|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
Regurgitation of matter from the esophagus or stomach without expulsive effort.
pseudoxanthoma elasticum (soo′do-zan-tho′ma e-las′ti-kum) [MIM*177850, MIM*177860, MIM*264800,]
An inherited disorder of connective tissue characterized by slightly elevated yellowish plaques on the neck, axillae, abdomen, and thighs, developing in the second or third decade, associated with angioid streaks of the retina and similar elastic tissue degeneration and calcification in arteries; autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive types have been described, with much milder systemic complications in the latter.
1. The 23rd letter of the Greek alphabet (&p.;). 2. (&p.;) Symbol for pseudouridine; pseudo-; wave function; the dihedral angle of rotation about the C1–Cα bond associated with a peptide bond. 3. Pounds per square inch.
A ketohexose; d-p. is epimeric with d-fructose. SYN: pseudofructose, ribo-2-hexulose.
A hallucinogenic agent related to psilocybin.
A genus of mushrooms (family Agaricaceae) containing many species with psychotropic or hallucinogenic properties, including P. mexicana, of which the fruiting bodies are a source of the hallucinogen, psilocybin.
psilocybin (si-lo-si′bin, -sib′in)
The N′,N′ -dimethyl derivative of 4-hydroxytryptamine; obtained from the fruiting bodies of the fungus Psilocybe mexicana and other species of Psilocybe and Stropharia. P. is a congener of 5-hydroxytryptamine, with striking central nervous system effects, and is readily hydrolyzed to 4-hydroxybufotenine; used as a hallucinogenic agent (and by Mexican aborigines to induce trances). SYN: indocybin.
Falling out of the hair. [G. p., a stripping, fr. psilos, bare]
A depilatory plaster applied when warm to a hairy surface, and ripped off when cool, causing removal of the hairs. [see psilosis]
1. Relating to psilosis. 2. SYN: epilatory (1) .
An electrocardiographic P-wave characteristic of overloading of the left atrium; often erroneously called P-mitrale, as the syndrome can result from any overloading of the left atrium from any cause.
Referring to birds of the parrot family (parrots, parakeets, and budgerigars).
An infectious disease in psittacine birds and humans caused by the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci. Avian infections are mainly inapparent or latent, although acute disease does occur; human infections may result in mild disease with a flulike syndrome or in severe disease, especially in older persons, with symptoms of bronchopneumonia. SYN: Parrot disease (3) , parrot fever. [G. psittakos, a parrot, + -osis, condition]
See p. major (muscle), p. minor (muscle). [G. psoa, the muscles of the loins]
psomophagia, psomophagy (so-mo-fa′je-a, so-mof′a-je)
The practice of swallowing food without thorough mastication. [G. psomos, morsel, bit, + phago, to eat]
A phototoxic drug used by topical or oral administration for the treatment of vitiligo and psoriasis. Also present in oil of bergamot perfume and in fruits and vegetables such as limes, which may cause photosensitization. SEE ALSO: PUVA.
Inflammatory swelling of the solitary lymphatic follicles of the intestine. [G. psora, itch (scabies), + enteron, intestine, + -itis, inflammation]
A genus of itch mites (family Cheyletidae) parasitic on cattle, sheep, and goats. P. bos is the itch mite of cattle, described in New Mexico; P. ovis is the small itch mite of sheep in the U.S., Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. [G. psora, itch]
A common multifactorial inherited condition characterized by the eruption of circumscribed, discrete and confluent, reddish, silvery-scaled maculopapules; the lesions occur predominantly on the elbows, knees, scalp, and trunk, and microscopically show characteristic parakeratosis and elongation of rete ridges with shortening of epidermal keratinocyte transit time due to decreased cyclic guanosine monophosphate. [G. p., fr. psora, the itch] p. annularis, p. annulata SYN: p. circinata. p. arthropica p. associated with severe arthritis resembling rheumatoid arthritis, although serum rheumatoid factor is absent. p. circinata p. in which healing is taking place at the center of the lesion while the process continues at the periphery, producing a ring-shaped or annular lesion. SYN: p. annularis, p. annulata. p. diffusa, diffused p. a form of p. with extensive coalescence of the lesions. exfoliative p. exfoliative dermatitis developing from chronic p., sometimes resulting from overtreatment of p.. flexural p. p. involving intertriginous folds, e.g., axillary and inguinal skin, which may resemble seborrheic dermatitis. generalized pustular p. of Zambusch SYN: pustular p. (1) . p. geographica p. gyrata in which the lesions suggest the coast outline on a map. p. guttata p. occurring abruptly in round patches of small size; seen in young persons following streptococcal infections. p. gyrata p. circinata in which there is a coalescence of the rings giving rise to figures of various outlines. p. nummularis p. in which the lesions are discrete and discoid. palmar p. patchy, hyperkeratotic p. affecting contact points of the volar surface of fingers and palms, alone or with mild p. elsewhere; believed to be an isomorphic response, it may affect one palm involved in a sport or occupation. p. punctata p. in which the individual lesions are papules, each red in color and tipped with a single white scale. pustular p. 1. an extensive exacerbation of p., with pustule formation in the normal and psoriatic skin, fever, and granulocytosis; sometimes precipitated by oral steroids; SYN: generalized pustular p. of Zambusch. 2. a local pustular eruption of the palms and soles, occurring most commonly in a patient with p.; difficult to distinguish from acrodermatitis continua.
Relating to psoriasis.
A genus of itch or mange mites (family Cheyletidae), including the species P. cuniculi (the scab mite of rabbits), P. equi (the mange or body mite of horses), and P. ovis (the common scab mite of sheep and cattle). [G. psora, itch]
Abbreviation for phenolsulfonphthalein.
SYN: psychalgia (1) .
1. Distress attending a mental effort, noted especially in melancholia. SYN: phrenalgia (1) , psychalgalia. 2. SYN: psychogenic pain. [psych- + G. algos, pain]
A rarely used term for an emotional condition characterized by auditory and visual hallucinations.
SYN: mind blindness. [psych- + G. an- priv, + opsis, vision]
Mental confusion; inability to fix one's attention or to make any continued mental effort. [psych- + G. ataxia, confusion]
Term for the subjective aspects of the mind, self, soul; the psychologic or spiritual as distinct from the bodily nature of persons. [G. mind, soul]
1. Pertaining to a rather imprecise category of drugs with mainly central nervous system action, and with effects said to be the expansion or heightening of consciousness, e.g., LSD, hashish, mescaline. 2. A hallucinogenic substance, visual display, music, or other sensory stimulus having such action. SYN: hallucinogenic. [psyche- + G. deloo, to manifest]
Relating to psychiatry.
A physician who specializes in psychiatry.
1. The medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. 2. The diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. For some types of p. not listed below, see also subentries under therapy, psychotherapy, psychoanalysis. SYN: psychiatrics. [psych- + G. iatreia, medical treatment] analytic p. SYN: psychoanalytic p.. biologic p. a branch of p. that emphasizes molecular, genetic, and pharmacologic approaches in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. child p. the branch of p. that deals with the emotional and mental disorders of children. community p. p. focusing on the detection, prevention, early treatment, and rehabilitation of individuals with emotional disorders and social deviance as they develop in the community rather than as encountered one-on-one, in private practice, or at larger centralized psychiatric facilities; particular emphasis is placed on the social-interpersonal-environmental factors that contribute to mental illness. contractual p. an older term for psychiatric intervention voluntarily assumed by the patient, who is prompted by personal difficulties or suffering and who retains control over participation with the psychiatrist. cross-cultural p. a field of p. with interest in the study of psychologic and psychiatric phenomena as differentially expressed in the cultures of different countries. descriptive p. that aspect of the practice of p. that deals with the diagnosis of mental disorders. dynamic p. SYN: psychoanalytic p.. existential p. SYN: existential psychotherapy. forensic p., legal p. the application of p. in courts of law, e.g., in determinations for commitment, competency, fitness to stand trial, responsibility for crime. industrial p. the application of the principles of p. to problems in business and industry. orthomolecular p. an approach to p. that focuses on the use of megavitamins and nutrition in the treatment of such mental illnesses as the schizophrenic disorders. psychoanalytic p. psychiatric theory and practice emphasizing the principles of psychoanalysis. SYN: analytic p., dynamic p.. social p. an approach to psychiatric theory and practice emphasizing the cultural and sociologic aspects of mental disorder and treatment; the application of p. to social problems. SEE ALSO: community p..
1. Relating to the phenomena of consciousness, mind, or soul. SYN: psychical. 2. A person supposedly endowed with the power of communicating with spirits; a spiritualistic medium. [G. psychikos]
SYN: psychic (1) .
The theory that a principle of life pervades all nature. [G. psyche, soul]
psycho-, psych-, psyche-
The mind; mental; psychologic. [G. psyche, soul, mind]
1. A discipline combining experimental psychology and physics that deals with the physical features of sound as related to audition, as well as with the physiology and psychology of sound recepter processes. 2. The science pertaining to the psychologic factors that influence one's awareness of sound. [psycho- + G. akoustikos, relating to hearing]
Possessing the ability to alter mood, anxiety, behavior, cognitive processes, or mental tension; usually applied to pharmacologic agents.
A rarely used term for a sensitization to emotionally charged symbols.
1. A method of psychotherapy, originated by Freud, designed to bring preconscious and unconscious material to consciousness primarily through the analysis of transference and resistance. SYN: psychoanalytic therapy. SEE ALSO: freudian p.. 2. A method of investigating the human mind and psychologic functioning, interpretations of resistances, and the patient's emotional reactions to the analyst plus use of free association and dream analysis in the psychoanalytic situation. 3. An integrated body of observations and theories on personality development, motivation, and behavior. 4. An institutionalized school of psychotherapy, as in jungian or freudian p.. [psycho- + analysis] active p. an older term for p. in which the analyst intervenes directly and actively in the patient's life, e.g., by making prohibitions, assigning tasks. adlerian p. SYN: individual psychology. freudian p. the theory and practice of p. and psychotherapy as developed by Freud, based on: 1) his theory of personality, which postulates that psychic life is made up of instinctual and socially acquired forces, or the id, the ego, and the superego, each of which must constantly accommodate to the other; 2) his discovery that the free-association technique of verbalizing for the analyst all thoughts without censoring any of them is the therapeutic tactic that reveals the areas of conflict within a patient's personality; and 3) that the vehicle for gaining this insight and next, on this basis, readjusting one's personality is the learning a patient does in first developing a stormy emotional bond with the analyst (transference relationship) and next successfully breaking this bond. jungian p. the theory of psychopathology and the practice of psychotherapy, according to the principles of Jung, which utilizes a system of psychology and psychotherapy emphasizing the human being's symbolic nature, and differs from freudian p. especially in placing less significance upon instinctual (sexual) urges. SYN: analytical psychology.
A psychotherapist, usually a psychiatrist or clinical psychologist, trained in psychoanalysis and employing its methods in the treatment of emotional disorders.
Pertaining to psychoanalysis.
Relating to the mental perception and interpretation of sounds. See psychoacoustics. [psycho- + L. auditorius, relating to hearing]
1. The study of the interrelationships of the biology and psychology in cognitive functioning, including intellectual, memory, and related neurocognitive processes. 2. Adolf Meyer term for psychiatry.
SYN: catharsis (2) .
A certain color mentally conceived in response to a sense impression. SEE ALSO: psychochromesthesia. [psycho- + G. chroma, color]
A form of synesthesia in which a certain stimulus to one of the special organs of sense produces the mental image of a color. SEE ALSO: photism, color taste, pseudogeusesthesia. [psycho- + G. chroma, color, + aisthesis, sensation]
1. Any method used to discover the factors that underlie behavior, especially maladjusted or abnormal behavior. 2. A subspecialty within clinical psychology that emphasizes the use of psychologic tests and techniques for assessing psychopathology.
A family of small flies or gnats characterized by hairy mothlike body and the presence of 7–11 long parallel wing veins lacking cross-veins; includes the sandflies, Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia, vectors of all known forms of leishmaniasis. [G. Psyche, a Greek nymph, sometimes represented as a butterfly]
The measurement of the rapidity of mental action. [psycho- + G. hodos, way, + metron, measure]
A method of psychotherapy in which patients act out their personal problems by spontaneously enacting without rehearsal diagnostically specific roles in dramatic performances put on before their patient peers.
The systematized study and theory of the psychologic forces that underlie human behavior, emphasizing the interplay between unconscious and conscious motivation and the functional significance of emotion. See role-playing. [psycho- + G. dynamis, force]
Study of the interrelationships between endocrine function and mental states.
Study of the attitudes and emotional life of a person.
Relating to changes in electric properties of the skin; e.g., a change in skin resistance induced by psychologic stimulus.
A galvanometer that records changes in skin resistance related to emotional stress.
The attitudes adopted by a person related to his or her identification as either a male or a female. SEE ALSO: gender role.
The origin and development of the psychic processes including mental, behavioral, emotional, personality, and related psychologic processes. SYN: psychogeny. [psycho- + G. genesis, origin]
psychogenic, psychogenetic (si-ko-jen′ik, -je-net′ik)
1. Of mental origin or causation. 2. Relating to emotional and related psychologic development or to psychogenesis.
Pertaining to the mental perception and interpretation of taste. [psycho- + G. geusis, taste]
Acting as a stimulant to the emotions. [psycho- + G. agogos, a leading away]
Relating to psychography.
The literary characterization of an individual, real or fictional, that uses psychoanalytic and psychologic categories and theories; a psychologic biography or character description. [psycho- + G. graphe, a writing]
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