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Medical Dictionary


pullulanase (pul′yu-la-nas)
SYN: α-dextrin endo-1,6-α-glucosidase.

pullulate (pul′u-lat)
To undergo pullulation.

pullulation (pul-u-la′shun)
The act of sprouting, or of budding as seen in yeast. [L. pullulo, pp. -atus, to sprout forth]

pulmo, gen. pulmonis, pl .pulmones (pul′mo, pul-mo′nis, -mo′nez) [TA]
SYN: lung. [L.] p. dexter right lung. p. sinister left lung.

pulmo-, pulmon-, pulmono-
The lungs. SEE ALSO: pneum-, pneumo-. [L. pulmo, lung]

pulmoaortic (pul′mo-a-or′tik)
Relating to the pulmonary artery and the aorta.

pulmolith (pul′mo-lith)
SYN: pneumolith. [L. pulmo, long, + G. lithos, stone]

pulmonary (pul′mo-nar-e)
Relating to the lungs, to the p. artery, or to the aperture leading from the right ventricle into the p. artery. SYN: pneumonic (1) , pulmonic (1) . [L. pulmonarius, fr. pulmo, lung]

pulmonectomy (pul-mo-nek′to-me)
SYN: pneumonectomy. [L. pulmo (pulmon-), lung, + G. ektome, excision]

pulmonic (pul-mon′ik)
1. SYN: pulmonary. 2. Obsolete term for a remedy for diseases of the lungs.

pulmonitis (pul-mo-ni′tis)
SYN: pneumonitis.

pulp (pulp) [TA]
1. A soft, moist, coherent solid. SYN: pulpa [TA] . 2. SYN: dental p.. 3. SYN: chyme. [L. pulpa, flesh] coronal p. SYN: crown p.. crown p. [TA] that portion of the dental p. contained within the p. chamber or crown cavity of the tooth. SYN: pulpa coronalis [TA] , coronal p.. dead p. SYN: necrotic p.. dental p. [TA] the soft tissue within the p. cavity, consisting of connective tissue containing blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics, and at the periphery a layer of odontoblasts capable of internal repair of the dentin. SYN: p. (2) [TA] , pulpa dentis [TA] , dentinal p., tooth p.. dentinal p. SYN: dental p.. digital p. SYN: p. of finger. digital p. of hand SYN: p. of finger. enamel p. a layer of stellate cells in the enamel organ. exposed p. p. that has been exposed or laid bare by a pathologic process, trauma, or a dental instrument. p. of finger the fleshy mass on the palmar aspect of the extremity of the finger. SYN: digital p. of hand, digital p., pulpa digiti manus. mummified p. a misnomer for a p. treated with a formaldehyde derivative. necrotic p. necrosis of the dental p. that clinically does not respond to thermal stimulation; the tooth may be asymptomatic or sensitive to percussion and palpation. SYN: dead p., nonvital p.. nonvital p. SYN: necrotic p.. putrescent p. a decomposed p., often infected. radicular p. SYN: root p.. red p. splenic p. seen grossly as a reddish-brown substance, because of its abundance of red blood cells, consisting of splenic sinuses and the tissue intervening between them (splenic cords). red p. of spleen [TA] bluish-red tissue that constitutes about 75% of the parenchyma of the spleen; contains a large number of venous sinuses separated by a fibrocellular reticulum rich in fibroblasts and macrophages; on section, has a corded appearance. SYN: pulpa rubra splenica [TA] . root p. [TA] that part of the dental p. contained within the apical or root portion of the tooth. SYN: pulpa radicularis [TA] , radicular p.. splenic p. [TA] the soft cellular substance of the spleen. SYN: pulpa splenica [TA] , pulpa lienis. p. of toe [TA] the fleshy mass of the plantar aspect of the distal part of the toe. tooth p. SYN: dental p.. vertebral p. SYN: nucleus pulposus. vital p. a p. composed of viable tissue, either normal or diseased, that responds to electric stimuli and to heat and cold. white p. that part of the spleen that consists of nodules and other lymphatic concentrations. white p. of spleen [TA] aggregations of β lymphocytes visible macroscopically when the fresh spleen is sectioned; they appear as white translucent dots of 1 mm or less that contrast with the surrounding matrix of red p.. SYN: pulpa alba splenica [TA] .

pulpa (pul′pa) [TA]
SYN: pulp (1) . [L. pulp] p. alba splenica [TA] SYN: white pulp of spleen. p. coronalis [TA] SYN: crown pulp. p. dentis [TA] SYN: dental pulp. p. digiti manus SYN: pulp of finger. p. lienis SYN: splenic pulp. p. radicularis [TA] SYN: root pulp. p. rubra splenica [TA] SYN: red pulp of spleen. p. splenica [TA] SYN: splenic pulp. SEE ALSO: red pulp, white pulp.

pulpal (pul′pal)
Relating to the pulp.

pulpalgia (pul-pal′je-a)
Pain arising from the dental pulp. [L. pulpa, pulp, + G. algos, pain]

pulpectomy (pul-pek′to-me)
Removal of the entire pulp structure of a tooth, including the pulp tissue in the roots. [L. pulpa, pulp, + G. ektome, excision]

pulpifaction (pul-pi-fak′shun)
Reduction to a pulpy condition. [L. pulpa, pulp, + facio, pp. factus, to make]

pulpiform (pul′pi-form)
Resembling pulp; pulpy.

pulpify (pul′pi-fi)
To reduce to a pulpy state.

pulpitis (pul-pi′tis)
Inflammation of the pulp of a tooth. SYN: odontitis. [L. pulpa, pulp, + G. -itis, inflammation] hyperplastic p. hyperplastic granulation tissue growing out of the exposed pulp chamber of a grossly decayed tooth. SYN: dental polyp, pulp polyp, tooth polyp. hypertrophic p. a misnomer for hyperplastic p.. irreversible p. inflammation of the dental pulp from which the pulp is unable to recover; clinically, may be asymptomatic or characterized by pain that persists after thermal stimulation; microscopically, characterized by marked acute or chronic inflammation, sometimes with partial pulpal necrosis. reversible p. minor inflammation from which the pulp is able to recover; characterized clinically by pain that disappears rapidly upon removal of thermal stimulation; characterized microscopically by vasodilation, hyperemia, and edema with minimal diapedesis of leukocytes. suppurative p. obsolete term for a purulent irreversible p..

1. Without a pulp. 2. Denoting a tooth in which the pulp has died or from which the pulp has been removed. 3. Denoting a tooth that gives no response to an electric pulp test or thermal test.

pulpodontia (pul-po-don′she-a)
The science of root canal therapy. SEE ALSO: endodontics. [L. pulpa, pulp, + G. odous, tooth]

pulposus (pul-po′sus)
SYN: pulpy. [L.]

pulpotomy (pul-pot′o-me)
Removal of a portion of the pulp structure of a tooth, usually the coronal portion. SYN: pulp amputation. [L. pulpa, pulp, + G. tome, incision]

pulpy (pul′pe)
In the condition of a soft, moist solid. SYN: pulposus.

pulsate (pul′sat)
To throb or beat rhythmically; said of the heart or an artery. [L. pulso, pp. -atus, to beat]

pulsatile (pul′sa-til)
Throbbing or beating.

pulsation (pul-sa′shun)
A throbbing or rhythmic beating, as of a pulse or the heart. [L. pulsatio, a beating] balloon counter p. a form of circulatory assistance in which a balloon inflates in the aorta during diastole to improve diastolic pressure and deflates during systole to reduce left ventricular afterload. Cf.:intraaortic balloon pump. suprasternal p. any p. in the suprasternal notch at the anterior route of the neck.

pulsator (pul-sa′ter, -tor)
A machine or device that operates in a throbbing, vibrating, or rhythmic manner.

pulse (puls)
Rhythmic dilation of an artery, produced by the increased volume of blood thrown into the vessel by the contraction of the heart. A p. may also at times occur in a vein or a vascular organ, such as the liver. SYN: pulsus. [L. pulsus] abdominal p. the soft, compressible aortic p. occurring in certain abdominal disorders. SYN: pulsus abdominalis. alternating p. mechanical alternation; a p. regular in time but with alternate beats stronger and weaker, often detectable only with the sphygmomanometer or other pressure measurement and usually indicating serious myocardial disease. SYN: pulsus alternans. anacrotic p., anadicrotic p. a p. wave showing one or more notches or indentations on its rising limb that are sometimes detectable by palpation. SYN: pulsus anadicrotus. bigeminal p. a p. in which the beats occur in pairs. SYN: bigemina, coupled p., pulsus bigeminus. bisferious p. (bis-fer′e-us) an arterial p. with peaks that may be palpable. SYN: pulsus bisferiens. bulbar p. a jugular p. supposed to indicate tricuspid insufficiency. cannonball p. SYN: water-hammer p.. capillary p. the alternate rhythmic blanching and reddening of a capillary area, as seen under the nails or in the lip, upon gentle compression; a sign of arteriolar dilation, well seen in aortic insufficiency. SEE ALSO: Quincke p.. carotid p. the p. of the carotid arteries in the neck. catacrotic p. a p. in which there is an upward notch interrupting the descending limb of the sphygmogram. SYN: pulsus catacrotus. catadicrotic p. a catacrotic p. in which there are two interrupting upward notches. SYN: pulsus catadicrotus. collapsing p. SYN: water-hammer p.. cordy p. SYN: tense p.. Corrigan p. SYN: Corrigan sign. coupled p. SYN: bigeminal p.. dicrotic p. a p. that is marked by a double beat, the second, due to a palpable dicrotic wave, being weaker than the first. SYN: pulsus duplex. entoptic p. an intermittent phose synchronous with the p.. filiform p. a thready p.. gaseous p. a soft, full, but feeble p.. guttural p. a pulsation felt in the throat. hard p. a p. that strikes forcibly against the tip of the finger and is with difficulty compressed, suggesting hypertension. SYN: pulsus durus. intermittent p. irregularity of the heart due to extrasystoles that are too weak to open the semilunar valves; often owing to the long pause following the premature beat, extra long pauses equal to two regular cycles occur from time to time between p. beats. SYN: pulsus intercidens. irregular p. variation in rate of impulses in an artery due to cardiac arrhythmia. jugular p. the venous p. as observed in the jugular veins of the neck, usually the deep jugular veins. labile p. frequent changes in p. rate. long p. a p. in which the impact is felt longer than usual. SYN: sustained p.. monocrotic p. a p. without any perceptible dicrotism. SYN: pulsus monocrotus. mousetail p. SYN: pulsus myurus. movable p. the lateral movement of a strongly pulsating tortuous artery. nail p. a capillary p. seen through the nail. paradoxic p. an exaggeration of the normal variation in the systemic arterial p. volume with respiration, becoming weaker with inspiration and stronger with expiration; characteristic of cardiac tamponade, rare in constrictive pericarditis; so called because these changes are independent of changes in the cardiac rate as measured directly or by electrocardiogram. SYN: pulsus paradoxus, pulsus respiratione intermittens. piston p. SYN: water-hammer p.. plateau p. a slow, sustained p.. quadrigeminal p. a p. in which the beats are grouped in fours, a pause following every fourth beat. SYN: pulsus quadrigeminus. Quincke p. the capillary p. as appreciated in the finger nails and toenails during aortic regurgitation; ebb and flow is seen. SYN: Quincke sign. radial p. the p. as appreciated at the radial artery usually in the wrist. radiofrequency p. in nuclear magnetic resonance, a short electromagnetic signal used to change the direction of the magnetic field. See sequence p.. respiratory p. waxing and waning of any pulsation produced by respiration. reversed paradoxical p. a p. in which the amplitude increases with inspiration and decreases with expiration, as observed in some cases of tricuspid insufficiency and of AV dissociation with sinus arrhythmia. SYN: Riegel p.. Riegel p. SYN: reversed paradoxical p.. sequence p. in magnetic resonance imaging, the series of radiofrequency signals used to shift the magnetic field to change proton orientation. soft p. a p. that is readily extinguished by pressure with the finger. sustained p. SYN: long p.. tense p. a hard, full p. but without very wide excursions, resembling the vibration of a thick cord. SYN: cordy p.. thready p. a small fine p., feeling like a small cord or thread under the finger. SYN: pulsus filiformis. trigeminal p. a p. in which the beats occur in trios, a pause following every third beat. SYN: pulsus trigeminus. triphammer p. SYN: water-hammer p.. undulating p. a toneless p. in which there is a succession of waves without character or force. SYN: pulsus fluens. unequal p. differing strength of p. in the same artery between the right and left of the circulation. vagus p. a slow p. due to the inhibitory action of the vagus nerve on the heart. venous p. a pulsation occurring in the veins, especially the internal jugular vein. SYN: pulsus venosus. vermicular p. a small rapid p., giving a wormlike sensation to the finger. water-hammer p. a p. with forcible impulse but immediate collapse, characteristic of aortic incompetency. SEE ALSO: Corrigan sign. SYN: cannonball p., collapsing p., piston p., pulsus celerrimus, triphammer p.. wiry p. a small, fine, incompressible p..

pulsellum (pul-sel′um)
A posterior flagellum constituting the organ of locomotion in certain protozoa. [Mod. L. dim. of L. pulsus, a stroking]

pulsimeter, pulsometer (pul-sim′e-ter, -som′e-ter)
An instrument for measuring the force and rapidity of the pulse. [L. pulsus, pulse, + metron, measure]

pulsion (pul′shun)
A pushing outward or swelling. [L. pulsio]

pulsus (pul′sus)
SYN: pulse. [L. a stroke, pulse] p. abdominalis SYN: abdominal pulse. p. alternans SYN: alternating pulse. p. anadicrotus SYN: anacrotic pulse. p. bigeminus SYN: bigeminal pulse. p. bisferiens SYN: bisferious pulse. p. caprisans a bounding leaping pulse, irregular in both force and rhythm. p. catacrotus SYN: catacrotic pulse. p. catadicrotus SYN: catadicrotic pulse. p. celer a pulse beat swift to rise and fall. p. celerrimus SYN: water-hammer pulse. p. cordis the apex beat of the heart. p. debilis a weak pulse. p. differens a condition in which the pulses in the two radial or other corresponding arteries differ in strength. SYN: p. incongruens. p. duplex SYN: dicrotic pulse. p. durus SYN: hard pulse. p. filiformis SYN: thready pulse. p. fluens SYN: undulating pulse. p. formicans a very small, nearly imperceptible pulse, the impression it gives to the finger being compared to formication. p. fortis a full strong pulse. p. frequens a rapid pulse. p. heterochronicus an arrhythmic pulse. p. inaequalis a pulse irregular in rhythm and force. p. incongruens SYN: p. differens. p. infrequens a slow pulse. p. intercidens SYN: intermittent pulse. p. intercurrens an occasional strong dicrotic pulse wave giving the impression of an intercurrent ventricular contraction. p. irregularis perpetuus permanently irregular pulse often caused by, or characteristic of, atrial fibrillation; it may also be produced by a wide variety of other chaotic rhythms. p. magnus a large, full pulse. p. mollis a soft, easily compressible pulse. p. monocrotus SYN: monocrotic pulse. p. myurus a pulse marked by a wave, the apex of which is reached suddenly and which then subsides very gradually. SYN: mousetail pulse. p. paradoxus (pul′sus par′a-doks-us) SYN: paradoxic pulse. p. parvus a pulse of small amplitude, as in aortic stenosis. p. parvus et tardus (pul′sus par′vus a tar′dus) small, late pulse considered typical of severe aortic stenosis. p. quadrigeminus SYN: quadrigeminal pulse. p. respiratione intermittens SYN: paradoxic pulse. p. tardus a pulse with pathologically gradual upstroke typical of severe aortic stenosis. SEE ALSO: plateau pulse. p. tremulus a feeble fluttering pulse. p. trigeminus SYN: trigeminal pulse. p. vacuus a very weak pulse hardly distending the arterial wall. p. venosus SYN: venous pulse.

pultaceous (pul-ta′shus)
Macerated; pulpy. [G. poltos, porridge]

pulverization (pul′ver-i-za′shun)
Reduction to powder.

pulverize (pul′ver-iz)
To reduce to a powder. [L. pulverizo, fr. pulvis, pulveris, dust]

pulverulent (pul-ver′u-lent)
In a state of powder; powdery.

pulvinar (pul-vi′nar)
The expanded posterior extremity of the thalamus that forms a cushionlike prominence overlying the geniculate bodies. This structure, called nuclei pulvinares [TA] (p. nuclei [TA]), is a composite cell group made up of anterior, inferior, lateral, and medial nuclei. [L. a couch made from cushions, fr. pulvinus, cushion]

pulvinate (pul′vi-nat)
Raised or convex, denoting a form of surface elevation of a bacterial culture. [L. pulvinus, cushion]

pumice (pum′is)
Volcanic cinders ground to particles of varying sizes; used in dentistry for polishing restorations or teeth; an abrasive. [L. pumex (pumic-), a p. stone]

pump (pump)
1. An apparatus for forcing a gas or liquid from or to any part. 2. Any mechanism for using metabolic energy to accomplish active transport of a substance. breast p. a suction instrument for withdrawing milk from the breast. calcium p. a membranal protein that can transport calcium ions across the membrane using energy from ATP. calf p. muscular activity of calf that promotes venous flow towards the heart. Carrel-Lindbergh p. a perfusion device designed for use in culture of whole organs. constant infusion p. an electrically driven device for delivery from a reservoir of a constant, often very small, volume of solution over a prolonged period of time. dental p. SYN: saliva ejector. hydrogen p. molecular mechanism for acid secretion from gastric parietal cells based on the activity of a H+-K+-ATPase. intraaortic balloon p. an externally actuated and intermittently inflatable balloon placed into the descending aorta and that, on activation during diastole, augments blood pressure and organ perfusion by its pulsatile thrust; then, on deflation, decreases the cardiac work with each systole—the so-called counterpulsation principle—by reducing cardiac afterload. ion p. a membranal complex of proteins that is capable of transporting ions against a concentration gradient using the energy from ATP. jet ejector p. a suction p. in which fluid under high pressure is forced through a nozzle into an abruptly larger tube where a high-velocity jet, at a low pressure in accordance with the Bernoulli law, entrains gas or liquid from a side tube opening just beyond the end of the nozzle to create suction; e.g., the p. by which steam is used to evacuate an autoclave, a water aspirator. proton p. molecular mechanism for the net transport of protons across a membrane; usually involves the activity of an ATPase. saliva p. SYN: saliva ejector. sodium p. a biologic mechanism that uses metabolic energy from ATP to achieve active transport of sodium across a membrane; sodium pumps expel sodium from most cells of the body, sometimes coupled with the transport of other substances, and also serve to move sodium across multicellular membranes such as renal tubule walls. sodium-potassium p. a membrane-bound transporter found in nearly all mammalian cells that transports potassium ions into the cytoplasm from the extracellular fluid while simultaneously transporting sodium ions from the cytoplasm to the extracellular fluid. The p. transports both ions against large electrochemical potential gradients and maintains the potassium concentration of the cytoplasm far above, and the sodium concentration far below, their extracellular values. The p. is an enzyme that transports two potassium ions in exchange for three sodium ions in a reaction driven by hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP to form ADP plus one inorganic phosphate ion. stomach p. an apparatus for removing the contents of the stomach by means of suction.

pump-oxygenator (pump-ok′si-je-na′ter)
A mechanical device that can substitute for both the heart (pump) and the lungs (oxygenator) during open heart surgery.

puna (poo′na)
SYN: altitude sickness. [Sp., fr. Quechua p., a high, dry Andean plateau]

punch (punch)
An instrument for making a hole or indentation in some solid material or for driving out a foreign body in such material. [L. pungo, pp. punctus, to stick, to p.]

punch card
A card on which data are stored by means of holes made in specified positions so that data can be sorted, processed, and analyzed.

punchdrunk (punch′drunk)
See p. syndrome.

puncta (pungk′ta)
Plural of punctum. [L.]

punctate (pungk′tat)
Marked with points or dots differentiated from the surrounding surface by color, elevation, or texture. [L. punctum, a point]

punctiform (pungk′ti-form)
Very small but not microscopic, having a diameter of less than 1 mm. [L. punctum, a point, + forma, shape]


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