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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology

Medical Dictionary


proctostenosis (prok′to-ste-no′sis)
Stricture of the rectum or anus. SYN: rectostenosis. [procto- + G. stenosis, a narrowing]

proctostomy (prok-tos′to-me)
The formation of an artificial opening into the rectum. SYN: rectostomy. [procto- + G. stoma, mouth]

proctotome (prok′to-tom)
An instrument for use in proctotomy. SYN: rectotome.

proctotomy (prok-tot′o-me)
An incision into the rectum. SYN: rectotomy. [procto- + G. tome, incision]

proctotresia (prok-to-tre′ze-a)
Operation for correction of an imperforate anus. [procto- + G. tresis, a boring]

proctovalvotomy (prok′to-val-vot′o-me)
Incision of rectal valves.

procumbent (pro-kum′bent)
Rarely used term denoting in a prone position; lying face down. [L. procumbens, falling or leaning forward]

procurvation (pro-ker-va′shun)
Rarely used term for a bending forward. [L. pro-curvo, to bend forward]

procyclidine hydrochloride (pro-si′kli-den)
An anticholinergic agent used in the treatment of paralysis agitans and drug-induced parkinsonism.

procyclidine methochloride
An anticholinergic drug used in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal spasm. SYN: tricyclamol chloride.

prodigiosin (pro-dij′e-o-sin)
A red pigment synthesized by the bacterium Serratia marcescens; an antifungal agent.

prodromal (pro-dro′mal, prod′ro′mal)
Relating to a prodrome. SYN: prodromic, prodromous, proemial.

prodrome (pro′drom)
An early or premonitory symptom of a disease. SYN: prodromus. [G. prodromos, a running before, fr. pro- + dromos, a running, a course]

prodromic, prodromous (pro-dro′-mik, prod′ro-; -mus)
SYN: prodromal.

prodromus, pl .prodromi (prod′ro-mus, -mi)
SYN: prodrome.

prodrug (pro′drug)
A class of drugs, the pharmacologic action of which results from conversion by metabolic processes within the body (biotransformation).

product (prod′ukt)
1. Anything produced or made, either naturally or artificially. 2. In mathematics, the result of multiplication. [L. productus, fr. pro-duco, pp. -ductus, to lead forth] cleavage p. a substance resulting from the splitting of a molecule into two or more simpler molecules. double p. the p. of systolic blood pressure multiplied by the heart frequency; a measure of heart work load. See Robinson index. end p. the final p. in a metabolic pathway. fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) several poorly characterized small peptides, designated X, Y, D, and E, that result following the action of plasmin on fibrinogen and fibrin in the fibrinolytic process. fission p. an atomic species produced in the course of the fission of a larger atom such as 235U. natural products naturally occurring compounds that are end products of secondary metabolism; often, they are unique compounds for particular organisms or classes of organisms. orphan products drugs, biologicals, and medical devices (including diagnostic in vitro tests) that may be useful in either common or rare diseases but that are not considered commercially viable. SYN: orphan drugs. spallation p. an atomic species produced in the course of the spallation of any atom. substitution p. a p. obtained by replacing one atom or group in a molecule with another atom or group.

productive (pro-duk′tiv)
Producing or capable of producing; denoting especially an inflammation leading to the production of new tissue with or without an exudate. [see product]

proelastase (pro-e-las′tas)
The precursor protein of elastase; formed in the pancreas (in vertebrates) and converted to elastase by the action of trypsin.

proemial (pro-e′me-al)
SYN: prodromal. [L. prooemium, fr. G. prooimion, prelude]

proencephalon (pro-en-sef′a-lon)
SYN: prosencephalon.

proenkephalin (pro-en-kef′a-lin)
A precursor protein that contains several enkephalin sequences. Cf.:propiocortin.

proenzyme (pro-en′zim)
The precursor of an enzyme, requiring some change (usually the hydrolysis of an inhibiting fragment that masks an active grouping) to render it active; e.g., pepsinogen, trypsinogen, profibrolysin. SYN: zymogen.

proerythroblast (pro-e-rith′ro-blast)
SYN: pronormoblast.

proerythrocyte (pro-e-rith′ro-sit)
The precursor of an erythrocyte; an immature red blood cell with a nucleus.

proestrogen (pro-es′tro-jen)
A substance that acts as an estrogen only after it has been metabolized in the body to an active compound.

proestrum (pro-es′trum)
SYN: proestrus.

proestrus (pro-es′trus)
The period in the estrus cycle preceding estrus, characterized by the growth of the graafian follicles and physiologic changes related to estrogen production. SYN: proestrum.

profenamine hydrochloride (pro-fen′a-men)
SYN: ethopropazine hydrochloride.

Giuseppe, Italian dermatologist, 1840–1910. See P. law.

profibrinolysin (pro′fi-bri-nol′i-sin)
See plasmin.

profilactin (pro-fil-ak′tin)
A complex of actin and profilin. Cf.:profilin.

profile (pro′fil)
1. An outline or contour, especially one representing a side view of the human head. SYN: norma (2) . 2. A summary, brief account, or record. [It. profilo, fr. L. pro, forward, + filum, thread, line (contour)] biochemical p. SYN: test p.. biophysical p. technique for evaluating fetal status using fetal heart rate monitoring and ultrasound assessment of amniotic fluid volume, fetal movement, and fetal breathing motion. facial p. 1. the outline form of the face from a lateral view; 2. the sagittal outline form of the face. personality p. 1. a method by which the results of psychologic testing are presented in graphic form; 2. a vignette or brief personality description. test p. a combination of laboratory tests usually performed by automated methods and designed to evaluate organ systems of patients upon admission to a hospital or clinic. SYN: biochemical p.. urethral pressure p. the continual recording of pressure through a hole in the side of a small catheter as it is pulled (at a constant rate while either water or a gas is infused through the hole) from a point within the bladder, through the vesical neck, and down the entire urethra; a form of resistance measurement which gives a tracing indicative of the functional length of the urethra and the points of maximal urethral resistance.

profilin (pro-fil′in)
A small protein that binds to monomeric actin (thus becoming profilactin), preventing premature polymerization of actin. It also participates in the inhibition of one isoform of phospholipase C.

profilometer (pro′fi-lom′e-ter)
An instrument for measuring the roughness of a surface, e.g., of teeth.

proflavine (hemi)sulfate (pro-fla′vin, -ven)
The neutral sulfate of 3,6-diaminoacridine; a compound closely allied to acriflavine, having similar antiseptic properties.

proformiphen (pro-for′mi-fen)
SYN: phenprobamate.

profunda (pro-fun′da)
The deep one; a term applied to structures (muscles, nerves, veins, and arteries, etc.) that lie deep in the tissues, especially when contrasted with a similar, more superficial (sublimis) structure. [L. fem. of profundus, deep]

profundus (pro-fun′dus) [TA]
SYN: deep. [L.]

profusion (pro-fu′zhun)
A score reflecting the number of visible lesions in a region on chest radiographs of individuals with pneumoconiosis. See International Labour Organization Classification. [L. profusio, a pouring forth, fr. profundo, to pour forth]

progabide (pro′ga-bid)
An anticonvulsant that is a lipid-soluble derivative of the amidated form of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAmide) that, unlike γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) itself, is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Once inside the brain the drug is converted to several metabolites, some of which are active forms of GABA or related compounds that act on GABA receptors to increase inhibition in the brain.

progastrin (pro-gas′trin)
Precursor of gastric secretion in the mucous membrane of the stomach.

progenia (pro-je′ne-a)
SYN: prognathism. [pro- + L. gena, cheek]

progenitalis (pro-jen-i-ta′lis)
On any of the exposed surfaces of the genitalia. [L. prefix pro-, before, in front of, + genitalis, pertaining to the reproductive organs, fr. gigno, to bear]

progenitor (pro-jen′i-ter, -tor)
A precursor, ancestor; one who begets. [L.]

progeny (proj′e-ne)
Offspring; descendants. [L. progenies, fr. progigno, to beget]

progeria (pro-jer′e-a) [MIM*176670]
A condition of precocious aging with onset at birth or early childhood; characterized by growth retardation, a senile appearance with dry wrinkled skin, total alopecia, and birdlike facies; early occurrence of atherosclerosis in blood vessels and premature death due to coronary artery disease; genetics unclear. SYN: Hutchinson-Gilford disease, Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome, premature senility syndrome. [pro- + G. geras, old age] p. with cataract, p. with microphthalmia SYN: dyscephalia mandibulo-oculofacialis.

progestational (pro′jes-ta′shun-al)
1. Favoring pregnancy; conducive to gestation; capable of stimulating the uterine changes essential for implantation and growth of a fertilized ovum. 2. Referring to progesterone, or to a drug with progesterone-like properties.

progesterone (pro-jes′ter-on)
An antiestrogenic steroid, believed to be the active principle of the corpus luteum, isolated from the corpus luteum and placenta or synthetically prepared; used to correct abnormalities of the menstrual cycle and as a contraceptive and to control habitual abortion. SYN: luteohormone, pregnancy hormone, progestational hormone.

progestin (pro-jes′tin)
1. A hormone of the corpus luteum. 2. Generic term for any substance, natural or synthetic, that effects some or all of the biologic changes produced by progesterone. 3. SYN: gestagen. [pro- + gestation + -in]

progestogen (pro-jes′to-jen)
1. Any agent capable of producing biologic effects similar to those of progesterone; most progestogens are steroids like the natural hormones. 2. A synthetic derivative from testosterone or progesterone that has some of the physiologic activity and pharmacologic effects of progesterone; progesterone is antiestrogenic, whereas some progestogens have estrogenic or androgenic properties in addition to progestational activity. [pro- + gestation + G. -gen, producing]

proglossis (pro-glos′is)
The anterior portion, or tip, of the tongue. [pro- + G. glossa, tongue]

proglottid (pro-glot′id)
One of the segments of a tapeworm, containing the reproductive organs. SYN: proglottis. [pro- + G. glossa, tongue]

proglottis, pl .proglottides (pro-glot′is, -i-dez)
SYN: proglottid.

prognathic (prog-nath′ik, -na′thik)
1. Having a projecting jaw; having a gnathic index above 103. 2. Denoting a forward projection of either or both of the jaws relative to the craniofacial skeleton. SYN: prognathous. [pro- + G. gnathos, jaw]

prognathism (prog′na-thizm)
The condition of being prognathic; abnormal forward projection of one or of both jaws beyond the established normal relationship with the cranial base; the mandibular condyles are in their normal rest relationship to the temporomandibular joints. SYN: progenia. basilar p. the concave facial profile, or forward position of the chin, resembling mandibular p., created by the prominence of the bone of the mandible at the chin or menton.

prognathous (prog′na-thus)
SYN: prognathic.

prognose (prog-nos′, -noz′)
SYN: prognosticate.

prognosis (prog-no′sis)
A forecast of the probable course and/or outcome of a disease. [G. p., fr. pro, before, + gignosko, to know] denture p. an opinion or judgment, given in advance of treatment, of the prospects for success in the construction and usefulness of a denture or restoration.

prognostic (prog-nos′tik)
1. Relating to prognosis. 2. A symptom upon which a prognosis is based, or one indicative of the likely outcome. [G. prognostikos]

prognosticate (prog-nos′ti-kat)
To give a prognosis. SYN: prognose.

prognostician (prog-nos-tish′un)
One skilled in prognosis.

progonoma (pro-gon-o′ma)
A nodule or mass resulting from displacement of tissue when atavism occurs in embryonic development; represents a reversion to structures not normally occurring in the individuals of a species, but observed in ancestral forms of that species. [pro- + G. gonos, offspring, + -oma, tumor] p. of jaw SYN: melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy. melanotic p. a pigmented hairy nevus.

In the normal direction of flow.

1. A formal set of procedures for conducting an activity. 2. An ordered list of instructions directing a computer to carry out a desired sequence of operations required to solve a problem.

programming (pro′gram-ing)
Sequential instruction; a method of training in discrete segments. neurolinguistic p. a branch of cognitive-behavioral psychology employing specific techniques, that use language to access the unconscious in order to change a client's internal states or external behaviors.

progranulocyte (pro-gran′u-lo-sit)
SYN: promyelocyte.

1. (prog′res)An advance; the course of a disease. 2. (pro-gres′)To advance; to go forward; said of a disease, especially, when unqualified, of one taking an unfavorable course. [L. pro-gredior, pp. -gressus, to go forth, fr. gradior, to step, go, fr. gradus, a step]

progressive (pro-gres′iv)
Going forward; advancing; denoting the course of a disease, especially, when unqualified, an unfavorable course.

proguanil hydrochloride (pro-gwah′nil)
SYN: chloroguanide hydrochloride.

prohormone (pro-hor′mon)
1. An intraglandular precursor of a hormone; e.g., proinsulin. Cf.:prehormone. 2. Obsolete term formerly used to designate a substance developed in serum that antagonizes a specific antihormone, and thus enhances the action of the corresponding hormone.


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