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Medical Dictionary


polyradiculopathy (pol-e-ra-dik′u-lop′a-the)
Diffuse root involvement; seen with, among other disorders, diabetic neuropathy (diabetic p.). SYN: polyradiculitis. diabetic p. an inclusive term for several types of diabetic neuropathy other than a polyneuropathy; includes diabetic amyotrophy and diabetic thoracic radiculopathy; attributed to diabetes-induced injury of one or more roots, often sequential, in the lumbar, thoracic, or occasionally, cervical region; affects primarily older males.

polyribonucleotide nucleotidyltransferase (pol′e-ri-bo-noo′kle-o-tid)
An enzyme-catalyzing phosphorolysis of polyribonucleotides or of RNA, yielding nucleoside diphosphates (or the reverse, the first artificial polynucleotide formation discovered). SYN: polynucleotide phosphorylase.

polyribosomes (pol-e-ri′bo-somz)
Conceptually, two or more ribosomes connected by a molecule of messenger RNA; structures satisfying this concept can be seen in electron micrographs and can be sedimented at rates consistent with aggregates of ribosomes (whence it is often, sometimes incorrectly, assumed that aggregates containing ribosomes are true p.); p. are active in protein synthesis. SYN: polysomes.

polyrrhea (pol-i-re′a)
Profuse discharge of serous or other fluid. [poly- + G. rhoia, a flow]

polysaccharide (pol-e-sak′a-rid)
A carbohydrate containing a large number of saccharide groups; e.g., starch. Cf.:oligosaccharide. SYN: glycan. pneumococcal p. SYN: specific capsular substance. specific soluble p. SYN: specific capsular substance.

polyscelia (pol-e-se′le-a)
A form of polymelia involving the presence of more than two legs. [poly- + G. skelos, leg]

polyscope (pol′e-skop)
SYN: diaphanoscope.

polyserositis (pol′e-ser-o-si′tis)
Chronic inflammation with effusions in several serous cavities; can result in fibrous thickening of the serosa, including constrictive pericarditis. SYN: Bamberger disease (2) , Concato disease, multiple serositis. [poly- + L. serum, serum, + G. -itis, inflammation] familial paroxysmal p. [MIM*249100] transient recurring attacks of abdominal pain, fever, pleurisy, arthritis, and rash; the condition is asymptomatic between attacks; autosomal recessive inheritance, caused by mutation in the marenostrin gene on 16p. There is an autosomal dominant form [MIM*134610] in which amyloidosis in common. SYN: benign paroxysmal peritonitis, familial Mediterranean fever, familial recurrent p., Mediterranean fever (2) , periodic peritonitis, periodic p.. familial recurrent p. SYN: familial paroxysmal p.. periodic p. SYN: familial paroxysmal p.. recurrent p. familial Mediterranean fever.

polysinusitis (pol′e-si-nu-si′tis)
Simultaneous inflammation of two or more sinuses.

polysomes (pol′e-somz)
SYN: polyribosomes.

polysomia (pol-e-so′me-a)
Fetal malformation involving two or more imperfect and partially fused bodies. [poly- + G. soma, body]

polysomic (pol-e-so′mik)
Pertaining to or characterized by polysomy.

polysomnogram (pol-e-som′no-gram)
The recorded physiologic function(s) obtained in polysomnography. [poly- + L. somnus, sleep, + G. gramma, diagram]

polysomnography (pol′e-som-nog′ra-fe)
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of relevant normal and abnormal physiologic activity during sleep. [poly- + L. somnus, sleep, + G. grapho, to write]

polysomy (pol-e-so′me)
State of a cell nucleus in which a specific chromosome is represented more than twice. Cells containing three, four, or five homologous chromosomes are referred to, respectively, as trisomic, tetrasomic, or pentasomic. Cf.:polyploidy. [poly- + G. soma, body (chromosome)]

polysorbate 80 (pol-e-sor′bat)
A mixture of polyoxethylene ethers of mixed partial oleic esters of sorbitol anhydrides; used as an emulsifier, as in the preparation of pharmacologic products.

polyspermia, polyspermism (pol-e-sper′me-a, -sper′mizm)
1. SYN: polyspermy. 2. An abnormally profuse spermatic secretion.

polyspermy (pol′e-sper-me)
The entrance of more than one spermatozoon into the ovum. SYN: polyspermia (1) , polyspermism.

polysplenia (pol-e-sple′ne-a) [MIM*208530]
A condition in which splenic tissue is divided into nearly equal masses or totally absent; congenital heart disease and malposition and maldevelopment of abdominal organs are common; may be related to situs inversus. Most cases are sporadic, although some suggest autosomal recessive inheritance. SEE ALSO: bilateral left-sidedness. SYN: asplenia with cardiovascular anomalies, Ivemark syndrome, polyasplenia. [poly- + G. splen, spleen]

polysteraxic (pol′e-ster-ak′sik)
A rarely used term for behavior characterized by its socially provocative quality.

polystichia (pol-e-stik′e-a)
Arrangement of the eyelashes in two or more rows. [poly- + G. stichos, row]

polysulfide rubber (pol-e-sul′fid)
Synthetic rubber used as a dental impression material.

polysuspensoid (pol-e-sus-pen′soyd)
A colloid system of solid phases having different degrees of dispersion.

polysymbrachydactyly (pol′e-sim-brak-e-dak′ti-le)
Malformation of the hand or foot in which the shortened digits are syndactylous and polydactylous. [poly- + symbrachydactyly]

polysynaptic (pol′e-si-nap′tik)
Referring to neural pathways formed by a chain of a large number of synaptically connected nerve cells, as distinguished from oligosynaptic conduction systems. SYN: multisynaptic.

polysyndactyly (pol′e-sin-dak′ti-le)
Syndactyly of several fingers or toes. There are several forms: a simple one [MIM*174700] and one with abnormal skull shape, Grieg cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome [MIM*175700], both inherited as an autosomal dominant trait; a recessive form is associated with cardiac defects [MIM*263630].

polytendinitis (pol′e-ten-di-ni′tis)
Inflammation of several tendons.

polytene (pol′i-ten)
Consisting of many filaments of chromatin as the result of repeated division of chromonema without separation of filaments.

polytenization (pol′e-ten-i-za′shun)
The process of polytene formation without separation.

polyterpenes (pol-e-ter′penz)
Acyclic polymers containing a large number of isoprene subunits, usually unsaturated. SYN: polyisoprenes, polyisoprenoids.

polythelia (pol-e-the′le-a)
Presence of supernumerary nipples, either on the breast or elsewhere on the body. SYN: hyperthelia. [poly- + G. thele, nipple]

polythiazide (pol-e-thi′a-zid)
A diuretic and antihypertensive of the benzothiadiazine group.

polytocous (po-lit′o-kus)
Producing multiple young at a birth. [poly- + G. tokos, birth]

polytomography (pol-i-to-mog′ra-fe)
Body section radiography using a machine designed to effect complex hypocycloidal motion; images a thinner tissue plane than does simple linear or circular tomography.

polytrichia (pol-e-trik′e-a)
Excessive hairiness. SYN: polytrichosis. [poly- + G. thrix (trich-), hair]

polytrichosis (pol′e-tri-ko′sis)
SYN: polytrichia.

polytrophic (pol′e-tro-fik)
Exhibiting an attraction, trophism, for multiple organs; usually used for a virus that affects multiple organ systems.

Abbreviation for poly(uridylic acid).

polyunguia (pol-e-ung′gwe-a)
SYN: polyonychia. [poly- + L. unguis, nail]

polyuria (pol-e-u′re-a)
Excessive excretion of urine resulting in profuse and frequent micturition. [poly- + G. ouron, urine]

poly(uridylic acid) (poly(U))
A homopolymer of uridylic acids.

polyuronides (pol-e-ur′o-nidz)
Polymers of uronic acids ( e.g., glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid); the pectins are p..

polyvalent (pol-e-va′lent)
1. SYN: multivalent. 2. Pertaining to a p. antiserum.

polyvidone (pol-e-vi′don)
SYN: povidone.

polyvinyl (pol-e-vi′nal)
Referring to a compound containing a number of vinyl groups in polymerized form.

polyvinyl alcohol
A compound, CH2(CHOH)n, that is soluble in water; an adhesive and emulsifier.

polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
A substance used as a rubber substitute in many industrial applications and suspected of being carcinogenic in humans. SYN: chlorethene homopolymer.

polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) (pol-e-vi′nil-pi-rol′i-don)
SYN: povidone.

polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine complex
SYN: povidone iodine.

polyzoic (pol-e-zo′ik)
Segmented body form, as in the higher tapeworms, subclass Cestoda. SEE ALSO: strobila, monozoic.

polyzygotic (pol-e-zi-got′ik)
SYN: polyovulatory. [poly- + G. zygotos, yoked]

pomade (po-mad′, po-mahd′)
An ointment or cream containing medicaments; usually used on the hair. SYN: pomatum. [Fr. p., fr. L. pomum, apple]

pomatum (po-ma′tum)
SYN: pomade. [Mod. L.]

Abbreviation for proopiomelanocortin.

pomegranate (pom′gran-at)
Fruit of Punica granatum (family Punicaceae), a reddish yellow fruit the size of an orange, containing many seeds enclosed in a reddish acidic pulp; used in diarrhea for its astringent properties; the bark of the tree and of the root contains pelletierine and other alkaloids and has been used as a teniacide. SYN: granatum. [L. pomum, apple, + granatus, many seeded, fr. granum, grain or seed]

Ralph H., U.S. obstetrician-gynecologist, 1867–1925. See P. operation.

Abbreviation for Purinethol (6-mercaptopurine), Oncovin (vincristine sulfate), methotrexate, and prednisone, a cancer chemotherapy regimen.

J.C., 20th century Dutch physician. See P. disease.

pompholyx (pom′fo-liks)
SYN: dyshidrosis. [G. a bubble, fr. pomphos, a blister]

ponceau de xylidine (pon-so′ de zi′li-den) [C.I.-16151]
A monoazo acid dye originally employed as a red histologic counterstain in Masson trichrome stain.

Emil, German pathologist, 1844–1913. See P. shadow.

Bodily exertion, fatigue, overwork, pain. [G. ponos, toil, fatigue, pain]

ponograph (po′no-graf)
An instrument for recording graphically the progressive fatigue of a contracting muscle. [pono- + G. grapho, to write]

ponopalmosis (po′no-pal-mo′sis)
Rarely used term for a condition of irritable heart in which palpitation is excited by slight exertion. [pono- + G. palmos, palpitation]

ponophobia (po-no-fo′be-a)
Morbid fear of overwork or of becoming fatigued. [pono- + G. phobos, fear]

ponos (po′nos)
A disease occurring in young children in certain of the islands of Greece, characterized by enlargement of the spleen, hemorrhages, fever, and cachexia; possibly the infantile form of visceral leishmaniasis. [G. toil, fatigue, pain]

pons, pl .pontes (ponz, pon′tez)
1. [TA] In neuroanatomy, the p. varolii or p. cerebelli; that part of the brainstem between the medulla oblongata caudally and the mesencephalon rostrally, composed of the basilar part of p. and the tegmentum of p.. On the ventral surface of the brain the basilar part of p., the white pontine protuberance, is demarcated from both the medulla oblongata and the mesencephalon by distinct transverse grooves. SYN: p. cerebelli, p. varolii. 2. Any bridgelike formation connecting two more or less disjoined parts of the same structure or organ. [L. bridge] p. basilaris pontis [TA] SYN: basilar part of p.. p. cerebelli SYN: p. (1) . pontes grisei caudolenticulares [TA] SYN: caudolenticular gray bridges, under bridge. p. hepatis a bridge of liver tissue that sometimes overlaps the fossa of the inferior vena cava, converting it into a canal. SYN: ponticulus hepatis. p. varolii SYN: p. (1) .

pontes (pon′tez)
Plural of pons. [L.]

pontic (pon′tik)
An artificial tooth on a fixed partial denture; it replaces the lost natural tooth, restores its functions, and usually occupies the space previously occupied by the natural crown. SYN: dummy.

ponticulus (pon-tik′u-lus)
A vertical ridge on the eminentia conchae giving insertion to the auricularis posterior muscle. [L. dim. of pons, bridge] p. hepatis SYN: pons hepatis. p. nasi bridge of the nose. p. promontorii SYN: subiculum promontorii.

pontile, pontine (pon′til, -tin; -ten)
Relating to a pons.

Those areas of the cerebellar cortex that receive input from cells of the basilar pontine nuclei; includes all cortical regions; projections to the hemisphere greater than to the vermis; pontocerebellar fibers send collaterals to the cerebellar nuclei enroute to the overlying cortex.

Eugene H., U.S. surgeon, 1874–1949. See P. phenomenon, P.-Schlesinger sign.

pool (pool)
1. A collection of blood or other fluid in any region of the body; p. of blood results from dilation and retardation of the circulation in the capillaries and veins of the region. 2. A combination of resources. [A.S. pol] abdominal p. the volume of blood within the abdomen. gene p. the set of the genes that are available for inheritance in a particular mating population. metabolic p. the quantity of a given chemical compound or group of related compounds participating in metabolic reactions; may constitute only a portion of the total bodily content of such compounds. vaginal p. the secretions and material that accumulate in the posterior fornix of the vagina; used for sampling, principally for evaluation after premature rupture of the membranes.


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