|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
To dissect a cadaver or any part, that it may serve for a demonstration of anatomy before a class. [L. pro-seco, pp. -sectus, to cut]
One who prosects, or prepares the material for a demonstration of anatomy before a class.
A dissecting room; a place in which anatomical preparations are made for demonstration or for preservation in a museum. [L.]
prosencephalon (pros-en-sef′a-lon) [TA]
The anterior primitive cerebral vesicle and the most rostral of the three primary brain vesicles of the embryonic neural tube; it subdivides to form the diencephalon and telencephalon. SYN: forebrain vesicle&star, forebrain&star, proencephalon. [G. proso, forward, + enkephalos, brain]
Bernhard, German bacteriologist, 1851–1915. See Voges-P. reaction.
Denoting a disease that is transmitted directly from person to person. [G. proso, forward, + demos, people]
The varying rhythm, stress, and frequency of speech that aids meaning transmission.
Difficulty in recognizing familiar faces. [prosop- + G. a- priv. + gnosis, recognition]
Enlargement of the face, as in acromegaly. [prosop- + G. ektasis, extension]
Progressive transformation, such as the change of cells of the salivary ducts into secreting cells. See cytomorphosis. [G. proso, forward, + plasis, a molding]
The face. SEE ALSO: facio-. [G. prosopon]
SYN: facial cleft. [prosopo- + G. ano, upward, + schisis, fissure]
Unequal conjoined twins in which the parasite, in the form of a tumorlike mass, is attached to the orbit or cheek of the autosite. See conjoined twins, under twin. SYN: prosopagus. [prosopo- + G. pagos, something fastened]
Congenital facial cleft from mouth to the inner canthus of the eye. SYN: oblique facial cleft. [prosopo- + G. schisis, fissure]
Conjoined twins attached by the face and chest; a variety of cephalothoracopagus. See conjoined twins, under twin. [prosopo- + G. thorax, chest, + pagos, something fastened]
A potent natural inhibitor of platelet aggregation and a powerful vasodilator. SYN: epoprostenol, epoprostenol sodium.
prostaglandin (PG) (pros-ta-glan′din)
Any of a class of physiologically active substances present in many tissues, with effects such as vasodilation, vasoconstriction, stimulation of intestinal or bronchial smooth muscle, uterine stimulation, and antagonism to hormones influencing lipid metabolism. Prostaglandins are prostanoic acids with side chains of varying degrees of unsaturation and varying degrees of oxidation. Often abbreviated PGA, PGB, PGC, PGD, etc. with numeric subscripts, according to structure. [fr. genital fluids and accessory glands where discovered] p. E1 SYN: alprostadil. p. E2 SYN: dinoprostone. p. endoperoxide synthase a protein complex that catalyzes two steps in p. biosynthesis; the cyclooxygenase activity (which is inhibited by aspirin and indomethacin) converts arachidonate and 2O2 to p. G2; the hydroperoxidase activity uses glutathione to convert p. G2 to p. H2. SYN: cyclooxygenase. p. F2α SYN: dinoprost. p. F2α tromethamine SYN: dinoprost tromethamine.
prostanoic acid (pros′ta-no-ik)
The 20-carbon acid that is the skeleton of the prostaglandins, with various hydroxyl and keto substitutions at positions 9, 11, and 15, and double bonds in the long aliphatic chains.
Derivatives of prostanoic acid; e.g., prostaglandins, thromboxanes, etc.
prostata (pros′tah-ta) [TA]
SYN: prostate. [Mod. L. from G. prostates, one standing before]
A rarely used term for pain in the area of the prostate gland. [prostat- + G. algos, pain]
prostate (pros′tat) [TA]
A chestnut-shaped body, surrounding the beginning of the urethra in the male, that consists of two lateral lobes connected anteriorly by an isthmus and posteriorly by a middle lobe lying above and between the ejaculatory ducts. In structure, the p. consists of 30–50 compound tubuloalveolar glands between which is abundant stroma consisting of collagen and elastic fibers and many smooth muscle bundles. The secretion of the glands is a milky fluid that is discharged by excretory ducts into the prostatic urethra at the time of the emission of semen. SYN: prostata [TA] , glandula prostatica, p. gland. female p. term sometimes applied to the periurethral glands in the upper part of the urethra in the female.
Removal of a part or all of the prostate. [prostat- + G. ektome, excision]
Relating to the prostate.
Relating to the prostate and the bladder.
A clinical syndrome, occurring mostly in older men, usually caused by enlargement of the prostate gland and manifested by irritative (nocturia, frequency, decreased voided volume, sensory urgency, and urgency incontinence) and obstructive (hesitancy, decreased stream, terminal dribbling, double voiding, and urinary retention) symptoms.
Inflammation of the prostate. The NIH consensus designates 4 categories of p.: I, acute bacterial p.; II, chronic bacterial p.; III, chronic p./chronic pelvic pain syndrome: A, inflammatory and B, noninflammatory; and IV, asymptomatic inflammatory p. [prostat- + G. -itis, inflammation]
The prostate gland. [Med. L. prostata fr. G. prostates, one who stands before, protects]
Inflammation of the prostate and the bladder; cystitis by extension of inflammation from the prostatic urethra. [prostato- + G. kystis, bladder, + -itis, inflammation]
A rarely used term for prostatalgia. [prostato- + G. odyne, pain]
SYN: prostatic calculus. [prostato- + G. lithos, stone]
prostatolithotomy (pros′ta-to-li-thot′o-me, pros-tat′o-)
Incision of the prostate for removal of a calculus. [prostato- + G. lithos, stone, + tome, incision]
Enlargement of the prostate gland. [prostato- + G. megas, large]
An abnormal discharge of prostatic fluid. [prostato- + G. rhoia, a flow]
An incision into the prostate. SYN: prostatomy. [prostato- + G. tome, incision]
Surgical removal of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles. SYN: prostatoseminalvesiculectomy.
Inflammation of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles.
prosthesis, pl .prostheses (pros′the-sis, -sez; pros-the′sis)
Fabricated substitute for a damaged or missing part of the body. [G. an addition] auditory p. generic term for implantable devices to restore sound perception to the deaf, the most common of which is the cochlear implant; a brainstem implant to stimulate the neurons of the cochlear nucleus is under development. cardiac valve p. valve (2) . cochlear p. SYN: cochlear implant. definitive p. a dental p. to be used over a prescribed period of time. dental p. an artificial replacement of one or more teeth and/or associated structures. SEE ALSO: denture. heart valve p. replacement of a cardiac valve removed for disease by either a mechanical or a biologically derived artificial valve. hybrid p. SYN: overlay denture. mandibular guide p. a p. with an extension designed to direct a resected mandible into a functional relation with the maxilla. ocular p. an artificial eye or implant. penile p. device placed inside penis to correct erectile failure. provisional p. an interim dental p. worn for varying periods of time. surgical p. an appliance prepared as an aid or as a part of a surgical procedure, such as a heart valve, cranial plate, or artificial joint replacement. testicular p. SYN: testicular implant. tilting disk valve p. a low-profile artificial heart valve employing a caged disk that tilts to open during systole.
1. Relating to a prosthesis or to an artificial part. 2. See p. group.
The art and science of making and adjusting artificial parts of the human body, See anaplastology. dental p. SYN: prosthodontics. maxillofacial p. that branch of dentistry that provides prostheses or devices to treat or restore tissues of the stomatognathic system and associated facial structures that have been affected by disease, injury, surgery, or congenital defect, to provide all possible function and esthetics.
One skilled in constructing and fitting prostheses.
SYN: lenticulus. [G. prosthesis, an addition, + phakos, lens]
The most anterior point on the maxillary alveolar process in the midline. SYN: alveolar point, prostheon. [G. ntr. of prosthios, foremost]
SYN: prosthodontics. [L.]
The science of and art of providing suitable substitutes for the coronal portions of teeth, or for one or more lost or missing teeth and their associated parts, in order that impaired function, appearance, comfort, and health of the patient may be restored. SYN: dental prosthetics, prosthetic dentistry, prosthodontia. [L. prosthodontia, fr. G. prosthesis + odous (odont-), tooth]
A dentist engaged in the practice of prosthodontics.
Prosthogonimus macrorchis (pros′tho-gon′i-mus mak-ror′kis)
A digenetic trematode (family Prosthogonimidae) located in the oviduct and bursa fabricii of poultry in North America, particularly common in states bordering the Great Lakes. [G. prosthe, in front of, + gonos, seed, offspring; macro- + orchis, testicle]
The surgical technique involved in utilizing a keratoprosthesis.
A marked loss of strength, as in exhaustion. [L. pro-sterno, pp. -stratus, to strew before, overthrow] heat p. heat exhaustion.
See proteo-, proto-.
protactinium (Pa) (pro-tak-tin′e-um)
A radioactive element, atomic no. 91, atomic wt. 231.03588, formed in the decay of uranium and thorium; its most long-lived isotope, 231Pa, has a half-life of 32,500 years. SYN: proactinium, protoactinium. [G. protos, first]
Intermediate products of protein digestion, derived from hemialbumose; soluble in water and not coagulable by heat, but precipitated by ammonium sulfate, cupric sulfate, and sodium chloride. SYN: protoalbumose.
SYN: carboxypeptidase B.
protamine (pro′ta-men, -min)
Any of a class of proteins, highly basic because rich in l-arginine and simpler in constitution than the albumins and globulins, etc., found in fish spermatozoa in combination with nucleic acid; the protamines have a histonelike function and are present in the sperm of all mammals; neutralizes anticoagulant action of heparin; used in the preparation of several long-acting insulin preparations. p. sulfate a purified mixture of simple protein principles from the sperm or testes of suitable species of fish; it is a heparin antagonist used in certain hemorrhagic states associated with increased amounts of heparin-like substances in the circulation and for the treatment of heparin overdosage.
A deficiency of color perception in which the red-sensitive pigment in cones is decreased. [G. protos, first, + anomalia, anomaly]
A form of dichromatism characterized by absence of the red-sensitive pigment in cones, decreased luminosity for long wavelengths of light, and confusion in recognition of red and green. [G. protos, first, + a- priv. + ops (op-) eye]
Changeable in form; having the power to change body form, like the ameba. [G. Proteus, a god having the power to change his form]
Descriptive term for proteolytic enzymes, both endopeptidases and exopeptidases; enzymes that hydrolize (break) polypeptide chains. Lon p. (pro′te-as) an enzyme that degrades a bacterial protein and stops cell division until chromosomal repair is completed. tricorn p. a p. found in organisms lacking membrane-bound compartments that forms the core of a modular proteolytic system used to generate multicatalytic activities in a controlled manner.
SYN: protective block. [see protective]
A cover or shield. [L.L. protectus from pp. protegere, to protect, to cover over] hearing protectors occlusive devices for the external auditory canal made of pliable material or fluid (usually glycerin)-filled ear muffs for protection against noise-induced hearing loss.
A tribe within the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae that includes the three genera: Proteus, Morganella, and Providencia.
protein (p) (pro′ten, pro′te-in)
Macromolecules consisting of long sequences of α-amino acids [H2N–CHR–COOH] in peptide (amide) linkage (elimination of H2O between the α-NH2 and α-COOH of successive residues). P. is three-fourths of the dry weight of most cell matter and is involved in structures, hormones, enzymes, muscle contraction, immunologic response, and essential life functions. The amino acids involved are generally the 20 α-amino acids (glycine, l-alanine, etc.) recognized by the genetic code. Cross-links yielding globular forms of p. are often effected through the –SH groups of two l-cysteinyl residues, as well as by noncovalent forces (hydrogen bonds, lipophilic attractions, etc.). [G. protos, first, + -in] p. 4.1 a peripheral p. that binds tightly to spectrin in the red cell membrane; it also binds to certain glycophorins and helps determine the shape and flexibility of the red blood cell. p. A a component of some strains of Staphyloccocus aureus. acute phase p. plasma proteins associated with inflammation including C-reactive p. (CRP), mannose-binding p., serum amyloid P component, α1-antitrypsin, fibrinogen, ceruloplasmin, and complement components C9 and factor B, the concentrations of which increase in response to interleukins 1, 6, and 11. acyl carrier p. (ACP) one of the proteins of the complex in cytoplasm that contains all of the enzymes required to convert acetyl-CoA (and, in certain cases, butyryl-CoA or propionyl-CoA) and malonyl-CoA to palmitic acid. This complex is tightly bound together in mammalian tissues and in yeast, but that from Escherichia coli is readily dissociated. The ACP thus isolated is a heat-stable p. with a molecular weight of about 10,000. It contains a free –SH that binds the acyl intermediates in the synthesis of fatty acids as thioesters. This –SH group is part of a 4′-phosphopantetheine, added to the apoprotein by ACP phosphodiesterase, which thus plays the same role that it does in coenzyme A. ACP is involved in every step of the fatty acid synthetic process. amyloid p. amyloid. androgen binding p. (ABP) a p. secreted by testicular Sertoli cells along with inhibin and müllerian inhibiting substance. Androgen binding p. probably maintains a high concentration of androgen in the seminiferous tubules. antitermination p. a p. that permits RNA polymerase to transcribe through certain termination sites. antitumor p. a p. that inhibits tumor growth. antiviral p. (AVP) a human or animal factor, induced by interferon in virus-infected cells, which mediates interferon inhibition of virus replication. autologous p. any p. found normally in the fluids or tissues of the body. basic proteins proteins that are rich in basic amino acids; E.G., histones. Bence Jones proteins proteins with unusual thermosolubility found in the urine of patients with multiple myeloma, consisting of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains. See Bence Jones reaction. SEE ALSO: immunoglobulin. [H. Bence Jones, English physician, 1813–1873] bone Gla p. (BGP) SYN: osteocalcin. p. C a vitamin K–dependent glycoprotein that inhibits coagulation by enzymatic cleavage of the activated forms of factors V and VIII, and thus interferes with the regulation of intravascular clot formation; a deficiency of p. C leads to impaired regulation of blood coagulation. There is an autosomal dominant deficiency [MIM*176860] that, like antithrombin III deficiency and plasminogen deficiency, is associated with an increased risk of severe or premature thrombosis. cAMP receptor p. (CRP) SYN: catabolite (gene) activator p.. capping proteins proteins that bind to one end of actin filaments, preventing both addition and loss of actin monomers. catabolite (gene) activator p. (CAP) a p. that can be activated by cAMP, whereupon it affects the action of RNA polymerase by binding it with it or near it on the DNA to be transcribed. SYN: cAMP receptor p., catabolite gene activator. cholesterol ester transport proteins a p. that transports cholesterol esters from HDL to VLDL and LDL; a deficiency of this p. is associated with elevated HDL cholesterol. circumsporozoite p. one of two proteins (the other is thrombospondin-related adhesive p.) involved in sporozoite recognition of host cells in malaria. cis-acting p. a p. that acts on the molecule of DNA from which it was expressed. compound p. SYN: conjugated p.. conjugated p. p. attached to some other molecule or molecules (not amino acid in nature) otherwise than as a salt; e.g., flavoproteins; chromoproteins, hemoglobins. SEE ALSO: prosthetic group. Cf.:simple p.. SYN: compound p.. copper p. a p. containing one or more copper ions; E.G., cytochrome c oxidase, phenol oxidase. corticosteroid-binding p. SYN: transcortin. C-reactive p. (CRP) a β-globulin found in the serum of various persons with certain inflammatory, degenerative, and neoplastic diseases; although the p. is not a specific antibody, it precipitates in vitro the C polysaccharide present in all types of pneumococci. denatured p. a p. whose characteristics or properties have been altered in some way, as by heat, enzyme action, or chemicals, and in so doing has lost its biologic activity. derived p. a derivative of p. effected by chemical change, e.g., hydrolysis. docking p. in the process of translating proteins that are to be secreted from the cell, translation is arrested until the growing polypeptide chain that is complexed by a specific particle (signal recognition particle) comes in contact with this integral p. of the endoplasmic reticulum. encephalithogenic p. an important p. in the central nervous system. SYN: myelin p. A1. eosinophil cationic p. (ECP) p. the level of which in serum of clotted blood reflects the rate of activation of circulating eosinophils. extrinsic proteins SYN: peripheral proteins. fatty acid–binding p. SYN: Z-p.. fibrous p. any insoluble p., including the collagens, elastins, and keratins, involved in structural or fibrous tissues. foreign p. a p. that differs from any p. normally found in the organism in question. SYN: heterologous p.. G proteins intracellular membrane-associated proteins activated by several ( e.g., β-adrenergic) receptors; they serve as second messengers or transducers of the receptor-initiated response to intracellular elements such as enzymes to initiate an effect. These proteins have a high affinity for guanine nucleotides and hence are named G proteins. SYN: G-p., GTP binding proteins. G-p. SYN: G proteins. glial fibrillary acidic p. a cytoskeletal p. of 51 kd found in fibrous astrocytes; stains for this p. are frequently used to assist in the differential diagnosis of neurologic lesions. globular p. any p. soluble in water, usually with added acid, alkali, salt, or ethanol, and roughly so classified (albumins, globulins, histones, and protamines), in contrast to fibrous p.. GTP binding proteins SYN: G proteins. heat shock proteins (hsp) specific proteins whose synthesis is increased immediately after sudden elevation of temperature; their function is to help diminish the harmful effects of high temperature. heterologous p. SYN: foreign p.. homologous proteins proteins having a very similar primary, secondary, and tertiary structure. immune p. SYN: antibody. integral proteins proteins that cannot be easily separated from a biomembrane. SYN: intrinsic proteins. intrinsic proteins SYN: integral proteins. iron-sulfur proteins proteins containing one or more iron atoms that are linked to sulfur bridges and/or sulfur of cysteinyl residues; e.g., certain proteins in the electron transport pathway. p. kinase C any of a number of cytoplasmic calcium-activated kinases involved in numerous processes, including hormonal binding, platelet activation, and tumor promotion. p. kinases a class of enzymes that phosphorylates other proteins; many of these kinases are responsive to other effectors ( e.g., cAMP, cGMP, insulin, epidermal growth factor, calcium and calmodulin, calcium and phospholipids). latent membrane p. (LMP) gene product of Epstein-Barr virus. low molecular weight proteins (LMP) gene products that are components of proteosomes. M p. 1. SYN: Streptococcus M antigen. SEE ALSO: β-hemolytic streptococci, under streptococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae. 2. SYN: monoclonal immunoglobulin. macrophage inflammatory p. (MIP) (mak′ro-faj in′flam-ma-to-re) a member of the chemokine family that is chemotactic for certain lymphocyte subsets such as T cytotoxic cells. mannose-binding p. a p. involved in innate immunity that can bind mannosylated microorganisms and activate the complement pathway. matrix Gla p. (MGP) a calcium binding p.. microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) proteins that have a specific association with α- and/or β-tubulin; e.g., tau, MAP1, MAP2; several have been found in the plaques observed in Alzheimer disease. monoclonal p. SYN: monoclonal immunoglobulin. monocyte chemoattractant p. a cytokine involved in monocyte migration. monocyte chemoattractant p.-1 (MCP-1) secreted by endothelial cells of a blood vessel wall; it induces extravasation of monocytes. muscle proteins proteins present in muscle. myelin p. A1 SYN: encephalithogenic p.. native p. the concept of a p. in its natural state, in the cell, unaltered by heat, chemicals, enzyme action, or the exigencies of extraction. neutrophil-activating p. old term for interleukin-8. non-heme iron p. any p. containing iron but not any heme iron; e.g., NADH dehydrogenase. nonspecific p. a p. substance that elicits a response not mediated by specific antigen-antibody reaction. odorant binding p. proteins in nasal mucus that bind lipophilic odor-producing molecules and transfer them to the olfactory receptors. Similar proteins may mediate taste. p. p53 a multifunctional p. that modulates gene transcription and controls DNA repair, apoptosis, and the cell cycle. parathyroid hormonelike p. (PLP) SYN: parathyroid hormone-related p.. parathyroid hormone-related p. a 140–amino acid p. secreted by some cancer cells; it causes hypercalcemia. SYN: parathyroid hormonelike p.. pathologic proteins paraprotein. peripheral proteins pathways that can be easily removed from a biomembrane ( E.G., by altering the pH or the ionic strength). SYN: extrinsic proteins. phenylthiocarbamoyl p. formed by the reaction of phenylisothiocyanate with a terminal α-amino group of a peptide or p. SEE ALSO: phenylisothiocyanate, phenylthiohydantoin. SYN: PhNCS p., PTC p.. PhNCS p. SYN: phenylthiocarbamoyl p.. p. phosphatases a class of enzymes that catalyze the dephosphorylation of specific phosphorylated proteins. placenta p. SYN: human placental lactogen. plasma proteins dissolved proteins (>100) of blood plasma, mainly albumins and globulins (normally 6–8 g/100 mL); they hold fluid in blood vessels by osmosis and include antibodies and blood-clotting proteins. SYN: serum proteins. prion p. (PrP) SYN: prion. protective p. SYN: antibody. PTC p. SYN: phenylthiocarbamoyl p.. purified placental p. SYN: human placental lactogen. receptor p. an intracellular p. (or p. fraction) that has a high specific affinity for binding a known stimulus to cellular activity, such as a steroid hormone or adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic phosphate. retinol-binding p. a plasma p. that binds and transports retinol. S p. the major fragment produced from pancreatic ribonuclease by the limited action of subtilisin, which cleaves the ribonuclease between residues 20 and 21; the smaller fragment (residues 1–20) is S peptide. p. S a vitamin K-dependent antithrombotic p. that functions as a cofactor with activated p. C. serum proteins SYN: plasma proteins. simple p. p. that yields only α-amino acids or their derivatives by hydrolysis; e.g., albumins, globulins, glutelins, prolamines, albuminoids, histones, protamines. Cf.:conjugated p.. stimulatory p. 1 (SP1) an RNA polymerase II transcription factor in vertebrates; binds to DNA in regions rich in G and C residues; a general promoter-binding factor necessary for the activation of many genes. structure proteins proteins whose role is for structure and support in tissue and within the cell; E.G., the collagens. surfactant-specific proteins the p. components of pulmonary surfactant, including surfactant p. A, B, C. Tamm-Horsfall p. Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein. thrombospondin-related adhesive p. one of two proteins (the other is circumsporozoite p.) involved in sporozoite recognition of host cells in malaria. thyroxine-binding p. (TBP) 1. SYN: thyroxine-binding globulin. 2. SYN: thyroxine-binding prealbumin. unwinding proteins enzymes that uncoil the DNA allowing recombination events to occur. vitamin D–binding p. (DBP) a plasma p. that binds vitamin D. whey p. the soluble p. contained in the whey of milk clotted by rennin; e.g., lactoglobulin, α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin. Z-p. a fatty acid–binding p. that participates in the intracellular movement of fatty acids. SYN: fatty acid–binding p..
proteinaceous (pro′te-na′shus, pro′te-i-na′shus)
Resembling a protein; possessing, to some degree, the physicochemical properties characteristic of proteins.
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