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Medical Dictionary


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polyneuralgia (pol′e-noo-ral′je-a)
Neuralgia of several nerves simultaneously.

polyneuritis (pol′e-noo-ri′tis)
SYN: polyneuropathy (2) . acute idiopathic p. SYN: Guillain-Barré syndrome. chronic familial p. inflammation of nerves related to infiltration by amyloid. infectious p. SYN: Guillain-Barré syndrome. postinfectious p. SYN: Guillain-Barré syndrome.

polyneuronitis (pol′e-noo-ro-ni′tis)
Inflammation of several groups of nerve cells.

polyneuropathy (pol′e-noo-rop′a-the)
1. A disease process involving a number of peripheral nerves (literal sense). 2. A nontraumatic generalized disorder of peripheral nerves, affecting the distal fibers most severely, with proximal shading ( e.g., the feet are affected sooner or more severely than the hands), and typically symmetrically; most often affects motor and sensory fibers almost equally, but can involve either one solely or very disproportionately; classified as axon degenerating (axonal), or demyelinating; many causes, particularly metabolic and toxic; familial or sporadic in nature. SYN: polyneuritis. SYN: multiple neuritis, symmetric distal neuropathy. [poly- + G. neuron, nerve, + pathos, disease] acute inflammatory p. SYN: Guillain-Barré syndrome. alcoholic p. a nutritional axon loss p. associated with chronic alcoholism. arsenical p. an axon loss p. that results from subacute or chronic arsenic poisoning; almost always preceded by gastrointestinal symptoms; one of the heavy metal neuropathies. axonal p. SYN: axon loss p.. axon loss p. a type of p. in which axon degeneration is the sole/predominant feature; many etiologies, particularly toxic and metabolic; on nerve conduction studies, affects amplitudes of the responses, but does not cause conduction slowing or block. SYN: axonal p.. buckthorn p. ascending p. resulting from ingestion of the fruit of Karwinskia humboldtiana. chronic inflammatory demyelinating p. (CIDP) an uncommon, acquired, demyelinating sensorimotor p., clinically characterized by insidious onset, slow evolution, (either steady progression or stepwise), and chronic course; symmetric weakness is a predominant symptom, often involving proximal leg muscles, accompanied by paresthesias, but not pain; CSF examination shows elevated protein, while electrodiagnostic studies reveal evidence of a demyelinating process, primarily conduction slowing rather than block; sometimes responds to prednisone. critical illness p. a diffuse axon loss sensorimotor p. seen in severely ill patients, usually in the intensive care unit; most patients have been on multiple drugs and cannot be weaned from ventilatory support; electrodiagnostic studies show evidence of an axon loss p., predominantly motor; of unknown etiology. demyelinating p. a type of p. in which almost solely the peripheral nerve myelin is affected; can be familial ( e.g., Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 1) or acquired ( e.g., Guillain-Barré syndrome); on motor nerve conduction studies, manifested as conduction slowing or block. SYN: segmental demyelinating p.. diabetic p. a distal, symmetric, generally sensorimotor p. that is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus. isoniazid p. an axonal loss p. seen in some patients treated with isoniazid. nitrofurantoin p. an axon loss p., often severe, seen in some patients treated with nitrofurantoin, particularly patients with chronic renal failure. nutritional p. an axon loss p. noted in beriberi, chronic alcoholism, and other clinical states, resulting from thiamin deficiency. progressive hypertrophic p. SYN: Dejerine-Sottas disease. segmental demyelinating p. SYN: demyelinating p.. uremic p. a distal sensory and motor p. without conspicuous inflammation and ascribed to the metabolic effects of chronic renal failure.

polynoxylin (pol-e-nok′si-lin)
Poly{methylenebis[N,N′-di(hydroxymethyl)urea]}; a polymer of urea with formaldehyde, used as a topical antiseptic.

polynuclear, polynucleate (pol-e-noo′kle-ar, -kle-at)
SYN: multinuclear.

polynucleosis (pol′e-noo-kle-o′sis)
The presence of numbers of polynuclear, or multinuclear, cells in the peripheral blood. SYN: multinucleosis.

polynucleotidases (pol′e-noo′kle-o-ti′das-ez)
1. Enzymes catalyzing the hydrolysis of polynucleotides to oligonucleotides or to mononucleotides; e.g., phosphodiesterases, nucleases. 2. Terms once applied to the two polynucleotide phosphatases, 2′(3′)- and 5′-, which do not cleave internucleotide links.

polynucleotide (pol-e-noo′kle-o-tid)
A linear polymer containing an indefinite (usually large) number of nucleotides, linked from one ribose (or deoxyribose) to another via phosphoric residues. Cf.:oligonucleotide. p. methyltransferases enzymes that catalyze the methylation of purine and/or pyrimidine bases of polynucleotides or of the sugars of polynucleotides. SYN: p. methylases. p. phosphorylase SYN: polyribonucleotide nucleotidyltransferase. p. thioltransferases enzymes that catalyze specific thiolation reaction of purine and/or pyrimidine bases in polynucleotides.

polynucleotide methylases
SYN: polynucleotide methyltransferases.

polyodontia (pol-e-o-don′she-a)
Presence of supernumerary teeth. SYN: polydentia. [poly- + G. odous, tooth]

polyol (pol′e-ol)
Polyhydroxy alcohol;a sugar that contains many &cbond;OH (-ol) groups, such as the sugar alcohols and inositols. p. dehydrogenases oxidizing enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of sugar alcohols to monosaccharides (in EC class 1.1), e.g., l-iditol dehydrogenase and aldose reductase.

Polyomavirus (pol-e-o′ma-vi′rus)
A genus of viruses (family Papovaviridae) containing DNA (MW 3 × 106), having virions about 45 nm in diameter, and including viruses oncogenic for animals; includes the polyoma virus of rodents, vacuolating viruses (SV40) of primates, and the BK and JC viruses of humans. [poly- + G. -oma, tumor]

polyoncosis, polyonchosis (pol′e-ong-ko′sis)
Formation of multiple tumors. [poly- + G. onkos, tumor, + -osis, condition]

polyonychia (pol-e-o-nik′e-a)
Presence of supernumerary nails on fingers or toes. SYN: polyunguia. [poly- + G. onyx, nail]

polyopia, polyopsia (pol′e-o′pe-a, -op′se-a)
The perception of several images of the same object. SYN: multiple vision. [poly- + G. ops, eye]

polyorchism, polyorchidism (pol-e-or′kizm, -or′kid-izm)
Presence of one or more supernumerary testes. [poly- + G. orchis, testis]

polyostotic (pol′e-os-tot′ik)
Involving more than one bone. [poly- + G. osteon, bone]

polyotia (pol-e-o′she-a)
Presence of a supernumerary auricle on one or both sides of the head. [poly- + G. ous, ear]

polyovular (pol-e-o′vu-lar)
Containing more than one ovum.

polyovulatory (pol-e-o′vu-la-tor-e)
Discharging several ova in one ovulatory cycle. SYN: polyzygotic.

polyoxyl 40 stearate (pol-e-ok′sil)
A mixture of the monostearate and distearate esters of a condensation polymer, H(OCH2CH2)n&chmpnt;OCOC16H32CH3 (n is approximately 40); it is a nonionic surface-active agent used as an emulsifying agent in hydrophilic ointment and other emulsions.

polyp (pol′ip)
A general descriptive term used with reference to any mass of tissue that bulges or projects outward or upward from the normal surface level, thereby being macroscopically visible as a hemispheroidal, spheroidal, or irregular moundlike structure growing from a relatively broad base or a slender stalk; polyps may be neoplasms, foci of inflammation, degenerative lesions, or malformations. SYN: polypus. [L. polypus; G. polypous, contr. fr. G. polys, many, + pous, foot] adenomatous p. a p. that consists of benign neoplastic tissue derived from glandular epithelium. SYN: cellular p., polypoid adenoma. bleeding p. SYN: vascular p.. bronchial p. a p. growing from the bronchial mucosa. cardiac p. usually a rounded thrombus attached to the endocardium. cellular p. SYN: adenomatous p.. choanal p. an antral-choanal p. that extends into the nasopharynx; originates in the maxillary sinus. cystic p. a pedunculated cyst. SYN: hydatid p.. dental p. SYN: hyperplastic pulpitis. fibroepithelial p. (fi′bro-ep-the′le- al) SYN: skin tag. fibrous p. a p. consisting chiefly of cellular fibrous tissue, frequently with foci of fairly dense collagen or hyaline material (or both). fleshy p. SYN: myomatous p.. gelatinous p. 1. a p. that consists of delicate, loose, edematous connective tissue; 2. a polypoid myxoma. Hopmann p. SYN: Hopmann papilloma. hydatid p. SYN: cystic p.. hyperplastic p. a benign small sessile p. of the large bowel showing lengthening and cystic dilation of mucosal glands; also applied to nonneoplastic gastric mucosal polyps. SYN: metaplastic p.. inflammatory p. SYN: pseudopolyp. juvenile p. a smoothly rounded mucosal hamartoma of the large bowel, which may be multiple and cause rectal bleeding, especially in the first decade of life; it is not precancerous. SYN: retention p.. laryngeal p. a p. projecting from the surface of one of the vocal cords. lipomatous p. 1. a p. consisting chiefly of adipose tissue; 2. lipoma that bulges from the surface or is attached by means of a stalk. lymphoid p. benign p. consisting of aggregates of lymphocytes in the rectum. metaplastic p. SYN: hyperplastic p.. mucous p. 1. an adenomatous p. in which conspicuous amounts of mucin are formed; 2. a polypoid cyst that contains mucus. myomatous p. a p. that consists of benign neoplastic tissue derived from nonstriated (smooth) muscle. SYN: fleshy p.. nasal p. an inflammatory or allergic p., arising from the ostium or cavity of one of the paranasal sinuses, which projects into the nasal cavity. osseous p. a p. consisting in part of bony tissue. pedunculated p. any form of p. that is attached to the base tissue by means of a slender stalk. placental p. a p. developed from a piece of retained placenta. pulp p. SYN: hyperplastic pulpitis. regenerative p. a hyperplastic p. of the gastric mucosa. retention p. SYN: juvenile p.. sessile p. any form of p. that has a relatively broad base. tooth p. SYN: hyperplastic pulpitis. vascular p. a bulging or protruding angioma of the nasal mucous membrane. SYN: bleeding p..

polypapilloma (pol′e-pap-i-lo′ma)
Multiple papillomas.

polypathia (pol-e-path′e-a)
A multiplicity of diseases or disorders. [poly- + G. pathos, disease]

polypectomy (pol-i-pek′to-me)
Excision of a polyp. [polyp + G. ektome, excision] p. snare a wire loop device designed to slip over a polyp and, upon closure, result in transection of the polyp stalk.

polypeptide (pol-e-pep′tid)
A peptide formed by the union of an indefinite (usually large) number of amino acids by peptide links (–NH–CO–). gastric inhibitory p. (GIP) a peptide hormone secreted by the stomach; GIP inhibits the secretion of acids and of pepsin and stimulates insulin release as part of the digestive process. SYN: gastric inhibitory peptide. glucose-dependent insulinotropic p. an insulinotropic substance originating in the gastrointestinal tract and released into the circulation following ingestion of a meal containing glucose. pancreatic p. 1. a 36-amino acid peptide secreted by islet cells of the pancreas in response to a meal and of uncertain physiologic function; 2. a family of gastrointestinal peptides, which includes pancreatic p., neuropeptide Y, and peptide YY. trefoil p. a group of polypeptides that share the trefoil moiety of a highly stable three-loop structure held together by disulfide bonds based on cysteine residues; they are widely expressed in gastrointestinal tissues and secreted by mucous cells; their functions are as yet unknown. vasoactive intestinal p. (VIP) a p. hormone secreted most commonly by non-β islet cell tumors of the pancreas; VIP increases the rate of glycogenolysis and stimulates pancreatic bicarbonate secretion; excess production causes copious watery diarrhea and fecal electrolyte loss, with hypokalemia and hypochlorhydria. SYN: vasoactive intestinal peptide.

polyphagia (pol-e-fa′je-a)
Excessive eating; gluttony. [poly- + G. phago, to eat]

polyphalangism (pol′e-fa-lan′jizm)
SYN: hyperphalangism.

polyphallic (pol-e-fal′ik)
Pertaining to the fantasy of possessing multiple penises.

polypharmacy (pol-e-far′ma-se)
The administration of many drugs at the same time. SEE ALSO: shotgun prescription.

polyphenic (pol-e-phen′ik)
SYN: pleiotropic. [poly- + G. phaino, to display]

polyphenol oxidase (pol-e-fe′nol)
SYN: laccase.

polyphobia (pol-e-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of many things; a condition marked by the presence of many phobias. [poly- + G. phobos, fear]

polyphosphorylase (pol′e-fos-for′i-las)
SYN: phosphorylase.

polyphrasia (pol-e-fra′ze-a)
Extreme talkativeness. See logorrhea. [poly- + G. phrasis, speech]

polyphyletic (pol′e-fi-let′ik)
1. Derived from more than one source, or having several lines of descent, in contrast to monophyletic. 2. In hematology, relating to polyphyletism.

polyphyletism (pol-e-fi′le-tizm)
In hematology, the theory that blood cells are derived from several different stem cells, depending on the particular cell type. SYN: polyphyletic theory. [poly- + G. phyle, tribe]

polyphyodont (pol-e-fi′o-dont)
Having several sets of teeth formed in succession throughout life. [poly- + G. phyo, to produce, + odous (odont-), tooth]

polypi (pol′i-pi)
Plural of polypus.

polypiform (po-lip′i-form)
SYN: polypoid.

polyplasmia (pol-e-plaz′me-a)
SYN: hydremia.

polyplastic (pol-e-plas′tik)
1. Formed of several different structures. 2. Capable of assuming several forms. [poly- + G. plastikos, plastic]

Polyplax (pol′e-plaks)
A sucking louse (order Anoplura) of rats and mice. The species P. serratus (the mouse louse) has been shown experimentally to be capable of transmitting tularemia and may also be a vector for murine typhus and Trypanosoma lewisi. [poly- + G. plax, plate, plaque]

polyploid (pol′e-ployd)
Characterized by or pertaining to polyploidy.

polyploidy (pol′e-ploy′de)
The state of a cell nucleus containing three or more haploid sets. Cells containing three, four, five, or six multiples are referred to, respectively, as triploid, tetraploid, pentaploid, or hexaploid. [poly- + G. ploides, in form]

polypnea (pol-ip-ne′a)
SYN: tachypnea. [poly- + G. pnoia, breath]

polypodia (pol-i-po′de-a)
Presence of supernumerary feet.

polypoid (pol′i-poyd)
Resembling a polyp in gross features. SYN: polypiform. [polyp + G. eidos, resemblance]

polyporous (pol-ip′or-us)
SYN: cribriform. [poly- + G. poros, pore]

Polyporus (po-lip′o-rus)
A genus of mushrooms. See agaric. [poly- + G. poros, pore]

polyposia (pol-e-po′ze-a)
Rarely used term for sustained, excessive consumption of liquids. [poly- + G. posis, drinking]

polyposis (pol′i-po′sis)
Presence of several polyps. [polyp + G. -osis, condition] adenomatous p. coli SYN: familial adenomatous p.. familial adenomatous p. (FAP) [MIM*175100] p. that usually begins in childhood; polyps increase in number, causing symptoms of chronic colitis; pigmented retinal lesions are frequently found; carcinoma of the colon almost invariably develops in untreated cases; autosomal dominant inheritance, caused by mutation in the adenomatous p. coli gene (APC) on 5q. In Gardner syndrome, which is allelic to FAP, there are extracolonic changes (desmoid tumors, osteomas, jaw cysts). SYN: adenomatous p. coli, familial p. coli, multiple intestinal p. (1) . familial p. coli SYN: familial adenomatous p.. lymphomatoid p. multifocal mantle cell lymphoma, producing numerous lymphoid polyps in the intestines. multiple intestinal p. [MIM*175100] 1. SYN: familial adenomatous p.. 2. hamartomatous p. of the small or large intestine, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome [MIM*175200] with melanin spots on the lips, less common.

polypotome (po-lip′o-tom)
An instrument used for cutting away a polyp. [polyp + G. tomos, cutting]

polypotrite (pol-ip′o-trit)
An instrument for crushing polyps. [polyp + L. tero, pp. tritus, to rub]

polypous (pol′i-pus)
Pertaining to, manifesting the gross features of, or characterized by the presence of a polyp or polyps.

polypragmasy (pol-e-prag′ma-se)
Administration of many different remedies at the same time. [poly- + G. pragma, a thing]

polyprenols (pol-e-pren-olz)
Acyclic polyisoprene alcohols.

polyptychial (pol-e-tik′e-al)
Folded or arranged so as to form more than one layer. [G. polyptychos, having many folds or layers, fr. poly- + ptyche, fold or layer]

polypus, pl .polypi (pol′i-pus, -pi)
SYN: polyp. [L.]

polyradiculitis (pol′e-ra-dik′u-li′tis)
SYN: polyradiculopathy.

polyradiculomyopathy (pol′e-ra-dik′u-lo-mi-op′a-the)
Coexisting polyradiculopathy and myopathy.

polyradiculoneuropathy (pol-e-ra-dik′u-lo-noo-rop′a-the)
1. Literally, a disease process that affects roots and peripheral nerves. 2. A nontraumatic, usually sporadic, generalized disorder of nerve roots and peripheral nerves, which may affect motor fibers or sensory fibers, but usually both, although often not to the same degree; classified as axon degenerating (axonal) or demyelinating. This disorder has many causes, primarily immune mediated, and includes Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory polyneuropathy. acute inflammatory demyelinating p. the classic type of Guillain-Barré syndrome, in which the predominant type of underlying nerve fiber pathology is demyelination. SEE ALSO: acute motor axonal neuropathy.




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