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Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology


Medical Dictionary


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propalinal (pro-pal′i-nal)
Back and forth; denoting a forward and backward movement. [pro- + G. palin, backward]

propamidine (pro-pam′i-den)
Active against Trypanosoma gambiense infections; also markedly bacteriostatic; used as a local antiinfective agent in 0.1% aqueous solution and against systemic fungal infections such as blastomycosis; also used to treat Acanthamoeba keratitis.

propane (pro′pan)
One of the alkane series of hydrocarbons.

propanedioic acid (pro-pan-di′o-ik)
SYN: malonic acid.

1,2,3-propanetriol (pro-pan-tri′ol)
SYN: glycerol.

propanidid (pro-pan′i-did)
A short-acting eugenol used intravenously for induction of general anesthesia.

propanoic acid (pro-pa-no′ik)
SYN: propionic acid.

propanol (pro′pa-nol)
SYN: propyl alcohol.

propanoyl (pro′pa-no-il)
SYN: propionyl.

propantheline bromide (pro-pan′the-len)
The isopropyl analogue of methantheline bromide; an anticholinergic agent.

proparacaine hydrochloride (pro-par′a-kan)
A surface anesthetic agent used in ophthalmology. SYN: proxymetacaine hydrochloride.

propatyl nitrate (pro′pa-til)
A coronary vasodilator.

propene (pro′pen)
SYN: propylene.

propentdyopents (pro-pent-di′o-pentz)
See bilirubinoids.

propenyl (pro′pe-nil)
The radical, –CH&dbond;CH–CH3.

propepsin (pro-pep′sin)
SYN: pepsinogen.

propeptone (pro-pep′ton)
A nondescript mixture of intermediate products in the conversion of native protein into peptone.

properdin (pro-per′din)
A globulin in normal serum involved in resistance to infection that participates, in conjunction with other factors, in an alternative pathway to the activation of the terminal components of complement; a deficiency of p. results in the lack of stabilization of the alternative C3-convertase enzyme (an X-linked recessive disorder). SEE ALSO: p. system, component of complement, factor P. [pro- + L. perdo, to destroy]

properitoneal (pro′per-i-to-ne′al)
In front of the peritoneum.

prophage (pro′faj)
SYN: probacteriophage. defective p. defective bacteriophage.

prophase (pro′faz)
The first stage of mitosis or meiosis, consisting of linear contraction and increase in thickness of the chromosomes (each composed of two chromatids) accompanied by migration of the two daughter centrioles and their asters toward the poles of the cell. In meiosis, p. is complex and can be subdivided into stages: preleptotene, leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene, and diakinesis. [G. prophasis, from prophaino, to foreshadow]

prophenpyridamine maleate (pro′fen-pi-rid′a-men)
SYN: pheniramine maleate.

prophylactic (pro-fi-lak′tik)
1. Preventing disease; relating to prophylaxis. SYN: preventive. 2. An agent that acts to prevent a disease. [G. prophylaktikos; see prophylaxis]

prophylaxis, pl .prophylaxes (pro-fi-lak′sis, -sez)
Prevention of disease or of a process that can lead to disease. [Mod. L. fr. G. pro-phylasso, to guard before, take precaution] active p. use of an antigenic (immunogenic) agent to actively stimulate the immunologic mechanism. chemical p. the administration of chemicals or drugs to members of a community to reduce the number of carriers of a disease and to prevent others contracting the disease. dental p. a series of procedures whereby calculus, stain, and other accretions are removed from the clinical crowns of the teeth, and the enamel surfaces are polished. passive p. use of an antiserum from another person or animal to provide temporary protection against a specific infectious or toxic agent.

propicillin (pro-pi-sil′in)
A semisynthetic acid-stable penicillin that may be more effective than penicillin G. SYN: α-phenoxypropylpenicillin potassium.

propiocortin (pro-pe-o-kor′ten)
An endogenous polypeptide that might be a precursor to the enkephalins. Cf.:proenkephalin.

propiolactone (pro′pe-o-lak′ton)
Used to sterilize plasma, vaccines, and tissue grafts.

propionate (pro′pe-o-nat)
A salt or ester of propionic acid.

Propionibacterium (pro-pe-on-i-bak-ter′e-um)
A genus of nonmotile, non–spore-forming, anaerobic to aerotolerant bacteria (family Propionibacteriaceae) containing Gram-positive rods that are usually pleomorphic, diphtheroid, or club shaped, with one end rounded, the other tapered or pointed. Some cells may be coccoid, elongate, bifid, or even branched. The cells usually occur singly, in pairs, in V and Y configurations, short chains, or clumps in “Chinese character” arrangement. The metabolism of these organisms is fermentative, and the products of fermentation include combinations of propionic and acetic acids. These organisms occur in dairy products, on human skin, and in the intestinal tracts of humans and other animals. They may be pathogenic. The type species is P. freudenreichii. P. acnes a species of bacteria commonly found in acne pustules, although it occurs in other types of lesions in humans and even as a saprophyte in the intestine, skin, hair follicles, and in sewage. P. freudenreichii a bacterial species found in raw milk, Swiss cheese, and other dairy products; it is the type species of the genus P.. P. jensenii a bacterial species found in dairy products, silage, and occasionally in infections. P. propionicus SYN: Arachnia propionica.

propionic acid (pro-pe-on′ik)
Methylacetic acid; ethylformic acid;found in sweat; elevated in cases of ketotic hyperglycinemia and in cases of biotin deficiency. SYN: propanoic acid.

propionic acidemia (pro-pe-on′ik-as-i-de′me-a)
SYN: ketotic hyperglycinemia.

propionyl (pro′pe-o-nil)
CH3CH2CO–;the acyl radical of propionic acid. SYN: propanoyl.

propionyl-CoA (pro′pe-o-nil-ko-a)
The coenzyme A thioester derivative of propionic acid; an intermediate in the degradation of l-valine, l-isoleucine, l-threonine, l-methionine, and odd-chain fatty acids; a precursor for the synthesis of odd-chain fatty acids; it accumulates in individuals with a deficiency of propionyl-CoA carboxylase. propionyl-CoA carboxylase an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of propionyl-CoA with CO2 and ATP to produce ADP, orthophosphate, and d-methylmalonyl-CoA; a biotin-dependent enzyme; an inherited deficiency of this enzyme will lead to propionic acidemia and developmental retardation.

propionylglycine (pro′pe-o-nil-gli′sen)
A minor metabolite that accumulates in individuals with propionic acidemia.

propitocaine hydrochloride (pro-pit′o-kan)
SYN: prilocaine hydrochloride.

proplasia (pro-pla′ze-a)
That state of cell or tissue in which activity is increased above that of euplasia, i.e., characterized by stimulation, repair, or regeneration. [pro- + G. plasso, to form]

proplasmacyte (pro-plaz′ma-sit)
A cell in the process of differentiating from a plasmablast to a mature plasma cell.

proplexus (pro-plek′sus)
The choroid plexus in the lateral ventricle of the brain.

propofol (pro′po-fol)
An oil-in-water emulsion of 1,6-diisopropylphenol, a hypnotic with rapid onset and short duration of action; used intravenously for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. SYN: 2,6-diisopropyl phenol.

propositus, pl .propositi (pro′poz′i-tus, -ti)
1. Proband, usually referring to the first index case to be ascertained. Cf.:consultand. 2. A premise; an argument. [L. fr. propono, pp. -positus, to lay out, propound]

propoxyphene hydrochloride (pro-pok′si-fen)
A nonantipyretic, orally effective weak narcotic analgesic structurally related to methadone and used for the relief of mild to moderate pain; it is less effective than codeine. SYN: dextropropoxyphene hydrochloride.

propoxyphene napsylate (pro-pok′si-fen)
A weak narcotic analgesic. SYN: dextropropoxyphene napsylate.

propranolol hydrochloride (pro-pran′o-lol)
An adrenergic β-receptor blocking agent; used in the treatment of angina pectoris, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and other conditions.

proprietary name (pro-pri′e-tar-e)
The protected brand name or trademark, registered with the U.S. Patent Office, under which a manufacturer markets its product. It is written with a capital initial letter and is often further distinguished by a superscript R in a circle (®). Cf.:generic name, nonproprietary name. [L. proprietas, ownership]

proprioception (pro-pre-o-sep′shun)
A sense or perception, usually at a subconscious level, of the movements and position of the body and especially its limbs, independent of vision; this sense is gained primarily from input from sensory nerve terminals in muscles and tendons (muscle spindles) and the fibrous capsule of joints combined with input from the vestibular apparatus.

proprioceptive (pro′pre-o-sep′tiv)
Capable of receiving stimuli originating in muscles, tendons, and other internal tissues. [L. proprius, one's own, + capio, to take]

proprioceptor (pro′pre-o-sep′ter)
One of a variety of sensory end organs (such as the muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organ) in muscles, tendons, and joint capsules that sense position or state of contraction.

propriospinal (pro′pre-o-spi′nal)
Relating especially or wholly to the spinal cord; specifically, denoting those nerve cells and their fibers that connect the different segments of the spinal cord with each other ( e.g., spino-spinalis).

proproteins (pro′pro-tenz)
Inactive protein precursors; E.G., proinsulin.

proptometer (prop-tom′e-ter)
SYN: exophthalmometer. [pro- + G. ptosis, a falling, + metron, measure]

proptosis (prop-to′sis)
SYN: exophthalmos. [G. p., a falling forward]

proptotic (prop-tot′ik)
Referring to proptosis.

propulsion (pro-pul′shun)
The tendency to fall forward; responsible for the festination in paralysis agitans. [G. pro-pello, pp. -pulsus, to drive forth]

propyl (Pr) (pro′pil)
The alkyl radical of propane, CH3CH2CH2–. p. alcohol a solvent for resins and cellulose esters. SYN: propanol. p. gallate an antioxidant for emulsions. p. hydroxybenzoate SYN: propylparaben.

propylcarbinol (pro-pil-kar′bi-nol)
Primary butyl alcohol. See butyl alcohol.

propylene (pro′pi-len)
Methylethylene;a gaseous olefinic hydrocarbon. SYN: propene. p. glycol a solvent for several water-insoluble drugs intended for parenteral administration; an ingredient of hydrophilic ointment; a viscous organic solvent frequently used in pharmaceutical preparations to dissolve drug substances with limited aqueous solubility; used in part for preparing injectable solutions of diazepam, phenytoin, pentobarbital, and other drugs.

propylhexedrine (pro-pil-hek′se-dren)
A sympathomimetic and local vasoconstrictor; often used by inhalation.

propyliodone (pro-pil-i′o-don)
A radiopaque medium formerly used for bronchography.

propylparaben (pro-pil-par′a-ben)
An antifungal agent and pharmaceutical preservative. SYN: propyl hydroxybenzoate.

propylthiouracil (PTU) (pro′pil-thi-o-u′ra-sil)
An antithyroid agent that inhibits the synthesis of thyroid hormones; used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism; a goitrogen.

propyromazine (pro-pi-ro′ma-zen)
An intestinal antispasmodic with anticholinergic properties.

pro rat. aet.
Abbreviation for L. pro ratione aetatis, according to (patient's) age.

pro re nata (p.r.n.) (pro re na′ta)
As the occasion arises; as necessary. [L.]

prorennin (pro-ren′in)
SYN: prochymosin.

prorsad (pror′sad)
In a forward direction. [L. prorsum, forward, + ad, to]

prorubricyte (pro-roo′bri-sit)
Basophilic normoblast. See erythroblast. [pro- + rubricyte] pernicious anemia type p. basophilic megaloblast. See erythroblast, megaloblast.

pros (pros)
1. (π) Referring to the nitrogen atom in the imidazole ring in histidine that is closest to the β-carbon. Cf.:tele. 2. p.-; Prefix for near or in front. [G. near]

proscillaridin (pro-si-lar′i-din)
Prepared from squill, the sea onion Urginea maritima; a cardiotonic agent, used for the treatment of congestive heart failure.

proscolex (pro-sko′leks)
Seldom used term for the embryonic form of a tapeworm. [pro- + G. skolex, a worm]

prosecretin (pro-se-kre′tin)
Unactivated secretin.




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