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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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polyclonia (pol′e-klo′ne-a)
SYN: myoclonus multiplex. [poly- + G. klonos, tumult]

polycoria (pol-e-ko′re-a)
The presence of two or more pupils in one iris. [poly- + G. kore, pupil]

polycrotic (pol-e-krot′ik)
Relating to or marked by polycrotism.

polycrotism (pol-ik′ro-tizm)
A condition in which the sphygmographic tracing shows several upward breaks in the descending wave. [poly- + G. krotos, a beat]

polycyesis (pol′e-si-e′sis)
SYN: multiple pregnancy. [poly- + G. kyesis, pregnancy]

polycystic (pol-e-sis′tik)
Composed of many cysts.

polycythemia (pol′e-si-the′me-a)
An increase above the normal in the number of red cells in the blood. SYN: erythrocythemia. [poly- + G. kytos, cell, + haima, blood] compensatory p. a secondary p. resulting from anoxia, e.g., in congenital heart disease, pulmonary emphysema, or prolonged residence at a high altitude. p. hypertonica p. associated with hypertension, but without splenomegaly. SYN: Gaisböck syndrome. relative p. a relative increase in the number of red blood cells as a result of loss of the fluid portion of the blood. p. rubra SYN: p. vera. p. rubra vera SYN: p. vera. p. vera a chronic form of p. of unknown cause; characterized by bone marrow hyperplasia, an increase in blood volume as well as in the number of red cells, redness or cyanosis of the skin, and splenomegaly. SYN: erythremia, Osler disease, Osler-Vaquez disease, p. rubra vera, p. rubra, Vaquez disease.

polydactylism (pol-e-dak′ti-lizm)
SYN: polydactyly.

polydactylous (pol-e-dak′til-us)
Relating to polydactyly.

polydactyly (pol-e-dak′ti-le)
Presence of more than five digits on hand or foot. SYN: polydactylism. [poly- + G. daktylos, finger]

polydentia (pol-e-den′she-a)
SYN: polyodontia. [poly- + L. dens, tooth]

polydipsia (pol-e-dip′se-a)
Excessive thirst that is relatively prolonged. [poly- + G. dipsa, thirst] hysterical p. SYN: psychogenic p.. psychogenic p. excessive fluid consumption resulting from a disorder of the personality, without demonstrable organic lesion. SYN: hysterical p.. psychogenic nocturnal p. (PNP) psychogenic nocturnal p. syndrome.

polydispersoid (pol′e-dis-per′soyd)
A colloid system in which the dispersed phase is composed of particles having different degrees of dispersion.

polydysplasia (pol′e-dis-pla′ze-a)
Tissue development abnormal in several respects. [poly- + G. dys-, bad, + plasis, a molding]

polydystrophic (pol′e-dis-trof′ik)
Relating to polydystrophy.

polydystrophy (pol-e-dis′tro-fe)
A condition characterized by the presence of many congenital anomalies. [poly- + dystrophy] pseudo-Hurler p. SYN: mucolipidosis III.

polyembryony (pol-e-em-bre′o-ne)
Condition of a zygote's giving rise to two or more embryos. [poly- + G. embryon, embryo]

polyendocrinopathy (pol′e-en′do-kri- nop′a-the)
A disease usually caused by insufficiency of multiple endocrine glands. See multiple endocrine deficiency syndrome.

polyene (pol-e-en′)
A chemical compound having a series of conjugated (alternating) double bonds; e.g., the carotenoids.

polyenic acids (pol-e-e′nik)
SYN: polyenoic acids.

polyenoic acids (pol-e-en′ik)
Fatty acids with more than one double bond in the carbon chain; e.g., linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic acids. SYN: polyenic acids.

polyergic (pol-e-er′jik)
Capable of acting in several different ways. [poly- + G. ergon, work]

polyesthesia (pol-e-es-the′ze-a)
A disorder of sensation in which a single touch or other stimulus is felt as several. [poly- + G. aisthesis, sensation]

polyestradiol phosphate (pol′e-es-tra-di′ol)
An estradiol phosphate polymer, used as a long-acting estrogen for treatment of prostatic carcinoma.

polyestrous (pol-e-es′trus)
Having two or more estrous cycles in a mating season.

polyethylene glycols (PEGs) (pol-e-eth′i-len)
Condensation polymers of ethylene oxide and water, of the general formula HO(CH2CH2O)nH, where n equals the average number of oxyethylene groups (300–6,000); they vary in consistency based on molecular size; PEG 300 is a viscous liquid; PEG 6000 is a waxlike solid; PEGs are soluble in water and are used as pharmaceutic aids.

polyfructose (pol-e-fruk′tos)
SYN: fructosan (1) .

polygalactia (pol′e-ga-lak′te-a, -she-a)
Excessive secretion of breast milk, especially at the weaning period. [poly- + G. gala, milk]

polygalacturonase (pol′e-ga-lak′too-ron-as)
Pectin depolymerase;an enzyme catalyzing the random hydrolysis of 1,4-α-d-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. SYN: pectinase.

polyganglionic (pol′e-gang-gle-on′ik)
Containing or involving many ganglia.

polygene (pol′e-jen)
One of many genes that contribute to the phenotypic value of a measurable phenotype.

polygenic (pol-e-jen′ik)
Relating to a hereditary disease or normal characteristic controlled by the added effects of genes at multiple loci.

polyglactin 910 (pol′e-glak′tin)
A synthetic absorbable suture for wound support of superficial approximation of the skin and mucosa.

polyglandular (pol-e-glan′doo-lar)
SYN: pluriglandular.

poly-β-glucosaminidase
SYN: chitinase.

polyglutamate (pol-e-gloo′ta-mat)
SYN: poly(glutamic acid).

poly(glutamic acid) (pol′e-gloo-tam′ik)
A polymer of glutamic acid residues in the usual peptide linkage (α-carboxyl to α-amino). See poly- (2) . SEE ALSO: poly(γ-glutamic acid). SYN: polyglutamate.

poly(γ-glutamic acid)
A polypeptide formed of glutamic acid residues, the γ-carboxyl group of one glutamic acid being condensed to the amino group of its neighbor; occurs naturally in the anthrax bacillus capsule.

poly(glycolic acid) (pol′e-gli-kol′ik)
A polymer of glycolic acid, used in absorbable surgical sutures. [see poly- (2)]

polygnathus (pol-e-nath′us, po-lig′na-thus)
Unequal conjoined twins in which the parasite is attached to the jaw of the autosite. See conjoined twins, under twin. [poly- + G. gnathos, jaw]

polygraph (pol′e-graf)
1. An instrument to obtain simultaneous tracings from several different sources; e.g., radial and jugular pulse, apex beat of the heart, phonocardiogram, electrocardiogram. The ECG is nearly always included for timing. 2. An instrument for recording changes in respiration, blood pressure, galvanic skin response, and other physiologic changes while the person is questioned about some matter or asked to give associations to relevant and irrelevant words; the physiologic changes are presumed to be indicators of emotional reactions, and thus whether the person is telling the truth. SYN: lie detector. [poly- + G. grapho, to write] Mackenzie p. an instrument consisting of a system of tambours and a time-marker for recording simultaneously the jugular and arterial pulses and the apex beat; formerly used in the clinical investigation of cardiac arrhythmias.

polygyria (pol-e-ji′re-a)
Condition in which the brain has an excessive number of convolutions. [poly- + G. gyros, circle, gyre]

polyhedral (pol-e-he′dral)
Having many sides or facets. [G. polyedros, many-sided, fr. poly- + G. hedra, seat, facet]

polyhexoses (pol-e-heks′os-ez)
SYN: hexosans.

polyhidrosis (pol′e-hi-dro′sis)
SYN: hyperhidrosis.

polyhybrid (pol-e-hi′brid)
The offspring of parents differing from each other in more than three characters.

polyhydramnios (pol′e-hi-dram′ne-os)
SYN: hydramnios.

polyhydric (pol-e-hi′drik)
Containing more than one hydroxyl group, as in p. alcohols (glycerol, C3H5(OH)3) or p. acids (o-phosphoric acid, OP(OH)3).

polyhypermenorrhea (pol-e-hi′per-men-o-re′a)
Frequent and excessive menstruation. [poly- + G. hyper, above, + men, month, + rhoia, flow]

polyhypomenorrhea (pol-e-hi′po-men-o-re′a)
Frequent but scanty menstruation. [poly- + G. hypo, below, + men, month, + rhoia, a flow]

polyisoprenes (pol-e-i′so-prenz)
SYN: polyterpenes.

polyisoprenoids (pol-e-i-so-pre-noydz)
SYN: polyterpenes.

polykaryocyte (pol-e-kar′e-o-sit)
A cell containing many nuclei, such as the osteoclast. [poly- + G. karyon, kernel, + kytos, cell]

polylactosamines (pol-e-lak-tos′a-menz)
A class of glycoproteins containing repeating lactosamine units in their oligosaccharide components; the I/i blood group substances belong to this class.

polyleptic (pol-e-lep′tik)
Denoting a disease occurring in many paroxysms, e.g., malaria, epilepsy. [poly- + G. lepsis, a seizing]

polylinker (pol-e-link′er)
An inserted sequence of DNA in recombinant DNA vectors consisting of a cluster of numerous restriction endonuclease sites unique in the plasmid; also called restriction site bank and polycloning site.

polylogia (pol-e-lo′je-a)
Continuous and often incoherent speech. [poly- + G. logos, word]

polymastia (pol-e-mas′te-a)
In humans, a condition in which more than two breasts are present. SYN: hypermastia (1) , multimammae, pleomastia, pleomazia. [poly- + G. mastos, breast]

polymastigote (pol-e-mas′ti-got)
A mastigote having several grouped flagella. [poly- + G. mastix, a whip]

polymegethism (pol′e-meg′-e-thism)
A greater than normal variation in the size of the cells of the human corneal endothelium.

polymelia (pol-e-me′le-a)
A developmental defect in which there are supernumerary limbs or parts of limbs. [poly- + G. melos, limb]

polymenorrhea (pol-e-men-o-re′a)
Occurrence of menstrual cycles of greater than usual frequency. [poly- + G. men, month, + rhoia, flow]

polymer (pol′i-mer)
A substance of high molecular weight, made up of a chain of repeated units sometimes called “mers.” SEE ALSO: biopolymer. [see -mer (1)] cross-linked p. a p. in which long-chain molecules are attached to each other, forming a two- or three-dimensional network. SYN: cross-linked resin.

polymerase (po-lim′er-as)
General term for any enzyme catalyzing a polymerization, as of nucleotides to polynucleotides, thus belonging to EC class 2, the transferases. p. alpha a class of mammalian DNA polymerases in the nucleus that function in chromosome replication. SYN: p. α. p. beta a class of mammalian DNA polymerases in the nucleus that do not have a role in replication but may function in DNA repair. SYN: p. β. p. gamma a class of mammalian DNA polymerases in the mitochondria responsible for replication of the mitochondrial genome. SYN: p. γ. Taq p. a temperature-resistant DNA p. isolated from Thermus aquaticus that can extend primers at high temperatures; used in the p. chain reaction.

polymerase γ
SYN: polymerase gamma.

polymerase α
SYN: polymerase alpha.

polymerase β
SYN: polymerase beta.

polymeria (pol-e-mer′e-a)
Condition characterized by an excessive number of parts, limbs, or organs of the body. [poly- + G. meros, part]

polymeric (pol-i-mer′ik)
1. Having the properties of a polymer. 2. Relating to or characterized by polymeria. 3. Rarely used synonym for polygenic.

polymerization (po-lim′er-i-za′shun)
A reaction in which a high molecular weight product is produced by successive additions to or condensations of a simpler compound; e.g., polystyrene may be produced from styrene, or rubber from isoprene, or a polynucleotide from mononucleotides, or microtubules from tubulin.

polymerize (pol′i-mer-iz, po-lim′er-iz)
To bring about polymerization.

polymetacarpalia, polymetacarpalism (pol′e-met-a-kar-pa′le-a, -kar′pa-lizm)
Congenital anomaly characterized by the presence of supernumerary metacarpal bones.

polymetatarsalia, polymetatarsalism (pol′e-met-a-tar-sa′le-a, -tar′sa-lizm)
Congenital anomaly characterized by the presence of supernumerary metatarsal bones.

polymicrolipomatosis (pol-e-mi′kro-lip′o-ma-to′sis)
The occurrence of multiple small, nodular, fairly discrete masses of lipid in the subcutaneous connective tissue. [poly- + G. mikros, small, + lipoma + G. -osis, condition]

polymitus (po-lim′i-tus)
SYN: exflagellation. [poly- + G. mitos, thread]

polymorph (pol′e-morf)
Colloquial term for polymorphonuclear leukocyte.

polymorphic (pol-e-mor′fik)
Occurring in more than one morphologic form. SYN: multiform, pleomorphic (1) , pleomorphous, polymorphous. [G. polymorphos, multiform]

polymorphism (pol-e-mor′fizm)
Occurrence in more than one form; existence in the same species or other natural group of more than one morphologic type. SYN: pleomorphism. balanced p. a unilocal trait in which two alleles are maintained at stable frequencies because the heterozygote is more fit than either of the homozygotes. SEE ALSO: overdominance. corneal endothelial p. a greater than normal variation in the shape of the cells. DNA p. a condition in which one of two different but normal nucleotide sequences can exist at a particular site in DNA. genetic p. the occurrence in the same population of multiple discrete alletic states of which at least two have high frequency (conventionally of 1% or more). lipoprotein p. heritable variations in low-density β-lipoproteins; the variant lipoproteins exhibit different antigenic and chemical properties when compared with normal lipoproteins. restriction fragment length p. (RFLP) used in genetic analysis of populations or individual relationships. In regions of the human genome not coding for proteins there is often wide sequence variety between individuals that can be measured; in effect, the distance (in nucleotides on the chromosome) can be different, usually because of repeated base patterns. restriction length p., fragment length p. the existence of allelic forms recognizable by the length of fragments that result when the nucleotide chain is treated by a specific restriction enzyme that cleaves wherever a particular sequence of nucleotides occurs. A mutation in this sequence changes cleaving and hence the number of fragments. restriction-site p. DNA p. in which the sequence of one form of the p. contains a recognition site for a particular endonuclease, but the sequence of the other form lacks such a site.

polymorphocellular (pol-e-mor′fo-sel′u-lar)
Relating to or formed of cells of several different kinds. [G. polymorphos, multiform, + L. cellula, cell]

polymorphonuclear (pol′e-mor-fo-noo′kle-ar)
Having nuclei of varied forms; denoting a variety of leukocyte. [G. polymorphos, multiform, + L. nucleus, kernel]

polymorphous (pol-e-mor′fus)
SYN: polymorphic.

polymyalgia (pol′e-mi-al′je-a)
Pain in several muscle groups. [poly- + G. mys, muscle, + algos, pain] p. arteritica p. rheumatica resulting from arteritis, especially disseminated giant cell arteritis. p. rheumatica a syndrome within the group of collagen diseases different from spondylarthritis or from humeral scapular periarthritis by the presence of an elevated sedimentation rate; much commoner in women than in men.

polymyoclonus (pol′e-mi-ok′lo-nus)
SYN: myoclonus multiplex.

polymyositis (pol′e-mi-o-si′tis)
Inflammation of a number of voluntary muscles simultaneously. [poly- + G. mys, muscle, + -itis, inflammation]

polymyxin (pol-e-mik′sin)
A mixture of antibiotic substances obtained from cultures of Bacillus polymyxa (B. serosporus), an organism found in water and soils and obtainable as a crystalline hydrochloride; all are polypeptides containing various amino acids and a branched-chain fatty acid, usually (+)-6-methyloctanoic acid. There are several polymyxins, ( e.g., designated A, B1, C, D, E, M, T), which are about equally effective against Gram-negative bacteria, but which differ in toxicity, p. E (colistin) and p. B being the least toxic. SEE ALSO: colistin sulfate, colistimethate sodium. p. B sulfate an antibacterial effective in tularemia, brucellosis, Pseudomonas infections, and urinary tract infections, but used systemically only for severe infections not responsive to less toxic agents; it is also used locally. P. B is a mixture of p. B1 and p. B2.

polynesic (pol-i-ne′sik)
Occurring in many separate foci; denoting certain forms of inflammation or infection. [poly- + G. nesos, island]

polyneural (pol-e-noo′ral)
Relating to, supplied by, or affecting several nerves. [poly- + G. neuron, nerve]




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