, as in poly(A) for poly(adenylic acid), poly(Lys) for poly(l-lysine). [G. polys, much, many]
Jenö (Eugene), Hungarian surgeon, 1876–1944. See P. gastrectomy, P. operation, Reichel-P. stomach procedure.
1. Abbreviation for poly(adenylic acid). 2. Iridoid indole alkaloid isolated from Vinca sp.; may have pharmacologic applications; falling in this class are vinblastine and vincristine. 3. Excretion of d-glyceric acid in the urine; found in renal calculi. 4. An inborn error in metabolism resulting in d-glyceric aciduria (1). 5. A class of basic antibiotic peptides, found in neutrophils, that apparently kill bacteria by causing membrane damage. poly(A) polymerase an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a poly(adenylic acid) sequence.
An acid capable of liberating more than one hydrogen ion per molecule; e.g., H2SO4, citric acid. [G. polys, much, many + acid]
A branched polymer of acrylamide (H2C&dbond;CHCONH2) that is used in gel electrophoresis; e.g., R–CH2–CH(CONH2)–CH(CONHR)CH(CONHR′)–R&dprime;.
Inflammation of many lymph nodes, especially with reference to the cervical group. p. maligna SYN: bubonic plague.
Adenopathy affecting many lymph nodes. SYN: polyadenosis.
Pertaining to or involving many glands.
1. The process of formation of poly(adenylic acid). 2. The covalent modification of a macromolecule ( E.G., mRNA) by the formation of a polyadenylyl moiety covalent linked to the macromolecule.
poly(adenylic acid) (poly(A)) (pol-e-a-de-nil′ik)
A homopolymer of adenylic acid; often seen at the 3′ end of many eukaryotic mRNAs.
An aliphatic or alicyclic molecule characterized by the presence of two or more hydroxyl groups; e.g., glycerol, inositol. [G. polys, much, many + alcohol]
The existence of multiple alleles at a genetic locus.
Class name for substances of the general formula H2N(CH2)nNH2, H2N(CH2)nNH(CH2)nNH2, H2N(CH2)nNH(CH2)nNH(CH2)nNH2, where n = 3, 4, or 5. Many polyamines arise by bacterial action on protein; many are normally occurring body constituents of wide distribution or are essential growth factors for microorganisms. [G. polys, much, many + amine] p. oxidase an enzyme of liver peroxisomes that uses molecular oxygen to oxidize spermine to spermidine and spermidine to putrescine, in both cases also producing H2O2 and β-aminopropionaldehyde; a part of the catabolic pathway of polyamines.
Polypeptides that are polymers of aminoacyl groups, i.e., of –NH–CHR–CO–; typically, a term used with homopolymers. See poly- (2) .
Inflammation of multiple blood vessels involving more than one type of vessel, e.g., arteries and veins, or arterioles and capillaries. microscopic p. systemic, nongranulomatous small-vessel vasculitis, associated with glomerulonephritis, pulmonary capillaritis, palpable purpura, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies.
Anionic sites on proteoglycans in the renal glomeruli that restrict filtration of anionic molecules and facilitate filtration of cationic proteins; loss of p. may cause albuminuria in lipoid nephrosis.
Simultaneous inflammation of a number of arteries. p. nodosa segmental inflammation, with infiltration by eosinophils, and necrosis of medium-sized or small arteries, more common in males, with varied symptoms related to involvement of arteries in the kidneys, muscles, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. SYN: arteritis nodosa, Kussmaul disease, periarteritis nodosa.
Simultaneous inflammation of several joints. [poly- + G. arthron, joint, + -itis, inflammation] p. chronica obsolete term for rheumatoid arthritis. p. chronica villosa a chronic inflammation confined to the synovial membrane, involving a number of joints; it occurs in women at the menopause and in children. epidemic p. a mild febrile illness of humans in Australia characterized by polyarthralgia and rash, caused by the Ross River virus, a member of the family Togaviridae, and transmitted by mosquitoes. SYN: epidemic exanthema, Murray Valley rash, Ross River fever. p. rheumatica acuta obsolete term for p. associated with rheumatic fever. vertebral p. inflammation of a number of the intervertebral disks without involvement of the vertebral bodies.
SYN: multiarticular. [poly- + L. articulus, joint]
SYN: polysplenia. [blend of polysplenia and asplenia]
A mutant organism that requires several nutrients that are not required by the wild-type organism. Cf.:auxotroph, monoauxotroph.
Avitaminosis with multiple deficiencies.
Having more than one replaceable hydrogen atom, denoting an acid with a basicity greater than 1.
Excessive production of mucus. [poly- + G. blennos, mucus]
A polyacrylic acid cross-linked with divinyl glycol; used as a gastrointestinal absorbent.
Having several centers.
polycheiria, polychiria (pol-e-ki′re-a)
Presence of supernumerary hands. [poly- + G. cheir, hand]
Inflammation of cartilage. [poly- + G. chondros, cartilage, + -itis, inflammation] chronic atrophic p. SYN: relapsing p.. relapsing p. a degenerative disease of cartilage producing a bizarre form of arthritis, with collapse of the ears, the cartilaginous portion of the nose, and the tracheobronchial tree; death may occur from chronic infection or suffocation because of loss of stability in the tracheobronchial tree; of autosomal origin. SYN: chronic atrophic p., generalized chondromalacia, Meyenburg disease, Meyenburg-Altherr-Uehlinger syndrome, relapsing perichondritis, systemic chondromalacia.
SYN: polychromatophil (2) .
polychromatophil, polychromatophile (pol-e-kro′ma-to-fil, -fil)
1. Staining readily with acid, neutral, and basic dyes; denoting certain cells, especially certain red blood cells. SYN: polychromatophilic. 2. A young or degenerating erythrocyte that manifests acidic and basic staining affinities. SYN: polychromatocyte. SYN: polychromophil. [poly- + G. chroma, color, + phileo, to love]
1. A tendency of certain cells, such as the red blood cells in pernicious anemia, to stain with basic and also acid dyes. 2. Condition characterized by the presence of many red blood cells that have an affinity for acid, basic, or neutral stains. SYN: polychromasia, polychromatosis, polychromophilia.
SYN: polychromatophil (1) .
An increase in the total amount of hemoglobin in the blood.
Increased pigmentation in any part.
An increased production of chyle. [poly- + G. chylos, chyle, + -ia, condition]
Pertaining to mRNA carrying information for the synthesis of more than one protein.
A dispensary for the treatment and study of diseases of all kinds. [poly- + G. kline, bed]
In immunochemistry, pertaining to proteins ( i.e., antibodies) from more than a single clone of cells, in contradistinction to monoclonal.
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