|Medical Dictionary - Dictionary of Medicine and Human Biology|
The combined use of psychology (especially psychoanalysis) and history in the writing, especially of biography, as in the work of Erik Erikson. SEE ALSO: psychography.
psychokinesis, psychokinesia (si′ko-ki-ne′sis, -ne′ze-a)
1. The influence of mind upon matter, as the use of mental “power” to move or distort an object. 2. Impulsive behavior. [psycho- + G. kinesis, movement]
Study of a host of psychological factors associated with speech, including voice, attitudes, emotions, and grammatical rules, that affect communication and understanding of language. [psycho- + L. lingua, tongue]
psychologic, psychological (si-ko-loj′ik, -loj′i-kal)
1. Relating to psychology. 2. Relating to the mind and its processes. See psychology.
A specialist in psychology licensed to practice professional psychology ( e.g., clinical p.), or qualified to teach psychology as a scholarly discipline (academic p.), or whose scientific specialty is a subfield of psychology (research p.).
The profession ( e.g., clinical p.), scholarly discipline (academic p.), and science (research p.) concerned with the behavior of humans and animals, and related mental and physiologic processes. [psycho- + G. logos, study] adlerian p. SYN: individual p.. analytical p. SYN: jungian psychoanalysis. animal p. a branch of p. concerned with the study of the behavior and physiologic responses of animal organisms as a means of understanding human behavior; some synonyms include comparative p., experimental p., and physiologic p.. atomistic p. any psychologic system based on the doctrine that mental processes are built up through the combination of simple elements; e.g., psychoanalysis, behaviorism. behavioral p. SYN: behaviorism. behavioristic p. a branch of p. that uses behavioral approaches such as desensitization and flooding in contrast to counseling and other psychodynamic approaches to the treatment of psychologic disorders. SEE ALSO: behavior therapy. child p. a branch of p. the theories and applications of which focus on the cognitive and intellectual development of the child in contrast to the adult; subspecialties include developmental p., child clinical p., pediatric p., and pediatric neuropsychology. clinical p. a branch of p. that specializes in both discovering new knowledge and in applying the art and science of p. to persons with emotional or behavioral disorders; subspecialties include clinical child p. and pediatric p.. cognitive p. a branch of p. that attempts to integrate into a whole the disparate knowledge from the subfields of perception, learning, memory, intelligence, and thinking. community p. the application of p. to community programs, e.g., in the schools, correctional and welfare systems, and community mental health centers. comparative p. a branch of p. concerned with the study and comparison of the behavior of organisms at different levels of phylogenic development to discover developmental trends. constitutional p. the p. of the individual as related to body habitus. counseling p. p. with emphasis on facilitating the normal development and growth of the individual in coping with important problems of everyday living, as initally contrasted with clinical p.. criminal p. the study of the mind and its workings in relation to crime. See forensic p.. depth p. the p. of the unconscious, especially in contrast with older (19th century) academic p. dealing only with conscious mentation; sometimes used synonymously with psychoanalysis. developmental p. the study of the psychologic, physiologic, and behavioral changes in an organism that occur from birth to old age. dynamic p. a psychologic approach that concerns itself with the causes of behavior. educational p. the application of p. to education, especially to problems of teaching and learning. environmental p. the study and application by behavioral scientists and architects of how changes in physical space and related physical stimuli impact upon the behavior of individuals. SEE ALSO: personal space. existential p. a theory of p., based on the philosophies of phenomenology and existentialism, which holds that the proper study of p. is a person's experience of the sequence, spatiality, and organization of his or her existence in the world. experimental p. 1. a subdiscipline within the science of p. that is concerned with the study of conditioning, learning, perception, motivation, emotion, language, and thinking; 2. also used in relation to subject-matter areas in which experimental, in contrast to correlational or socioexperiential, methods are emphasized. forensic p. the application of p. to legal matters in a court of law. genetic p. a science dealing with the evolution of behavior and the relation to each other of the different types of mental activity. gestalt p. gestaltism. health p. the aggregate of the specific educational, scientific, and professional contributions of the discipline of p. to the promotion and maintenance of health, the prevention and treatment of illness, the identification of etiologic and diagnostic correlates of health, illness, and related dysfunction, and the analysis and improvement of the health care system. holistic p. any psychologic system that postulates that the human mind or any mental process must be studied as a unit; e.g., gestaltism, existential p.. humanistic p. an existential approach to p. that emphasizes human uniqueness, subjectivity, and capacity for psychologic growth. individual p. a theory of human behavior emphasizing humans' social nature, strivings for mastery, and drive to overcome, by compensation, feelings of inferiority. SYN: adlerian psychoanalysis, adlerian p.. industrial p. the application of the principles of p. to problems in business and industry. medical p. the branch of p. concerned with the application of psychologic principles to the practice of medicine; the application of clinical p. or clinical health p., usually in a hospital setting. objective p. p. as studied by observation of the behavior and mental functions in others. subjective p. the study of one's own mind and its various modes of action as a basis for psychologic deductions.
The discipline pertaining to psychological and mental testing, and to any quantitative analysis of an individual's psychological traits or attitudes or mental processes. SYN: psychometrics. [psycho- + G. metron, measure]
1. Relating to the psychologic processes associated with muscular movement and to the production of voluntary movements. 2. Relating to the combination of psychic and motor events, including disturbances. [psycho- + L. motor, mover]
An area of study that focuses on emotional and other psychologic states that affect the immune system, rendering the individual less or more susceptible to disease or the course of a disease. [psycho- + neuro- + immunology]
1. A mental or behavioral disorder of mild or moderate severity. 2. Formerly a classification of neurosis that included hysteria, psychasthenia, neurasthenia, and the anxiety and phobic disorders. [psycho- + G. neuron, nerve, + -osis, condition] p. maidica SYN: pellagra.
Pertaining to or suffering from psychoneurosis.
Relating to psychonomy.
A rarely used term referring to the branch of psychology concerned with the laws of behavior. [psycho- + G. nomos, law]
The classification of mental illnesses and behavioral disorders. SYN: psychiatric nosology. [psycho- + G. nosos, disease, + logos, study]
Rarely used term for: 1. Having an unfavorable effect on the emotional life and reactions mediated by higher levels of the central nervous system; may be endogenous or exogenous. 2. Denoting persons or situations that elicit fear, pain, anxiety, or anger in an individual. [psycho- + L. noxius, harmful]
The psychologic aspects of the treatment and management of the patient with cancer; it combines elements of psychiatry, psychology, and medicine with special concern for the psychosocial needs of the patient and his/her family.
Former designation for an individual with an antisocial type of personality disorder. SEE ALSO: antisocial personality, sociopath. [psycho- + G. pathos, disease]
Relating to or characteristic of psychopathy.
One who specializes in psychopathology.
1. The science concerned with the pathology of the mind and behavior. 2. The science of mental and behavioral disorders, including psychiatry and abnormal psychology. [psycho- + G. pathos, disease, + logos, study]
An older and inexact term referring to a pattern of antisocial or manipulative behavior engaged in by a psychopath. SEE ALSO: personality disorder. [psycho- + G. pathos, disease]
Drugs used in the treatment of emotional disorders.
1. The use of drugs to treat mental and psychologic disorders. 2. The science of drug-behavior relationships. SYN: neuropsychopharmacology. [psycho- + G. pharmakon, drug, + logos, study] With the explosive advance of brain science since 1970 has come fuller understanding of the role that neurotransmitters play in emotion, mood, and psychologic states and of how errors in the synthesis or metabolism of these agents can cause or contribute to neurologic disease and mental illness. Using nucleotide-tagged molecules as probes, neurochemists have identified the major neural pathways and functions of many neurotransmitters, more than 60 of which are currently known. Building on this knowledge, neuropsychopharmacologists have succeeded in designing potent new psychoactive drugs. Most successful to date have been those for treating psychoses, obsessive-compulsive disorders, anxiety states, and clinical depression.
1. Relating to the mental perception of physical stimuli. See psychophysics. 2. SYN: psychosomatic.
The science of the relation between the physical attributes of a stimulus and the measured, quantitative attributes of the mental perception of that stimulus ( e.g., the relationship between changes in decibel level and the corresponding changes in the human's perception of the sound).
1. Pertaining to psychophysiology. 2. Denoting a so-called psychosomatic illness. 3. Denoting a somatic disorder with significant emotional or psychologic etiology.
The science of the relation between psychologic and physiologic processes; e.g., elements of autonomic nervous system activity activated by emotion.
Psychotherapy directed toward the prevention of emotional disorders and the maintenance of mental health. [psycho- + prophylaxis]
A method of treating anxiety and tension by practicing general bodily relaxation, as in systematic desensitization.
SYN: psychostimulant. [psycho- + G. hormao, to set in motion]
psychosensory, psychosensorial (si′ko-sen′sor-e, -sen-sor′e-al)
1. Denoting the mental perception and interpretation of sensory stimuli. 2. Denoting a hallucination which by effort the mind is able to distinguish from reality.
Pertaining to the relationships among the emotional, mental physiologic, and behavioral components of sex or sexual development.
Galactosylsphingosine, a constituent of cerebrosides, formed from UDPgalactose and sphingosine by UDPgalactose-sphingosine β-d-galactosyltransferase.
psychosis, pl .psychoses (si-ko′sis, -sez)
1. A mental and behavioral disorder causing gross distortion or disorganization of a person's mental capacity, affective response, and capacity to recognize reality, communicate, and relate to others to the degree of interfering with the person's capacity to cope with the ordinary demands of everyday life. The psychoses are divided into two major classifications according to their origins: 1) those associated with organic brain syndromes ( e.g., Korsakoff syndrome); 2) those less clearly organic and having some functional component(s) ( e.g., the schizophrenias, bipolar disorder). 2. Generic term for any of the so-called insanities, the most common forms being the schizophrenias. 3. A severe emotional and behavioral disorder. SYN: psychotic disorder. [G. an animating] affective p. p. with predominant affective features. SYN: manic p.. alcoholic psychoses mental disorders that result from alcoholism and that involve organic brain damage, as in delirium tremens and Korsakoff syndrome. bipolar p. a mental disorder characterized by one or more episodes of mania (manic depression) which is usually accompanied by one or more episodes of depression (major depressive episode). See endogenous depression, manic-depressive. Cheyne-Stokes p. a mental state characterized by anxiety and restlessness, accompanying Cheyne-Stokes respiration. depressive p. a major disorder of mood in which biologic factors are believed to play a prominent role. See depression. drug p. p. following or precipitated by ingestion of a drug, e.g., LSD. febrile p. SYN: infection-exhaustion p.. functional p. an obsolete term once used to denote schizophrenia and other severe mental disorders before modern science discovered a biological component to some aspects of each of the disorders. hysterical p. 1. a psychotic disturbance with predominantly hysterical symptoms; 2. a mental disorder resembling conversion hysteria but of psychotic severity; 3. a brief reactive p., often culture bound. ICU p. psychotic episode(s), classically occurring in coronary care patients, occurring within 24 hours after entering the ICU in individuals with no previous history of p.; related to sleep deprivation, overstimulation in the ICU, and time spent on life support systems, and should be distinguished from exacerbation of a pre-existing p. or an organic p. such as delirium. infection-exhaustion p. an obsolete term for a p. following an acute infection, shock, or chronic intoxication; begins as delirium followed by pronounced mental confusion with hallucinations and unsystematized delusions, and sometimes stupor. SYN: febrile p.. Korsakoff p. SYN: Korsakoff syndrome. manic p. SYN: affective p.. See bipolar disorder, manic-depressive disorder, endogenous depression. manic-depressive p. SYN: bipolar disorder. posthypnotic p. p. following or precipitated by hypnosis. postinfectious p. psychotic disturbance dementia following acute febrile disease such as pneumonia or typhoid fever. postpartum p. an acute mental disorder with depression in the mother following childbirth. SYN: puerperal p.. posttraumatic p. p. following trauma, especially to the head. Cf.:traumatic p.. pseudo p. a condition resembling p.; may be a factitious or malingering disorder. puerperal p. SYN: postpartum p.. schizo-affective p. psychotic disturbance in which there is a mixture of schizophrenic and manic-depressive symptoms. senile p. mental disturbance occurring in old age and related to degenerative cerebral processes. situational p. a transitory but severe emotional disorder caused in a predisposed person by a seemingly unbearable situation. toxic p. a p. caused by some toxic substance, whether endogenous or exogenous. traumatic p. a p. resulting from physical injury or emotional shock. Cf.:posttraumatic p.. Windigo p., Wittigo p. severe anxiety neurosis with special reference to food, manifested in melancholia, violence, and obsessive cannibalism, occurring among Canadian Indians.
Involving both psychologic and social aspects; e.g., age, education, marital and related aspects of a person's history.
Pertaining to the influence of the mind or higher functions of the brain ( e.g., emotions, fears, desires) upon the functions of the body, especially in relation to bodily disorders or disease. See psychophysiologic. SYN: psychophysical (2) . [psycho- + G. soma, body]
An agent with antidepressant or mood-elevating properties. SYN: psychormic.
The treatment of mental disorders by operation upon the brain, e.g., lobotomy.
Term for an older style of therapy, posited as the opposite of psychoanalysis, stressing the restoration of useful inhibitions and of the id to its rightful place in relation to the ego. [psycho- + synthesis]
An older term denoting the practical application of psychologic methods in the study of economics, sociology, and other subjects. [psycho- + G. techne, art, skill]
Relating to psychotherapy.
A person, usually a psychiatrist or clinical psychologist, professionally trained and engaged in psychotherapy. Currently, the term is also applied to social workers, nurses, and others whose state-licensed practice acts include psychotherapy.
Treatment of emotional, behavioral, personality, and psychiatric disorders based primarily upon verbal or nonverbal communication and interventions with the patient, in contrast to treatments utilizing chemical and physical measures. See entries under psychoanalysis; psychiatry; psychology; therapy. SYN: psychotherapeutics. [psycho- + G. therapeia, treatment] anaclitic p. a psychotherapeutic method characterized by encouragement and utilization of the patient's tendency to depend and lean upon the therapist as an authority figure. autonomous p. a type of psychoanalytic p. placing special emphasis on the value of the patient's self-determination in both the therapeutic situation and in real life. brief p. any form of p. or counseling designed to produce emotional or behavioral therapeutic change within a minimal amount of time (generally not more than 20 sessions). Brief therapy is usually active and directive; it is more clearly indicated when there are clearly defined symptoms or problems, and where the goals are limited and specific. contractual p. p. based on a firm agreement, or “contract,” between therapist and patient as to the role of each in the therapeutic situation. directive p. p. utilizing the authority of the therapist to direct the course of the patient's therapy, as contrasted with nondirective p.. dyadic p. a psychotherapeutic session involving only two persons, the therapist and the patient. Cf.:group p.. SYN: individual therapy. dynamic p. SYN: psychoanalytic p.. existential p. a type of therapy, based on existential philosophy, emphasizing confrontation, primarily spontaneous interaction, and feeling experiences rather than rational thinking, with less attention given to patient resistances; the therapist is involved on the same level and to the same degree as the patient. SYN: existential psychiatry. group p. a type of psychologic treatment involving several patients participating together in the presence of one or more psychotherapists who facilitate both emotional and rational cognitive interaction to effect targeted changes in the maladaptive behavior of the individual patient in his or her everyday interpersonal exchanges.group. heteronomous p. term embracing all forms of p. that foster the patient's dependence on others, especially dependence on the psychotherapist, in contrast to autonomous p.. hypnotic p. p. based on hypnosis. intensive p. p. involving thorough exploration of the patient's life history, conflicts, and related psychodynamics; often contrasted with supportive p.. marathon group p. a type of group p. characterized by uninterrupted sessions for periods of hours or days, with minimal interruptions for food and rest. nondirective p. p. in which the therapist follows the lead of the patient during the interview rather than introducing the therapist's own theories and directing the course of the interview. SEE ALSO: client-centered therapy. psychoanalytic p. p. utilizing freudian principles. SEE ALSO: psychoanalysis. SYN: dynamic p.. reconstructive p. a form of therapy, such as psychoanalysis, that seeks not only to alleviate symptoms but also to produce alterations in maladaptive character structure and to expedite new adaptive potentials; this aim is achieved by bringing into consciousness an awareness of and insight into conflicts, fears, inhibitions, and their manifestations. suggestive p. an older term for p. using the influence and authority of the therapist. SEE ALSO: directive p.. supportive p. p. aiming at bolstering the patient's psychologic defenses and providing reassurance, as in crisis intervention, rather than probing provocatively into the patient's conflicts. transactional p. p. with central emphasis on the actual day-to-day interactions (transactions) between the patient and other people in the patient's life.
Relating to or affected by psychosis.
A drug that produces psychotic manifestations. [psychotic + G. -gen, producing]
Capable of inducing psychosis; particularly referring to drugs of the LSD series and similar substances.
1. A drug or substance that produces psychologic and behavioral changes resembling those of psychosis; e.g., LSD. 2. Denoting such a drug or substance. SYN: psychosomimetic. [psychosis + G. mimetikos, imitative]
Capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior; denoting drugs used in the treatment of mental illnesses. [psycho- + G. trope, a turning]
Cold. SEE ALSO: cryo-, crymo-. [G. psychros]
A painful sensation of cold. [psychro- + G. algos, pain]
1. The form of sensation that perceives cold. 2. A sensation of cold although the body is warm; a chill. [psychro- + G. aisthesis, sensation]
A device for measuring the humidity of the atmosphere by the difference in temperature between two thermometers, the bulb of one kept moist, the other dry. Evaporation from the moist bulb lowers the reading of that thermometer; the greater the difference in readings, the drier the air; no difference indicates 100% relative humidity. SYN: wet and dry bulb thermometer. [psychro- + G. metron, measure] sling p. wet and dry bulb thermometers mounted on a hand sling, for use when a small portable p. is required.
The calculation of relative humidity and water vapor pressures from wet and dry bulb temperatures and barometric pressure; whereas relative humidity is the value ordinarily employed, the vapor pressure is the measurement of physiologic significance. SYN: hygrometry. [psychro- + G. metron, measure]
psychrophile, psychrophil (si′kro-fil)
An organism which grows best at a low temperature (0–32°C; 32–86°F), with optimum growth occurring at 15–20°C (59–68°F). [psychro- + G. phileo, to love]
Pertaining to a psychrophile. [psychro- + G. phileo, to love]
1. Extreme sensitiveness to cold. 2. A morbid dread of cold. [psychro- + G. phobos, fear]
A double catheter through which cold water is circulated to apply cold to the urethra or another canal or cavity. [psychro- + G. phoros, bearing]
psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid (sil′e-um)
See plantago seed.
psyllium seed (sil′e-um)
The cleaned, dried ripe seed of Plantago indica or of P. ovata. A mild cathartic that acts by absorbing water and providing indigestible mucilaginous bulk for the intestines. Must not be used in intestinal obstruction. SYN: plantago seed, plantain seed.
Abbreviation for physical therapy, physical therapist, and prothrombin time.
Symbol for platinum.
Abbreviation for plasma thromboplastin antecedent; phosphotungstic acid; percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.
Abbreviation for phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin.
SYN: sternutatory. [G. ptarmikos, causing to sneeze, fr. ptarmos, a sneezing]
Sneezing. [G. ptarmos, a sneezing]
Abbreviation for plasma thromboplastin component; phenylthiocarbamoyl.
Abbreviation for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.
Abbreviation for phosphatidyl.
Abbreviation for phosphatidylcholine.
Abbreviation for phosphatidylethanolamine.
Abbreviation for phosphatidylinositol.
Symbol for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
Abbreviation for phosphatidylserine.
Abbreviation for pulmonary thromboembolism or pulmonary thromboendarterectomy.
Abbreviation for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy.
Combining form meaning wing; feather. [G. pteron, wing, feather]
pteridine (ter′i-den, -din)
Azinepurine; benzotetrazine; pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine;a two-ring heterocyclic compound found as a component of pteroic acid and the pteroylglutamic acids (folic acids, pteropterin, etc.); simple p. derivatives ( e.g., xanthopterin, leucopterin) occur as pigments in butterfly wings, whence the name.
Term loosely used for any of the compounds containing pteridine; specifically, 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine. Some pteridines ( e.g., xanthopterin, leucopterin) still retain the p. root. p. deaminase an aminohydrolase catalyzing hydrolytic deamination of 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine to form 2,4-dihydroxypteridine and ammonia.
pterion (te′re-on) [TA]
A craniometric point in the region of the sphenoid fontanelle, at the junction of the greater wing of the sphenoid, the squamous temporal, the frontal, and the parietal bones; it intersects the course of the anterior division of the middle meningeal artery. [G. pteron, wing]
pteroic acid (te-ro′ik)
A constituent of folic acid, containing p-aminobenzoic acid and pteridine linked by a –CH2– group between the amino group of the former and C-6 of the latter.
A folic acid conjugate, a principle chemically similar to folic acid except that it contains three molecules of glutamic acid instead of one, in γ linkage. SYN: fermentation Lactobacillus casei factor, pteroyltriglutamic acid.
pteroylmonoglutamic acid (ter′o-il-mon-o′gloo-tam′ik)
SYN: folic acid (2) .
pteroyltriglutamic acid (ter′o-il-tri′gloo-tam′ik)
1. A triangular patch of hypertrophied bulbar subconjunctival tissue, extending from the medial canthus to the border of the cornea or beyond, with apex pointing toward the pupil. SYN: web eye. 2. Forward growth of the cuticle over the nail plate, seen most commonly in lichen planus. SYN: p. unguis. 3. An abnormal skin web. [G. pterygion, anything like a wing, a disease of the eye, dim. of pteryx, wing] p. colli a congenital, usually bilateral, web or tight band of skin of the neck extending from the acromion to the mastoid seen in Turner's syndrome and Noonan syndrome. p. unguis SYN: p. (2) .
Wing-shaped, usually relating to the pterygoid process. [G. pteryx, pterygos, wing]
Wing-shaped; resembling a wing; a term applied to various anatomical parts relating to the sphenoid bone. [G. pteryx (pteryg-), wing, + eidos, resemblance]
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